BIO 123 Chapter 4 Notes
BIO 123 Chapter 4 Notes BIOL 123
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Logan on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 123 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Dorothy C. Scholl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 233 views. For similar materials see Biology for Health Related Sciences and Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Chapter 4 Notes Nutrition and the Macromolecules of Life gt Check out this video httpsMMNyoutubecomwatchvH8WJ2KENIKO 41 Monomers and Polymers Polymer substance that has molecular structure consisting of many smaller units bonded together 0 Made up of monomers building blocks 0 Formed by dehydration synthesiscondensation reactions bind monomers together by taking a water molecule see Image 1 Example forms ATP from ADP and Phosphate 0 Broken down by hydrolysis reactions splits a water molecule and incorporates it back into the monomers see Image 2 Short polymer Unlinked monomer Dehydration removes a water K Hydrolysns adds a water molecule forming a new bond molecule breaking a bond I Longer polymer Image 1 Image 2 42 Carbohydrates MonomerPOIYmeri Monosaccharide I Polysaccharide Chemical FOFmUIai Comprised of Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen in a 121 ratio 9 CHZO Diagram CHQOH l CO HI H I H I C C OH H HQ I IOH C C l H OH Functions 1 Shortterm energy 0 Glycogen simple sugar in skeletal muscles and liver 2 Cell communication 0 Carbohydrates found on plasma membranes of cells help with celltocell recognition and cellhormone communication eg insan 3 Structural support 0 Cellulose in plants We do not have enzymes that can break apart cellulose so it passes through our systems as fiber 0 Chitin in fungi and insects w exoskeleton Other 0 lsomers molecules with the same chemical formula but different molecular shapes eg glucose and fructose Simple Carbohydrates Produced by plants 0 Monosaccharides glucose and fructose or disaccharides sucrose and lactose o Glucose and fructose C6H1206 found in high fructose corn syrup 0 Sucrose glucose fructose tablecane sugar 0 Lactose galactose glucose found in milk Lactase enzyme that breaks down lactase 0 If a person is unable to produce lactase 9 lactose intolerant 0 Body has different metabolic pathways for each type of simple sugar 0 Glucose pancreas secretes insulin hormone 9 transports glucose into cells If transported to muscle cells the glucose will be used for energy If transported to fat cells the glucose will be stored as fat 0 Fructose does not cause insulin to be released 9 taken to liver and stored as fat can lead to fatty liver disease 0 Diets high in simple sugars can cause obesity and increase chances of developing diabetes and heart disease Complex Carbohydrates Formed by condensation reactions 0 Polysaccharides o Glycogen sugar stored in muscles and liver 0 Starch polymer of alpha glucose eg bread pasta rice potatoes etc 0 Fiber cellulose polymer of beta glucose Important for digestive health especially in the colon Additional Carbohydrates Celltocell recognition 0 Glycoprotein branching carbs attached to a protein 0 Glycolipid branching carbs attached to a lipid o Branching carbohydrates are unique to each individual so that immune cells can distinguish our own cells from foreign cells 43 Proteins MonomerPolymer Amino Acid I Polypeptide 0 There are 20 different amino acids 0 9 are essential they cannot be synthesized by our bodies 9 we have to obtain them from our diets Chemical Formula NHZCHRCOOH where NH2 is the amino group R represents the variable group side chain and COOH is the acid group Amino acids can be either hydrophobic or hydrophilic depending on their side chain R Diagram R Functions 1 Build muscles for movement 2 Involved in body s immune system antibodies are proteins 3 Form enzymes molecules that facilitate and catalyze chemical reactions 0 Bromelain catalyzes protein metabolism breaking it down 4 Cell recognition and communication Other 0 Formed by condensation reactions 0 Vegetarians can fulfill all of their protein needs as long as they eat a variety of foods 0 Eating 1 grain and 1 legume gives you the equivalent amount of protein found in meat Quinoa does not need to be paired it contains all 9 essential amino acids Protein Structure 0 Shape determines function 0 34 levels of organization see Image 5 depends on the protein 1 Primary structure linear sequence of amino acids held together by peptide bonds covalent bonds between amino acids This is coded for by DNA 2 Secondary structure hydrogen bonding forms betapleated sheet or alpha helix 3 Tertiary structure protein folds up because of interactions between side chains R groups 4 Quaternary structure separate polypeptide chains bonded together I eg hemoglobin Primary Secondary Tertiary Quaternary structure structure structure structure Amino g acuds aheiices IBSheets Image 5 Denature when protein unfolds and loses its shape and therefore its function 0 eg cooked egg protein in egg becomes denatured so it can never return to its uncooked state 0 Heat stroke is dangerous because it causes proteins in your brain to become denatured 9 causes permanent brain damage 44 Nucleic Acids MonomerPolymer