LAB ELECTRICAL MEASURMTS
LAB ELECTRICAL MEASURMTS PHYS 301
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Date Created: 09/30/15
55041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa Fall 2006 A Guide to Using the NI ELVIS System Contents Introduction Bench top Workstation Common Instrument Functions and Important Notes on ELVIS IV Digital Multi Meter V Oscilloscope VI Function Generator VII Variable Power Supplies VIII Bode Analyzer IX Dynamic Signal Analyzer X Arbitrary Waveform Generator XI Digital Reader XII Digital Writer XIII Impedance Analyzer XIV Two Wire Current Voltage Analyzer XV Three Wire Current Voltage Analyzer 1 Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa Fall 2006 I Introduction The Educational Laboratory Virtual Instrumentation Suite ELVIS produced by National Instruments NI is designed to simulate several pieces of electronic laboratory equipment It eliminates the need for bulky equipment in the lab It also allows for the design of customized instrumentation that can be used for specific projects The entire NI ELVIS system is built on top of NI s Labview software and hardware and is comprised three main components as shown and described below 1 ELVIS software on the PC which provides a graphical interface for several electronic instruments These instruments are discussed in detail throughout the rest of this guide 2 The PC connects to the benchtop workstation through the data acquisition board This board has both analog and digital input and output lines 3 The benchtop workstation provides electrical connections for the user to interface with circuits These provide inputs and outputs for the virtual instrumentation provided by the ELVIS software There is a prototyping board breadboard on the top of the workstation with several holes connected through the data acquisition board There is also a front interface on the workstation with controls for a few select instruments l 39 l m To access the ELVIS software go to StartgtAll ProgramsgtNational Instrumentsgt 39 quot 39 NI ELVIS 1 l Configure I Digital Multimeter or click on a shortcut NIB 35 I Oscilloscope Function Generator To the right is the startup screen shown when NI ELVIS first opens Variable Power Supplia Bade Analyzer 539 IA The configure button establishes Mam ma quotmm communication with the workstation LabVIEW can also be launched to make Digitameader l userdefined custom instrumentation This is Digita39wmer not described in detail in this guide I Wm Mamequot s Arbitrary Waveform Generator TwoWire Cu wentVoltage Analyzer All other buttons open different NI ELVIS l Three me mm WM mam instrumentation Lamquot mm 3 LabVIEW v 205 2 Author Colbin Erdahl Fall 2006 The University of Iowa 55041 Electronic Circuits II Benchto Workstation a z punyuus was urlmm n l wzlli wailm m ln signmnm Elllmlt l i meswn mamxiwm unmum u uu mm lmlm i m I III smith kt w y 1 Hanan Mania 58 ES g m SEE 35 SNEEHIE ESE E a SWHz smnu mmE is ass manna EH imaiiuw mzua a lip rxnaiiw sium um W mnm5 R in I THINK Ill s m R l board ing de as the breadboard is the prototyp39 On top of the workstation in this gui referred to m V e L m E y l S N e h fl 0 fl S e m f r 6 fl m d n oa S m l m m m m c m VOLTAGE VARIABLE POWER SUPPLIES VOLTAGE Tquot On the front of the workstation are sever NK I IBNAL INSTRUMENTS Controls and connections on the benchtop workstation are described below Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa Fall 2006 System controls on the front of the workstation SYSTEM POWER indicator light 7 If the system switch on the back side of the workstation is on this light will be lit PROTOTYPING BOARD POWER indicator light 7 If the breadboard power switch to the left is on this light will be lit Nothing on the breadboard will work without this switch turned on COMMUNICATIONS switch and light 7 The communications switch should be set to normal while the ELVIS software is being used The two most widelyused voltage producing instruments have controls on the front of the workstation The two most widelyused measuring instruments have connections on the front of the workstation which are also connected to the same holes on the left side of the breadboard NOTE do not use the same connections for these instruments on the breadboard and on the front of the workstation at the same time Breadboard holes The bulk of the breadboard is made up of holes that are not connected to the data acquisition board and the PC These connections are just like a normal breadboard that can be found in any circuits laboratory The connections on the four red and blue sections are made in vertical columns The connections in the three other sections are made in sets of five horizontal holes separated by the valley in the middle Special holes on the breadboard These are the holes that are found on the far left and far right of the breadboard They consist of several sets of four horizontal holes that are also connected to the PC for special functions The different types of holes are described below DC Power Supplies 7 These holes are always on and produce a constant DC voltage as long as the breadboard power switch is ipped Communication 7 These holes communicate in