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Psych Ch. 6

by: Kristen Pruett

Psych Ch. 6 Psych100

Kristen Pruett

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Chapter 6 Sensation and Perception
General Psychology
Kristen Begosh
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Pruett on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych100 at University of Delaware taught by Kristen Begosh in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Delaware.


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Date Created: 03/18/16
3/9  Chapter 6 Sensation and Perception    Sensing the World: some basic principles  ­ sensation: the experience of having your sense organs stimulated (ex. i feel the wind on  my skin,or the vibration of my phone)  ­ perception: interpreting the sensations that are experience, to recognize meaningful  objects and events (ex. i recognize her as my best friend, oh that's my ringtone)  ­ prosopagnosia: inability to perceive faces even though vision is fine  ­ bottom­up processing: analysis beginning with sensory and works up to brian's  integration of sensory info  ­ top­down processing: info processing guided by higher­level mental processes  (experiences, expectations)  Thresholds  ­ psychophysics: study of relationship between physical characteristics of stimuli (e.g.  intensity) and our psychological experiences of them   ­ absolute threshold: minimum stimulation needed to detect particular stimulus 50% of the  time   ­ ex. at school when the nurse would test your hearing  ­ signal detection  ­ signal vs. background noise  ­ experience, expectations, motivation, fatigue  ­ difference threshold (aka just noticeable difference, or jnd): minimum difference a person  can detect between 2 stimuli half the time   ­ Weber’s Law: to be detectable the stimuli must vary by cnstat proportion ­ not constant   ­ Sensory Adaptation: diminishing sensitivity to an unchanging stimulus   Stimulus Input: Light Energy  ­ Transduction: transforming one form of energy to another   Vision  ­ The eye: regulating the amount of light  ­ Iris: expands and contracts  ­ Lens: sits behind pupil, fine adjustment, main focusing   ­ Pupil`   ­ Cornea: outer covering on eye, course/basic focusing, protective function   ­ Blind Spot: where optic nerve leaves the eye, you can’t see things projected onto your  blind spot   ­ Optic nerve to brain's visual cortex  ­ Fovea (point of central focus): specific part of the retina, sit behind pupil: point of focus  ­ Retina: image gets projected onto the retina: peripheral focus   ­ Normal vision occurs when light is focused directly on the retina rather than in front or  behind it   ­ Nearsightedness: visual image is focused in front of the retina  ­ Farsightedness: visual image is focused behind the retina  The Retina  ­ Fovea  ­ Cones: photoreceptor, responsible for seeing color, help you to see with clarity and  detail, good illumination in order for cones to work, a lot of cones located in the fovea, as  you go out into the periphery of your retina the number of cones declines  ­ Rods: photoreceptor, compliment to cones, for black and white, shading, work well in  dim light/dark, further into periphery of retina are a lot of rods  ­ Bipolar cells  ­ Ganglion cells: optic nerve carries message to brain  ­ 1) light entering eye triggers photochemical reaction in rods and cones at back of retina  ­ 2) Chemical reaction in turn activates bipolar cells  ­ 3) Bipolar cells then activate the ganglion cells, the axons of which converge to form the  optic nerve. This nerve transmits information to the visual cortex (via the thalamus) in the  brain   Visual Information Processing   ­ Optic chiasm: ​the X­shaped structure formed at the point below the brain where the two  optic nerves cross over each other  ­ Feature Detectors  ­ Nerve cells that respond to specific features of the stimulus (e.g. shape, angle,  movement   ­ Supercell clusters: receive info from feature detectors and respond to more  compels patterns   ­ Parallel processing: processing any aspects of a problem simultaneously (or. serial  processing)   Color Vision  ­ The wavelengths of the light waves that an object reflects determine the color that we  see  ­ Young­Helmholtz trichromatic theory: retina contains 3 different color receptors (red,  green, blue)  ­ Opponent­process theory: opposing retinal processes allow for color vision  ­ red­green  ­ yellow­blue  ­ White­black  Perceptual Organization  ­ Gestalt: an organized whole  ­ A school of thought emphasizing that the whole is different than the sum of its  parts  ­ Form Perception  ­ Figure­ground: organization of visual field into its objects (figures) and  surroundings (ground)  ­ Grouping: tendency to organize stimuli into coherent groups  ­ Proximity  ­ Similarity  ­ Continuity   ­ Connectedness  ­ Closure ­ no actual edge but you perceive there to be edges   ­ Depth Perception: ability to perceive the world in 3D even though the images that  fall on the retina are 2D  ­ Visual cliff   ­ Binocular cues: depth cues that result oem the use of both eyes   ­ Retinal disparity: compare image from retinas of both eyes.  Greater disparity means object is closer   ­ Binocular convergence: information about how much eyes must  rotate inward to look at an object. More rotation means object is  closer  ­ Monocular Cues: depth cues that are available to each eye separately   ­ Ex. relative motion, relative size and linear perspective, aerial  perspective  ­ Perceptual Constancy: perceiving objects as unchanging even as the image on  the retina changed  ­ Shape and size constancies  ­ Connections between distance and size  ­ Lightness constancy: objects seem to have the constant lightness even  when illumination varies  ­ Relative luminance: amount of light an object reflet relative to its  surroundings?   ­ Color constancy: perceiving familiar objects as having constant color even  when changing illumination alters reflected wavelengths   ­ Perceptual adaptation: ability to adjust to an artificially displaced visual  field   ­ Perceptual Set: mental predisposition to perceive one thing and not  another  


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