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Intro Neuroscience Exam 1 (semester 2)

by: Sareena Patel

Intro Neuroscience Exam 1 (semester 2) Neuroscience 201

Sareena Patel
Virginia Tech

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chapters 1-2
Basic neurobiology
Vicki Tu
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sareena Patel on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Neuroscience 201 at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University taught by Vicki Tu in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Basic neurobiology in Neuroscience at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University.

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Date Created: 03/18/16
Neuro Lecture: Exam One Notes Chapter 12 I. Somatic sensory system refers to all sensory systems that are not visual, auditory, gustatory or vestibular. a. Receptors distributed through the body rather than concentrated in specialized locations b. Respond to may different stimuli i. Touch, temp, pain, body position II. Touch is a sense that people can become attuned to, for example those who learn how to read braille. a. Hairy or glabrous (hairless) i. the function of skin is to protect from pruning and prevent liquid from the body from evaporating. b. Mechanorecptors (physical distortion) lower threshold for action potential generation in different fibers making it more likely to fire in the presence of sensory dtimulation. The push and pull aspect of this alters scaffolding protiens and sodium channels. i. Unmyelinated axon branches detect skin contact, pressure in heart and blood vessles, stretching of digestive system and bladder ii. Pacinian corpuscle is a receptor that lies deep in the dermis. The highest amount of these are in the fingers. These respond to pressure and vibrations. The connective tissue is arrange like a onion with the axon terminal in the middle. If the capsule is compressed, energy is transferred to the nerve terminal opening mechanosensitive channels. 1. Rapid response/adapting 2. Large receptive field iii. Rufini’s endings respond to pressure/warmth. You can alter the  way that these function. An example is gradual desensitization  which is the feeling of getting into hot water of the shower 1. Rapid reponse/adapting 2. Large receptive field iv. Meissner’s corpuscles are concentrated on the rasied parts of your  fingertips. There is a sensitivity difference between those who are  blind and those who aren’t.  1. Sow adapting, mean the response is more sustained and long 2. Small receptive fields, smaller clusters in vairying rangels   more precise v. Merkel’s Disks are associated with pressure, position and deep static touch allowing one to sense shapes and edges. They are located at the end of the nerve terminal. This allows you to identify/feel a object when your eyes are shut. 1. Sow adapting, mean the response is more sustained and long 2. Small receptive field, vi. Krasue end bulbs border dry skin and mucous membrane. These are thermoreceptors sensing cold temperatures and I highly sensitive to changes in the environment. c. Mechanoreceptors of the skin are all unmeyelinated, the membranes have mechanosensiive ion channels that convert mechanical force to change of ionic current. The ion channels are opened or closed based on mechanical stretching which can also stimulated the release of second messengers. Protiens binding on the intracellular side of the membrane cancause the membrane to deform and apply stress on the cytoskeleton. Umyelination allows one to prevent overstimulation preventing damage at places like concerts. d. Two-Point discrimination refers to the ability two discriminate between two points, the smaller the distance means the more precise the detection. Fingers are more sensitive because of merkel disks, they have a decreased distribution but are sporatically clustered. More brain tissue is deveoted to that section allowing for localization. III. Primary afferent axons area responsible for carrying information from the somatic sensory receptors to the spinal cord/brain stem. They enter the spinal cord through the dorsal root. Primary afferent axons vary in diameter, some are myelinated and some are unmyelinated. The size of the axon is dependent of sensory receptor they ar attached to. a. Skeletal: most myelinated and largers i. A alpha ii. A beta b. Pain/temperature: smallest and least myelinated (slower) i. A delta ii. C c. Axons from muscles i. Group I, II, III myelinated ii. Group IV unmyelinated IV. Spinal Cord consists of 30 spinal segments divided into 4 divisions (cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral). Ther is suually a 1:1 ration beteen the segment and spinal nerve innervating on it. a. Dermatome refers to the area of skin supplied by that single spinal nerve. Loosing one dermatome does not completely alter sensory transmission, but loosing 3 will impact the entire region. i. Shingles is a disease when the neurons of a single dorsal root ganglion becomes infected with a virus. This is limited to only one single dermatome and to only one side of the body. V. Sensory organization of spinal nerve: Large myelinated A beta axons converying information from touch/vibration enter the dorsal horn and branch. One branch synapses on the deep part of the dorsal horn on second-order sensory neurons which initiate or modify variety of rapid and unconscious reflexes. The other branch ascends straight to the brain. a. Columns are the outer white matter tracts. The gray matter is divided into the dorsal horn, intermediate horn and ventral horn. i. The dorsal column-medial lemniscal pathway refers to distal touch. This information is independent and taken away from pain and temperature. The major route is ipsilateral dorsal root axonsdorsal column dorsal column nuclei (junction os spinal cord and medulla)CONTRALSTERALmedial lemniscus (white matter tract rises through medulla)ventral posterior nucleus (thalamus) primary sensory cortex (S1) ii. Trigeminal touch pathwaycranial nerve 7 enters the rain through the pons. These nerves are large in diameter and carry important information form skin mechanoreceptors synapse on second-order neuron in ipsilateral trigeminal nucleus medial part of VP nucleus of thalamus somatosensory cortex VI. Somatosensory cortex are 3b receives dense inputs from the VP nucleus of the thalamus, neurons are responsive to somatosensory stimuli, lesions impair somatic sensation and when electrically stimulated, the evokes somatic sensory experience. This knowledge was learned though open brain surgery of an epileptic patient. a. Area 1 and 2 receive input from area 3b, area 1 is specific for txtre information, area 2 is specific for size and shape leads to homolgous cortical somatopy i. Cortical somatotopy is the localization os somatic sensation to a specific body part. ASK TO EXPAIN THIS ON MICE ii.


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