one way or another with t he data acquisition board and the PC They often have multiple functions and are described in more detail throughout the rest of this guide User Con gurable IO 7 These holes connect to the several connecters on the left and right edges of the circuit board on which the breadboard rests NOTE Grounding 7 All of the special holes that are marked as ground on the breadboard are connected and equivalent This does not include black or minus holes as found on the analog channels the oscilloscope channels or the voltage low hole for the DMM Make sure to ground these when using 4 Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa Fall 2006 III Common Instrument Functions and Impmtant Notes on ELVIS Common Functions These are buttons or functions common to two or more instruments in the ELVIS software package Their functions are described below RUN 0r RUN SINGLE buttons There are three different types of RUN buttons On some measurement instruments there is a RUN button next to a SINGLE button If the RUN button is pressed the measurements are taken continuously If the SINGLE button is pressed a single measurement is taken at that instant The Bode and CurrentVoltage Analyzers are special because they both produce signals and make measurements They have a RUN button that when pressed starts the function of these instruments LOG function On some measuring instruments the user can save a text file that records all data of the current display This text file can be used by another program to analyze the data For example if the text file is opened using Microsoft Excel the graph can be recreated and trendlines added to it MANUAL switch indicator ghts The Variable Power Supplies and the Function Generator can be controlled either by their ELVIS software components or the controls on the front of the workstation Turn the MANUAL switch on to use the controls on the front There is an indicator of this in the software The software cannot be used if the switch is on CURSORS MARKERS 7 Many plotting instruments have cursors or markers that can be displayed on the plots They are turned on by buttons and manipulated by clicking directly on the cursor in the plot display IMPORTANT NOTES 0n the particularities of certain ELVIS instruments DC Voltage amp Signal producing instruments 7 These instruments don t always produce exactly what the displays say they are producing They should be measured and readjusted until the desired signal is produced Measuring Instruments 7 Because these measurements are on digital displays and have many significant digits tiny uctuations may cause changes in the value displayed There are often more digits than are necessary so the fluctuations represent very tiny movements that aren t important When measuring try to take the average value Using Multiple ELVIS Instruments Simultaneously 7 Many instruments can be used at once so long as they do not have the possibility of using the same connections on the workstation If such con icts may exist between two instruments the ELVIS system will display an error message when the second instrument is opened and one of the instruments will not function IMPORTANT Read about nulling the DMM to current before measuring it 5 Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa Fall 2006 IV Digital MultiiMeter DM 1 NATIONAL u use To Measure AC and DC mummy voltages and currents values of resistance capacitance and inductance Als diode test and a continuity test Connections Current HiLo amp Voltage HiLo banana clip terminals on the front of the workstation or sets of holes on the lowerle side of the breadboard Do not use the banana clips and the holes at the same time when makin Operation Depending on the function connect the Current HiLo or the Voltage HiLo connections to a circuit or element in various ways that are described in detail below Controls FUNCTION buttons 7 Toggle through the 9 different functions available Each function is described in detail below Buttons common to all functions NULL button iEach function must be nulled separately before measuring in that functi n This is done to immediately calibrate the instrument to lab and circuit conditions Every function with the exception of current only needs to be nulled once and can then measure many different values RANGE buttons 7 On the lowerle of the DMM Each function will have di ferent choices for the maximum values of each range The mnge can be userselected by pressing the buttons below each maximum value or the range can be automatically set by the DMM as values change by pressing the AUTO button on the le Operation of each function Voltage AC and DC nection Voltage HiLo holes or banana clip terminals Nulling Short the high and low connections and press NULL Measuring Always measure voltage in parallel between two nodes 6 Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits Current AC and DC Connection Nullin g Measuring Resistance Connection Nullin g Measurin g Capacitance Connection Nulling Measuring Inductance Connection Nullin g Measurin g Diode Test Connection Nulling Measuring Continuity Test Connection Nulling Measuring The University of Iowa Fall 2006 Current HiLo holes