Week 5 Notes
Week 5 Notes SOCIO 561
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sydney Shields on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCIO 561 at Kansas State University taught by Mario V Cano in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see Criminology in Criminology and Criminal Justice at Kansas State University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Criminology Notes Tuesday September 29 ZDILS 122 PM Society of Insulation the Origins of Control Theory Great effort is expended by parents teachers and the individual involved in a concerted attempt to produce these results Nonconformity such as crime and delinquency is to be expected when social controls are less than completely effective Why do people conform What holds us to conform to the laws and rules From this perspective on human nature and social order the potential gratifications offered by crime and delinquency will be resisted only when sociocultural controls are operating effectively to prevent such behavior Control Theory Much of its appeal is the simplicity of its main theoretical premise When controls are present crime does not occur when controls are absent crime is possible and often does occur Except the fact that control and crime can be measured independently and the strength of the relationship assessed empirically there is a tautological quality to this thesis The very existence of crime seems to be persuasive evidence that controls have been rendered ineffective Forerunners of Control Theory Durkheim 39s Anomie Theory Described anomie not simply as quotnormlessnessquot but as the more or less complete collapse of social solidarity itself the destruction of the fundamental bonds uniting individuals in a collective social order so that each person is forced to go it alone For him the moral order was more fundamental than the economic order Social solidarity was maintained by two distinct sets of social functions those involving integration and those involving regulation Integration is a state of cohesion amounting to a common quotfaithquot sustained by collective beliefs and practices leading to strong social bonds and the subordination of self to a common cause When integrative functions failed the quotcollective force of societyquot was weakened quotmutual moral supportquot was eroded and there was a quotrelaxation of social bondsquot leading to extreme individualism Durkheim saw integration as the sum of various social forces of attraction that drew people together regulation was considered to be the sum of those forces of constraint that bound individuals to norms The Nature of quotManquot Durkheim39s viewpoint was affected deeply by his conception of human nature Any person was a blend of 2 aspects One Side there was the social self or the aspect of self that looks to society and it a product of socialization and cultivation of human potentials the quotcivilizedquot member of a community One Side there was the egoistic self or the primal self that is incomplete without society and that is full of impulses knowing no natural limits The Influence of the Chicago School The Conceptions of Human Nature Cooley Human offspring is dependent on other humans in the family setting for a prolonged period Family was the primary group in which interaction is of an intimate face toface character leading to a quotwefeelingquot or sense of belonging and identification with the group The quotlooking glass selfquot the child develops a concept of who he or she quotreally isquot by imagining how he or she appears to others and how others interpret and evaluate what they perceive and then by forming a sense of self based on that process Human nature itself defined as quotthose sentiments and impulses that are human in being superior to those of lower animalsquot was essentially the dame throughout the world because the intense experience in primary groups was considered to be basically the same everywhere Mead amp ME The focusing was said to occur through a process of quottaking the role of the otherquot and seeing things from that perspective with certain quotsignificant othersquot being especially important and society representing a quotgeneralized otherquot Through this process that socialization occurred If socialization was successful it was considered to lead to personally integrated social beings who would see the world through a social quotmequot that included others39 perspectives and interests as part of oneself Unsuccessful socialization might lead to personal disorganization to a selflacking in integration and consistency or to a self that was integrated internally but not integrated into society or both The Study of Community Collapse of community as a consequence of increasing quotsocial distancequot among individuals who refused to get close to one another This theme emphasized the impersonality and anonymity of life in urban industrialized societies in which people in the community did not know or care about one another and preferred it that way Early Control Theories Reiss39s Theory of Personal and Social Controls Personal control was defined as quotthe ability of the individual to refrain from meeting needs in ways which conflict with the norms and rules of the communityquot Social control was defined as quotthe ability of social groups or institutions to make norms or rules effectivequot Maintained that conformity might result from the individual39s acceptance of rules and roles or from mere submission to them Social control was held to lie quotin the acceptance of or submission to the authority of the institution and the reinforcement of existing personal controls by institutional controlsquot Considered quotfrom the standpoint of the groupquot it was said to lie quotin the nature and strength of the norms of the institutions and the effectiveness of the institutional rules