Scientific Reasoning Weeks 2+3
Scientific Reasoning Weeks 2+3 UI 422
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Downing Notetaker on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to UI 422 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Dr. G. L. Cesarz in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
9115 Modern Logic Continued The facile Affirming the Consequent most familiar as a pattern of thinking lfthen statements are hypothesis The P term is called the antecedenfterm The Q term is called the consequentterm This is their label regardless of what you plug after P and Q Affirming the consequent means I have a hypothesis that P implies Q By setting up an experiment to test for it you will find Q You get to affirm the consequent Karl Popper attacked logical positivists in the early part of the 20th century and put in place of it his theory of falsificationism instead of verificationism This type of reasoning allows contradictions to slip through the cracks Remember that a contradiction is something that is necessarily not true Whenever the antecedent of the hypothesis is true but the consequent is false you have a contradiction It cannot be true You can conceive of a hypothesis that has two true terms you can conceive of a hypothesis that has one true term and one false term so long as the false term is in the antecedent condition Forms of reasoning that follow logical possibilities Things could be true if it was a logical possibility From a contradiction anything follows Cannot allow contradictions to slip through the cracks What applies in science applies in philosophy applies in the law Truth values Denying the antecedent Do not fall for fallacies Mind your P39s and Q39s and don39t be tricked by experimental design We don t prove things in the natural science we prove things in mathematics and logic We get varying degrees of confirmation in natural science D S Disjunctive syllogism an eitheror statement The basic pattern is inference to the best explanation Both Modus39s are fallacies H S Hypothetical syllogism These patterns are not thought processes we are correcting what might be our native or natural though processes to conform to an objective standard That objective standard is logical validity We have been trying to get our reasoning to conform to an objective standard We think hypothetically we think disjunctively and we build from that Classical Logic Deductive inference is concerned with preserving validity Validity is the quality of a good argument In deductive thought we are concerned with validity and the preservation of truth so that if the premises are true and you followed a correct logical form then your conclusion must be true Inductive reasoning has to be treated reasonably Classical logic had a ready made solution to inductive logic An assertion is a declarative statement that says quotthis is factquot A universal affirmative astatement l particular affirmative istatement E universal negative 0 particular negative Aristotle was the first man in history to establish logic as a science If you build an argument you are building a theory Greatest scientist of all time is Isaac Newton he had Aristotelian logic at his disposal not modern logic 91015 Foundations for human thought Newton amp the Boys Kepler 15711630 Galileo 15641642 Descartes 15961650 Huygens 16291695 Leibniz 16461716 Newton 164243172627 There are many scientific dogmas that we are committed to because we think well that s adequately supported for now Time and again the existence of an external world is called into question then taken for granted then called into question back and forth etc 1 Problem of one and many all of the work of quantum mechanics is in an attempt to confront this question The one and the many is an attempt to find the proper way to conceive of existence in such a way that we find the unifying factor or the unifying principle in virtue which is one world in spite of the plurality of things that continually teach us that there are surprising differences to be found 2 Change motion Plato thought that the forms were ultimate existence and what reality ultimately consisted of and the forms were apprehended by the mind Aristotle is the author of the concept of matter The forms according to Plato and the mind that apprehends them are immaterial and they are the ultimate stuff of reality Some historians of philosophy and historians of science will argue that there is cataclysmic conceptual revolutions The dominant version of that attitude Thomas Kuhn s theory of the structure of scientific revolutions When you find out what the logical consequences of this stuff are a form of antirealism you find out that it cant be liferallytrue There is continuity in philosophic and scientific thinking from the ancient world until now Scientific method comes out of philosophy The origins of the scientific method came about as a consequence of Socrates refining the question and the way we ask the questions He wasn t the first philosopher and he wasn t the first scientifically minded person Science is not the only source of knowledge Even if we grasp the fundamental underlying principle of the one and we see how it unites the many we see how things fit together it won t mean that we ve got the best answer Heraclitus was the philosopher of change and stated that all was in a state of flux except logos What happens when you push abstract domains of thought to their extremes They turn on themselves they become selfrefuting Logos means word but here it means rules in the sense of laws Forbidden knowledge is knowledge that is evilly derived Socrates taught us the method of of going at a problem
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