or banana clip terminals 1 Attach either lead to the circuit where you intend to break it 2 Make sure the other lead is not connected to anything 3 Press the NULL button 4 Break the circuit and measure NOTE If you measure in a different place in the circuit you have to null the circuit again Measure current in series with the element break the circuit Current HiLo holes or banana clip terminals Short the high and low connections and press NULL Attach one lead to each side of the resistor Never measure resistance while the resistor is connected to anything else Current HiLo holes or banana clip terminals Open the high and low connections and press NULL Attach one lead to each side of the capacitor Never measure capacitance while the capacitor is connected to anything else Current HiLo holes or banana clip terminals Short the high and low connections and press NULL Attach one lead to each side of the inductor Never measure inductance while the inductor is connected to anything else Current HiLo holes or banana clip terminals Short the high and low connections and press NULL Put the high lead on the anode and the low lead on the cathode Current HiLo holes or banana clip terminals Short the high and low connections and press NULL Attach one lead to each end of the wire or circuit to see if there is a connection 7 Author Colbin Erdahl 55 041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa Fall 2006 V Oscilloscope Scope may 7 on ii ENC5mm vl immerde v mmnm m r CHANNELB 593v Purpose To Measure voltage Waveforms on two different channels mag was l l J J Connections 3 BNC Sale Sale terminals on the front of J Jul W j lMW Mus 93MB nc J Autasale 0 v Autamle TIMEBASE the Workstation or 3 sets of holes on the upperle side of the breadboard The three sets are Channel A Channel B and External Trigger inpuw J 5 ms v m slave cuRsoRs i Tlmeont ME mgle Acquired Operation Connect the black lead or 7 terminal to ground and the red terminal to the voltage to be measured The separate controls for channel A and channel B are identical There are also time and trigger controls that apply to both channels Channel A B separate controls ON OFF button Controls Whether this channel is currently displayed MEAS button If selected the frequency VRMS and Kip of the channel Will be displayed SOURCE pulldown menu The scope can actually use one of several inpuw from the breadboard They are selected from this menu VERTICAL dial Moves the display of the Waveform measured on either channel A or B up or down on the screen ZERO button Removes any vertical display offset made using the vertical dial SCALE dial and menu Controls the voltage scale of each channel The voltage displayed in the menu box is per each horizontal green line on the display COUPLING menu DC coupling displays the true signal With any DC offset Selecting AC coupling removes this DC offset on the display AUTOSCALE button The scope Will automatically select a voltage scale for this c annel 8 Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa Fall 2006 Controls that don t depend on channel TIMEBASE dial and menu Controls the time scale of the display The time displayed in the menu box is per each Vertical green line on the display TRIGGER controls The trigger controls what part ofthe waveform is placed at the le of the display and keeps the display in one place horizontally if it can nd what it is set to trigger on There is a menu for the source of the trigger a dial and for the Voltage leVel to trigger on an analogdigital selector and a button that tells whether to trigger on the upstroke or the downstroke of the waveform CURSOR controls The user can place two cursors on the display by toggling the ONOFF button The menus select whether each cursor is on channel A or B The cursors can be moved by using the mouse directly on the display Also measuremenw displayed directly below the scope display are from the Voltage Values and difference in time between the two cursors TIMEOUT IACQUIRED indicators The timeout indicator will light up ifthe signal is temporarily lost VI Function Generator NAHDNAL INSmuMms oduce simple Purpose pr sinusoidal square and triangle waveform Voltages 0quot E 5 Connections One singleended set of quotEMMY Waveforms holes on the lowerle side of the me quot2 breadboard It is assumed that the SEWE peanmnmde Dcoffset ground connection found elsewhere is Z used m J Operation The output of the function generator is between the FUNC70UT 3wa holes and ground There are manual controls on the front of the workstation They parallel the software controls but have less functionality mm Made iUltra ne v l ism Controls ON button 7 When pressed the function generator will continuously produce a signal 9 Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa Fall 2006 Frequency controls 7 The frequency range of the dial is set by the COARSE adjustment buttons The exact frequency is set by the FINE dial The frequency can also be directly changed using the box below the dial Waveform buttons 7 The button that is depressed determines whether the signal produced is a sinusoidal square or triangle wave Peak Amplitude knob 7 Controls the singlesided not peaktopeak amplitude e