in obtaining behavior in conformity with the normsquot He was concerned with underlying processes that seemed To occur prior to any later processes such as conflicting cultural transmissions and To be necessary before any such subsequent processes could ever take place quotThe delinquent peer group is here viewed as afunctional consequence of failure of personal and social controlsquot Goal was to develop a prediction instrument Assumption primary groups are the basic institutions for the development of personal controls over the childquot Followed that quotdelinquency and delinquent recidivism may be viewed as a consequence of the failure of primary groups to provide the child with appropriate nondelinquent roles and to exercise social control over the child so these roles are accepted or submitted to in accordance with needsquot Key primary groups family neighborhood and the school Nye 39s FamilyFocused Theory of Social Controls The problem was to locate the social control factors that inhibited such nonconformity the implication being that when the factors operated ineffectively for some reason crime and delinquency became a possibility available to an individual Nye39s theoretical and research focus was on adolescents and he considered the family to be the most important agent of social control over them The family could generate direct control internalized control indirect control and control through alternative means of need satisfaction Direct control was considered to be imposed on the individuals by external forces such as parents teachers and the police through direct restraints accompanied by punishment for misconduct Internalized control was considered to occur when the individual regulated his or her own behavior even in the absence of direct external regulation through some process such as quotconsciencequot or superego capable of restraining egoistic impulses Indirect control had to do with the extent of affection and identification integrating the individual with authority figures in general and with parents in particular Nye pointed out that these different modes of social control were held to operate somewhat independently with one being more important in a particular situation and another in a different context were mutually reinforcing Reckless39s Containment Theory Why do some youths not become delinquent Resiliency describe youngsters who despite facing an array of criminogenic risk factors nonetheless resist crime and pursue conventional lives Social psychology and their relevance for criminology Criminology ought to pursue a search for quotselffactorsquot that would explain why some individuals succumbed to social pressures leading to crime and delinquency whereas others remained relatively law abiding in the same circumstances Containment Theory Meant to explain why in spite ofthe various criminogenic pushes and pulls whatever they might be conformity remains the general state of affairs Argued that to commit crime or delinquency requires the individual to break through a combination of outer containment and inner containment that together tend to insulate the person from both the pushes and the pulls With rare exceptions only when these powerful containing forces were weakened could deviance occur Even then it was not assured given that containment theory was considered a risk theory dealing in probabilities The Social Psychology of the Self Pushes and Pulls Variety of factors might quotpushquot and person toward crime or a delinquency and that other factors might quotpullquot one toward misbehavior Recognized that the leading sociological theories in particular seemed to have effectively analyzed many of the central pushes and pulls Factors In Outer Containment The key factors binding the individual to the group might vary across different types of societies quotexternal containment model for modern urban industrial mobile societyquot he stressed 1 reasonable limits 2 meaningful roles and activities and 3 quotseveral complementary variables such as reinforcement by groups and significamt supportive relationships acceptance and the creation of a sense of belonging and identityquot Factors in Inner Containment Inner containment would tend to control the individual to some extent no matter how the external environment changed Identified the key factors here as including selfconcept goal orientation frustration tolerance and norm retention Why were there still so many quotgood boysquot in these quotswampsquot of high delinquency Concluded that such boys were quotinsulatedquot by quotfavorable selfconceptsquot Research suggested that parents were the most influential sources of favorable selfconcepts with teachers and other authority figures also having some influence Containment theory treated such goal orientation as providing a sense of direction that would keep the individual on the straight and narrow path of conformity Implied either 1the assumption that opportunities actually were more widely available than was assumed by strain theory so that reasonable success goals were indeed quotrealistically obtainablequot 2 the assumption that realistic goal orientations would involve a scaling down of many individuals or 3 both of these assumptions Consideringfrustration tolerance as a major factor in inner containment containment theory accepted the possibility that the control of biophysical urges toward deviance may be very frustrating and that contemporary society indeed may generate considerable frustration as a result of facts such as differential opportunity Suggested that part of the differential response to familial economic political and sexual frustrations can be accounted for y the fact that different individuals have developed different capacities for coping with frustration and that contemporary individualism generally is characterized by low frustration tolerance