Sept. 30 class notes
Sept. 30 class notes HTW 402
Popular in Implem & Eval of Health Programs
Popular in Public Health
This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alyson Forman on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HTW 402 at Syracuse University taught by L. Narine in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Implem & Eval of Health Programs in Public Health at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Inreats to Internal valldlty or a Study gt History 0 Unexpected events occur between the pre and posttest affecting the dependent variable ie outcome gt Maturation 0 Changes occur in participants from growing older wiser more experienced etc during the study gt Testing 0 Taking a pretest alters the result of the posttest gt instrumentation o The measuring instrument is changed between pre and IIIIbuLQ LU IIIBQIIIMI vullulls VI u Study gt Statistical Regression 0 Extremely high or extremely low scorers tend to regress to the mean on retesting gt Selection 0 Participants in the experimental and control groups have different characteristics that affect the dependent variable differently gt Experimental Mortality 0 Different Participants drop out of the study in different numbers altering the composition of the treatment and control groups gt Selection Maturation interaction 0 The participants selected into treatment groups have different maturation rates or speeds Contamination o Researcners treat groups differently based on prior lknowledge about the groups gt Diffusion or Imitation of Treatments 0 Control or comparison has contact with the experimentai group 0 Treatment groups communicate and adopt pieces of each others treatment altering the initial status of the treatments being compared gt Compensatory Equalization of Treatments 0 Control groups insists on receiving the intervention gt Compensatory lRivalry 0 Control group sees itsellf as the underdog and so works harder gt lResentful Demoraiization of Respondents Receiving lLess Desiralble me difficuit to measure the true outcome due to History Maturation Testing instrumentation Statistical Regression Selection Experimental Mortality Selection Maturation interaction Subject diaries or interviews Use pretests Use comparison groups Care with childreni adolescentsj and the elderly Use comparison groups Have sufficient time between pretest and posttest measurements Use comparison groups Use same measurement tools and procedures for all groups in the same way Train those collecting the data Make sure subjects come from the full range of scores or from the same end of the range Use random assignment Have comparison group Ulse random assignment Pretests can identify and somewhat control the threat Have large samples Provide incentives to remain in study Get information on drop outs Check groups are near equivalent at end of study Ulse pretests Ulse random assignment Have comparison group Diffusion or imitation of Treatments Compensatory Equalization of Treatments Compensatory Rivalry Resentful Demoralization collectors to subject affiliation Use external data collectors Select groups that are physically distant from each other Provide delayed treatment Blind subjects about their group affiliation Provide delayed treatment Blind subjects about their group affiliation Provide delayed treatment External Validitv Refers to the generalizability of the policy or program outcomes Validity refers to the approximate truth of propositions inferences or conclusions 80 external validity refers to the approx truth of conclusions that involve generalizations Or in simple terms external validity is the degree to which the conclusions in your study would hold f1 i 2 generalize back r 2 Fungi Vlj fl im Threats to External Validitv Hawthorne Effect Singling out participants makes them act differently Sometimes called John Henry effect Novelty and Disruption Effects Treatment successful just because it s something new or different Expectancy I I H aHLQ LU IILsm I lul v unu ILy COnS Causes of Limitations in nts performance and re Generalizability Safeguardis that might prevent such things Social Desire Hawthorne Effect Downplaying anything special Subje about being involved in the quotrightquot answer study Blind subjects about their group affiliation Treat all groups the same except for treatment group Novelty and Disruption Effects Multiple posttests help to identify if this was a problem Expectancy Effect Researchers and data collectors need to be well trained Social Desirability Various methods Self administration of measures Questions to measure social desirability Blind subjects about their group affiliation