outpu DC Offset knob 7 Controls the offset voltage of the output waveform Frequency Sweep controls 7 The instrument can automatically sweep through several frequencies in a short time The start stop and step frequencies can be set The frequency sweep starts with the play button and ends when the stop frequency is reached or the stop button is pressed VII Variable Power Supplies l Purpose To produce two different DC voltages one between 15 and 0 volts and another between 0 and 15 volts MANU MANUAL SUPPLY SUPPLY mirage Voltage Wm 0m Connections 3 sets of holes on the lower left side of the breadboard The holes are Supply Supply and Ground Also there are manual controls on the front of the workstation Operation The outputs exist between either ground and Supply or ground and Supply on the breadboard There are manual controls that parallel the software controls with the same functionality The manual controls can be accessed separately for each supply Controls Voltage controls 7 The dials control the voltages of the two voltage supplies independently The voltages can also be set by typing the voltages into the boxes below the dials 10 Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa Fall 2006 VIII Bode Analyzer Purpose To analyze lter circuits to produce both gain vs frequency and phase vs frequency semilogarithmic bode plots NAnoNAt INSTRUMEle mngsi Frequenzv Hz tart FGEN mum um Peakkmphmde 5 an cw warm MD 7 l Pulantv l2 m Cuvsnrs E l Connections Uses analog channels 0 and 1 two sets of holes located at the topleft corner of the breadboard Operation The FUNCiOUT holes must be connected to ACHl as well as to the input of the circuit to analyze The output of the circuit must be connected to ACHO This is shown in the simple diagram below Input Output C1rcu1t ACHO Filter Controls Settings 7 The function generator output input to your circuit can be controlled using these settings Controls the frequency sweep start stop and number of steps as well as amplitude and whether or not the signal is inverted Display 7 Controls the Y scales of the phase and gain plots separately Decibels can be toggled on or off Also the user can display a set of cursors on the plots which can be moved by clicking directly on the display 11 Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa Fall 2006 IX Dynamic Siggal Analyzer Purpose To display the input signals in the frequency domain r NmoNAL Source Channel Viltggg Range 1m vi mm v l rn Settings Averzgmg Made Peak Hold v l Frequency 039 Dla um AVE lt Markevs Restart lj39El Stale linma vl Sam squ m mun nu l Connections Choose between one of eight sets of analog channels on the tople corner of the breadboard Operation Any voltage signal can be connected to an analog channel and analyzed with this instrument It will display the signal in the frequency domain as well as a smaller display in the time domain C ontrols Input Settings 7 Selects the source of the input as well as the range of voltages of the input signal FFT Settings 7 This instrument uses a Fast Fourier Transform algorithm to produce the frequency domain analysis of the input signal Control the frequency range and space between frequencies with these setti Averaging Settings 7 This instrument also averages the input signal using 39 ferent modes of averaging which can be selected Triggering Settings 7 Control the source voltage level and type of triggering used when measuring the input sign Frequency Display Settings 7 Control the units and type of magnitude displayed Also display markers on the plot or change the scale 12 Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits X Arbitrary Waveform Generator Purpose To produce arbitrary Voltage waveforms as designed by NI s waveform editor Connections The two sets ofanalog output holes labeled DACO and DACl on the lowerle side of the breadboard Operation The two output channels are between either DACO and ground or DACl and ground It is assumed that ground is found elsewhere In order to produce a waveform the user must rst be create a wdt le using NI s Waveform Editor There is a shortcut to this program just below the display Controls The University of Iowa v umnml msnwmms output Settings Update Rate ss mgger Source imam VI Fall 2006 thSton All IE Made E Disn l waveform Waveform Name a wt 5 men mama wig v I lt empty Waveform Name DISPLAY controls 7 In the lowerright corner of the display window Zoom in out and manipulate the axes of the current display OPEN FILE button 7 Once a wdt le is created it can be loaded into either output channel by rst opening it with the OPEN FILE button The box to the le shows which le is currently loaded The CLEAR button empties the loaded le GAIN box 7 The input waveform is scaled according to the Value in this box UPDATE RATE box 7 Adjusts how many points per second are produced TRIGGER SOURCE menu 7 Selects which source to trigger on MODE button 7 Toggles between repeating the output andjust running it once PLAYSTOP buttons 7 These buttons start and stop the instrument from actually on utting the waveforms on the two different channels produced at the same time or separately They can be Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits