Museum Studies Week 2 Lecture Notes
Museum Studies Week 2 Lecture Notes HP 410
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Downing Notetaker on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HP 410 at Southeast Missouri State University taught by Eric Clements in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 17 views.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
History of types of Museums 9115 Art collecting has existed since antiquity Up until the American and French Revolutions these collections were largely owned by the nobility the church and later on by the great houses of wealth wealthy merchants and such The nobility is responsible for the vast collections of antiquities and art Italy is at first the center of the art world partly because of these great merchant houses Collections consisted of their own works as well as antiquities from the ancient world Two of the greatest collections of art in the 16th and 17th centuries one was accumulated by Charles I of England Parliament overthrew him and sold off most of his collection in the 1650s He is beheaded in the English Civil War Catherine the Great of Russia establishes a museum for her art collection the Hermitage established in 1767 in St Petersburg It is one of the greatest art museums in world history The Louvre is amassed by King Louis the XIV Louis the XV begins to organize the collection and put it on display The French Revolution is an attempt to delete the monarchy The Louvre Museum of the Republic established in August of 1793 on the first anniversary of the fall of the monarchy is extremely popular with the common folk in Paris Several of the collections were looted by Napoleon and brought back to Paris Mona Lisa is stolen in 1909 by an Italian citizen tries to sell it to an art dealer gets caught and the Mona Lisa is brought back to the Louvre After Napoleons defeat much of the looted art is recovered Great Britain39s National Gallery opened in London in 1824 and the Crystal Palace exhibit of 1851 These produced great wealth which was invested into the Victoria and Albert museum which opens in 1909 In Germany the Royal House of Prussia which established an extensive complex of museums in the 1830s Russian Revolution sells off many national treasures to pay for the war America is late to the game First university art gallery established at Yale in 1832 The founding of many of the American art museums is mostly 1870s Washington DC had its galleries although the National Gallery of Art was established in 1937 American art museums suffer two problems at the beginning most is that all of the great works of antiquity are already owned by European art museums Wealth of the Industrial Revolution such as JP Morgan and Andrew Carnegie aids in creating American collections Morgan was a president of the Met one of his fundraising techniques was to walk around the table and glower at people until they produced their checkbooks Iol American folk art becomes the key for American Museums also modern art Museum of Modern Art 1929 Two or more conflicts of art in the museums Art is still considered elitist History and science museums seem more egalitarian they are much more accessible to the public Another issue is how to make it more accessible but how do you democratize the art experience without dumbing it down In the artworlds view it is an interaction between you and the thing The art object gives off aesthetic value Guidance is needed for those not familiar with art Educa on Art museums used to be a proving ground also a place for artists to work and learn in The art gallery functions as this space to preserve and display art but also for artists to work In Art education Public education Docents are helpful interpretive guides Another problem with the art museum is the argument of taste What is tasteful Modern art still faces heavy criticism Museums of modern art were founded because all new art was considered trash by art critics of the time Museums must figure out what will be valuable in a hundred or more years Politics get into it what is art what is obscenity what is decadent Arts purpose is aesthetic it is objective Science and Technology Museums Two broad types of these museums biological sciences and social sciences Museums of science and industry They are basically the reverse of art and history museums They are originally established for research purposes collect everything By the 17th century private collections are beginning to rationalize collections The early science collections were both natural and human stuffed animals mummies coins and weapons etc The first public natural history museum established at Oxford in 1683 The British museum of 1753 opened in 1759 the collection deeded by Hans Sloan Zoos fit in this category Botanical gardens Natural history museums Lots of random useless stuff at first Early science collections were both natural and human Early natural history museums comprised of First public natural history museum established in 1759 Sloan opened to the public for free admission Other natural history museums founded soon after Peale 1846 Congress creates the Smithsonian a leading american scientist is hired to run it By the 1850s it had amassed considerable natural history particularly from American expeditions Louis and Clark etc Museum draws heavily on what would be World Exhibitions 1976 Smithsonian has amassed 65 million artifacts collections management problem There are roughly 17 museums under the Smithsonian umbrella Other leading American museums of natural history include The American Museum of Natural History Field Museum of Natural History a leading innovator in science Museums of Natural history are still different than Museums of Science and Technology The Enlightenment and the Age of Reason 1794 The French National Assembly established the Technological Museum in Paris called the National Conservatory looked a lot like a college campus These museums of science and industry were also founded from and sometimes supplemented by the great World s Fairs French Royal Academy of Sciences The Crystal Palace in 1851 was a big trade show British industrialists wanted to encourage Victorian education in the applied sciences The Royal Society of Arts Prince Albert advocates for the Royal Society of Arts and it paid off Big success made a big profit In Germany Oscar VonMiller led the foundation of German Museum of Outstanding Achievements in the Natural Sciences and Technology in 1903 completed in 1913 opens in 1925 due to World War I Local In America the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876 had five main exhibit buildings as well as smaller structures Smithsonian39s approach has been both historical and contemporary Henry Ford Museum in Michigan Chicago39s Museum of Science and Industry in 1926 Museums basically taking their exhibits from corporations Museums retain editorial control of the corporate sponsored exhibits Is the very nature of the sponsorship affecting the scholarship Epcot big joke
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