and consequent lack of selfcontrol Reckless maintained that the contemporary individual quotdevelops a very low frustration tolerance to the ordinary upsets failures and disappointments in lifequot and that this may result in quotthe inability to exert selfcontrol to tolerate frustration to recognize limits and to relate to othersquot Fourth key component of inner containment norm retention referred to the quotadherence to commitment to acceptance of identification with legitimation of and defense of values norms laws codes institutions and customsquot Emphasis on norm retention stressed the integration of the individual through identification with acceptable means The key problem here was not norm retention but rather norm erosion or understanding the processes by which this containing factor sometimes was eroded to allow for the possibility of crime and delinquency Norm erosion was described as including quotalienation from emancipation from and neutralization of formerly internalized ethics morals laws and values Sykes and Matza Neutralization and Drift Theory If the social pressures causing delinquency were so powerful then why was it that even the worst of delinquents seemed to be fairly conventional people actually conforming in so many other ways And why was it that although they continued to live in areas of crime and delinquency and continued to be faced with a lack of economic opportiunity most of them did not continue law violating behavior beyond a certain age but rather settled down in lawabiding loves Techniques of Neutralization The major theories of the day overemphasized the difference between delinquents and nondelinquents Argued that delinquents retained a commitment to conventional society and its standards of behavior they knew right from wrong Argued that delinquency would be possible if youths could escape the control of that conventional society over them Was possible because part of the process through which one learned the conventional social norms consisted of the learning of excuses or techniques of neutralization by which those norms could be temporarily suspended and their controlling effects neutralized When this occurred youths were free to commit certain delinquent acts in particular circumstances without the necessity of rejecting the norms themselves Listed Drift Theory Repre five specific techniques of neutralization 1 denial of responsibility 2 denial of injury 3 denial of the victim 4 condemnation of the condemners 5 appeal to higher loyalties sented a control perspective because it sees these techniques ad needed to neutralize existing social control thereby allowing the possibility of delinquency Conventional values consist not only of the publicly admired values of hard work moral uprightness but also and as especially seen in leisure activities of the quotsubterraneanquot values of adventure or thrills conspicuous consumption and masculine displays of aggressiveness Conventional values have the potential to inspire criminal activities so much so that the delinquent may not stand as an alien in the body of society but may represent instead a disturbing reflection or a caricaturequot Authorities themselves often excuse violations by blaming parents citing provocation on the part of the victims or accepting explanations defining the infractions as involving selfdefense or quotaccidentquot in a way that reinforces the norm neutralization of thejuvenHes The controlling power of conventional norms might either be weakened by al sorts of qualifications built into them or be eroded through time as attempts to apply them are met with objections excuses and vacillations Neutralization makes delinquency not a foregone conclusion but only a possibility Once freed from the constraints of the conventional order youths now drifted between this moral order and a criminal one Because delinquency may involve unfamiliar and dangerous behaviors something more than loss of control is necessary to explain it Held that the triggering factors that move a youngster from drift to delinquency consist of a combination of preparation and desperation Preparation involves a process by which the person discovers that a given infraction can be pulled off by someone that the individual has the ability to do it himself or herself and that fear or apprehension can be managed Matza argued that the central force there is profound sense of fatalism and the feeling that the self is overwhelmed Fatalism produces a need to violate the rules of the system so as to reassert individuality Crime thus becomes a means of expressing a more meaningful identity a way of supplying quotsome dramatic reassurance that he can still make things happenquot Combination of preparation and desperation creates the will to offend Control Theory in Context The Context of the 19505 Fascinated with and strangely alarmed by the apparently senseless behavior of highly publicized adolescent male workingclass gangs in the large cities exotic groups that in some strange way failed to fit into the dream The Context in the 19605 The search for an quotauthentic selfquot became a priority The continuing drama of the civil rights movement the coming of militant feminism the Vietnam War protests the appearance of the hippies the advocacy of psychedelic drug use on the part of respected Harvard University professors and a host of other dramatic social and cultural shifts seemed to many to signal the complete collapse of personal and social control Loss of selfcontrol on the part of the individual and of social control on the part of organized religion the family educational institutions the economic order and the political state Times were ripe for acceptance of a perspective linking crime to the breakdown of control if it could be formulated in appropriate theoretical terms
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