AFST 2100 9/29 Notes
AFST 2100 9/29 Notes AFST 2100
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Summer Boone on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AFST 2100 at University of Georgia taught by Aderibigbe in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 187 views. For similar materials see in African Studies at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Economic Development in Africa 393 Role of Agriculture in Development Thought Closely related to food insecurity Roughly 1 billion people remain chronically malnourished as of 2014 From 196971 to 199092 the percentage of malnourished people dropped from 35 to 20 despite the 57 increase in population From 196163 to 1996 there was a 20 rise in per capita food production Undernourished means insuf cient nourishment from time to time or over the course of a year Malnourished means insuf cient nourishment always UndernourishmentMaInourishment due to social institutionsgovernment and the lack of technology Africa has the most undernourished countries of any other continent o For a visual go to FAOorghunger 393 Tanzania in Statistics as of 2011 Population 419 million 203 growth rate GDP Gross Domestic Product 224 billion which is 1500 per capita GDP by sector 9 Agriculture 416 of economy 9 Industry 181 of economy 9 Services 384 of economy oz Philosophical Periods 19501966 de ned largely in terms of growth per capita output o Post WWII Marshal Plan 19705early 19805 growth with equity including income distribution employment and nutrition o Money is equally centered around all areas not just 1 Late 19805present macroeconomic and policy reform reconstructing food security emphasis and environmental sustainability 2007present Feed the Future organization and growth of partnerships o People starting to work together instead of on their own 0 19505 and 19605 quotAgriculture not important to growthquot Transfer resources from agriculturerural areas to other industries Important substitution to replace export or primary products commodities and minerals as goals of LDCs o This was limited 393 Counter Arguments in the 19605 Labor capital foreign exchange food domestic markets for industrial goods oz Alternative Economic Perspectives Radical political economic ideas of the 19605 Dependency Theories o3 Constraints of Agriculture Development things that hold development back Not enough access to markets for products and inputs 9 No welldeveloped roads that make it possible to always navigate to market places Impacts of diseases and insects Rainfall variability 9 Too much rainfall or too little rainfa can damage agricultural products o Too much rainfa can also make poorlydeveloped roads impossible to navigate Low levels of cultivated land area Management issues 9 This is the number one issue 393 Growth with Equity in the 19705 Distribution of income becomes an important concept o No longer centered around one area of the economy 393 Growth Patterns vs Income Distribution Effects of diverse growth strategies on income distribution and welfare Laborintensive vs capitalintensive patterns of technology development c Expanded smallholder labor demand increasing o High yielding new varieties means increased abor Q But machinery cultivation is labor replacingdecreasing 393 Employment Generation and Factor Markets Urban industries couldn t expand quickly enough to employ an expanded work force 9 Population increase 9 Displacement from rural to urban Employment generation from food sector vs other industry sectors Factor markets distorted by overwhelmed exchange rates Missingincomplete markets for rural labor 9 Seasonality for labor demand o Expected not actual wage rates
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