Nucleotide I Nucleic Acid Chemical Formula NA Diagram DNA base pair r Q 0 ATCG39s 339 39 0 o c o L I F 3 lt 0 b J o 5 Nitrogenous Sugar Phosphate RNA 33893 Backbone AUCG s 339 Functions 1 Forms DNA and RNA Other 0 All nucleotides have 3 parts 1 5carbon sugar simple sugar in DNA deoxyribose in RNA ribose 2 Phosphate group 3 Nitrogenous base differs between types of nucelotides Nitrogenous bases 0 Purines double ringed adenine A and guanine G DNA RNA 0 Pyrimidines singleringed thymine T cytosine C and uracil U o Doubleringed nitrogenous base always bonds to a singleringed nitrogenous base A always bond to T takes 2 hydrogen bonds 0 DNA sections rich in AT bonds are usually the start of a gene they are easier to pull apart for transcription G always bonds to C takes 3 hydrogen bonds Found in the nucleus of the cell Structure 0 Doublehelix structure held together by hydrogen bonds 0 Nitrogenous bases adenine A guanine G cytosine C and thymine T Chargaff s Rule DNA from any cell of all organisms should have a 11 ratio of adenine to thymine and guanine to cytosine Function stores genetic information o 2 of DNA codes for proteins 0 98 of DNA junk DNA includes switches body plan sequences etc Structure 0 Singlestranded o Nitrogenous bases adenine A guanine G cytosine C and uracil U Function acts as a messenger carrying copies of DNA from the nucleus to ribosomes 3 types of RNA 1 Messenger RNA mRNA the copy of the geneinstructions for synthesizing a protein 2 Transfer RNA tRNA binds to amino acids in the cytoplasm and brings them to ribosomes to grow a polypeptide 3 Ribosomal RNA rRNA structural component of ribosome 45 Lipids Lipids large organic molecules made largely of Carbon and Hydrogen 9 extremely hydrophobic Have 1 fatty acid tails hydrocarbon hydro water chain w terminal carboxyl group 0 Structure of fatty acid tails determines whether lipid is solid or liquid 0 Fatty acid tails store a lot of energy Triglycerides and Phospholipids Triglyceride glycerol 3 fatty acids 0 Saturated fats fatty acid tails are saturated filled in hydrogen ions see Image 7 Because there are no doublebonds in the fatty acid tail the tail is straight 9 easy to stack 9 solid at room temperature Diets high in saturated fats 9 plaque buildup in arteries 0 Unsaturated fats have 1 doublebonds between Carbon atoms see Image 8 Because there are doublebonds in the fatty acid tail the tail kinks 9 not easily stacked 9 liquid at room temperature Diets w unsaturated fats reduce levels of saturated fats and total cholesterol levels in the blood 9 lower rates of coronary heart disease Trans fats unsaturated fats that are harder to break down so they form plaque buildups in the arteries 9 you should NEVER eat trans fats 0 Essential fats fats you must obtain from your diet H H H H H H II 11 II II II o I I I I I I u 39 39 39 39 39 39 I 11 I I I I I I I H H H H 10quot H H H H H H II Unsatumted FattyAcid 1 1 Saturated Fat Image 7 Image 8 Phospholipids 2 fatty acid tails hydrophilic waterloving phosphate head 0 Make up the plasma membrane phospholipid bilayer separate inside of cell from outside environment 0 Are amphipathic have a hydrophobic and hydrophilic region Extracellular Phospholipid bilayer Intracellular Hydrophobic ta Hydrophilic head Image 9 Cholesterol and Steroids 0 Cholesterol sterol found embedded in phospholipid bilayer o Helps maintain proper fluidity of cell membranes and provides extra support 0 Transported via the bloodstream but cannot move freely on its own 9 transport cholesterols have to help LDL lowdensity lipoprotein bad cholesterol increased risk of heart disease HDL highdensity lipoprotein good cholesterol decreased risk of heart disease 0 Exercise naturally increases HDL levels 0 Steroids o Hormones molecules that stimulate specific cellstissue into action Estrogen female sex hormone Testosterone male sex hormone 46 Other Important Organic Molecules Vitamins molecules essential for proper cell functioning and good health 0 Fatsoluble vitamins vitamins A D E K excess amounts are stored in fattytissues and can become toxic 0 Cannot synthesize them 9 must obtain from diet 0 Pigments natural coloring of plantsanimals o Melanin brown pigment in our skin 0 Chlorophyll green pigment in plants A Lean h eats Dauy Conu ex Carbs VeggiesFruits 0 Why it s so hard to lose weight To burn 1 gram of sugar or 1 gram of protein you have to expend 4kcals of energy To burn l gram of fat you have to expend 9 kcals of energy 0 Food Pyramid Picture Credits Image 1 httpbio1 1 51 nicerweb comLockedmediach05dehydrationhtml Image 2 httpbio1 1 51 nicerweb comLockedmediach05hydrolysishtml Image 3 httpwww doe mass edumcasstudent20 1 Oquestion aspxGradeD 1 00ampSubjectCode biohsampQuestionD 1 2090 Image 4 httpwwwruppweborgXraytutorialproteinstructurehtm Image 5 httppubsrsc orgencontentarticlehtmI2014tbc4tb001 6 8kpage search Image 6 httpssangyongoh wordpresscom201 50 61 9dnaandrnaoperationsforIife Image 7 httpwww ca veman doctor com20 1 W052 7checkingyouroiIthede nitiveguideto cookingwithfat Image 8 httpsgrub rst wordpress com201 00824andnowforsomeorganicchemistry Image 9 httpswwwboundlesscombiologytextbooksboundlessbiologytextboakbiological 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