The University orowa Fall 2006 XI Dig tal Reader Purpose To read eight digital 39 Nmml inputs with either high or low values WWW Connections The eight holes labeled D1 0 through D1 7 located on the upper right side of the breadboard It is assumed that a ground connection found elsewhere is used displayed as hex above these eight indicators The instrument can take a single measurement or be set to read continuously XII Dig tal Writer Purpos To produce eight digital outputs as either 5V hi or 0V lo Connections The eight holes labeled DO 0 through DO 7 located at the top right comer of the breadboard It is assumed that a ground connection found Manualpmem 3 97 elsewhere is used 39 H mm UllUllUlilll Operations The eight blue indicators DD 7 5 3 24 D d numeric value are the same as in digital reader They correspond to the Kmquot mama eight digital outputs 2 Left mm i HELP Controls WRITE button 7 Starts and stops the instrument s output MODE button 7 Toggles between repeating the output and just running it once PATTERN menu 7 Selecm manual or automatic pattern production MANUAL PATTERN switches 7 These eight switches correspond to the eight outputs in manual pattern selection ACTION controls 7 Pressing each of these three buttons manipulates the current attem in three different ways The direction switch toggles between moving the pattern to the left or right when ROTATE or SHIFT is pressed 14 Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa X ml edance Analxzer Purpose To analyze the full impedance resistance and 39iw tttt rhm reactance of an element or a simple circuit Connections Uses either the Current HiLo holes on the owerle s1 0 e breadboard or the same banana us on the front f the breadboar Operation Connect one or more simple elements using the breadboard but do not connect th ground Connect to Current Hi to one side of this 39 5 quot95 42733 simple circuit and Current Lo Em 2 o the other The total impedance is displayed in both polar and complex forms 2 Magmnidczphdsc R jX Controls Fall 2006 DISPLAY setting 7 The VISIBLE SECTION controls cycle through the between linear andlogan39thmic scales MIA REMENT FREQUENCY box 7 Remember that the reactance is combination of the capacitance andor inductance values and th frequency of the currentvoltage in the circuit The frequency used to th analyze e current simple circuit can be changed in this box RUN button 7 Toggles between taking a single measurement and measuring 39 1 con muons y 15 Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa Fall 2006 XIV TwoWire CurrentVoltage Analyzer Purpose To analyze mnom Lh msnwmm e currentvoltage vume sweep v characteristic of a two terminal element or simple circuit Current mm mm Connections Uses either the Current Hi o holes on the lowerleft side of the breadboard or the same banana plugs on the front of the breadboard V v v Autnsale MEDDW Cursur Pnsman HELP 7 Operation Connect Current Hi to one side of the element or simple circuit and Current Lo to the other The instrument sweeps through several voltages and measures the current for each C ontrols VOLTAGE SWEEP settings 7 Control the start stop and step values of the voltages applied by the instrument CURRENT LIMITS settings 7 Set the cut off limits for measuring current There is a maximum amplitude that the instrument can handle and it won t let the user set the CURRENT LIMITS higher than this RUN button 7 Starts the instrument s analysis of the current circuit LOG button 7 Creates a text file with current plot information DISPLAY settings 7 Toggle the autoscale function of the instrument and the linear semilog or logarithmic plots available Also a cursor can be displayed and manipulated on the plot 16 Author Colbin Erdahl 55041 Electronic Circuits The University of Iowa Fall 2006 XV ThreeWire CurrentVoltage Analyzer To analyze currentvoltage characteristic of a three terminal device or simple Base Current 1b Settings NATIONAL INmUMMS Purpose th Water 37 circuit EEEi 52157 law lv lam v mm Connections Uses the data Current Hi Current Lo Caugmmmmmimm Slum and 3Wire holes on the lowerleft side of the quotquot 9 breadboard 39v v Autusmle MEDDWQ anmge mrrent Operation Connect the device as shown in the H Cursor pmquot lowerleft corner B C E V gt l and E nodes are G D and I man L43 S in MOSFETs The instrument sweeps through collector voltages for a number of base currents and measures the collector current Each base current lends a different colored curve on the plot Controls BASE CURRENT settings 7 Control the base current applied to the circuit with start step and number of currents COLLECTOR VOLTAGE settings 7 Control the collector voltage sweeps with start stop and step values Also controls the limit to the output collector current There is a maximum current allowed by the instrument RUN button 7 Starts the instrum ent s analysis of the current circuit LOG button 7 Creates a text file with current plot information DISPLAY settings 7 Toggle the autoscale function of the instrument and the linear semilog or logarithmic plots available Also a cursor can be displayed and manipulated on the plot Author Colbin Erdahl
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