INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY
INTRO TO PHILOSOPHY PHIL 120
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristoffer Bahringer on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 120 at Western Kentucky University taught by Michael Seidler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/216690/phil-120-western-kentucky-university in PHIL-Philosophy at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Jenna Woosley Phil 120 101409 Sartre Existentialism Actions are intentional intentional realization of conscious Does not mean that one must foresee all consequences From first conception of an action consciousness has been able to withdraw 1 No factual state can motivate any act whatsoever a Because act projection of foritself toward what is not and cannot be determined by itself what 39 t is no 2 No factual state can determine consciousness to apprehend it as a n gatit a Negatit Sartre s term for human experiences and action which involve an idea of nonbeing or negation Sartre looks beyond causeintentionactend s ask how a cause can be constituted as such No act without a cause 9 no phenomenon without cause Human reality tries to refuse to recognize its freedom People want to be told what to do because it s easier Quote 0 Man cannot be a slave amp free Humanreality is free because it s not enough rue freedom is not complete Term Plenum Fullness Quotes 0 Man is free because he is not himself but a presence to himself 0 Freedom is precisely the nothingness which is maderobe ls man condemned to be free Man is responsible for the whole world everything 0 Meaning ITS YOUR FAULT 0 Your actions define who you are 0 This is based on self not on failure and success No excuses 0 You cannot blame who you go to for advice You choose who you as You choose whether or not you use the advice Example Abraham and Isaac Where does guilty come in Sartre would say if you feel guilty then change your views Leaves man with feelings of l Anguish the weight of having to choose 2 Abandonment we re alone we make choices alone 3 Condiment we have no choice about our freedom we must choose 4 Forlorn miserable about freedom due to previously mentioned No accidents in life Accidents are things that just happen Rather everything is chosen by us There is always a way out Suicide Facticity Giveness ofthings in the world 0 Example Why was I born with my body etc Jenna Woosley Phil 120 93009 Freedom Types of Freedom a Political Freedom liberty b Metaphysical nonnecessity i Ability to choose on our own ii Undetermined metaphysically free vs Determined iii Meta hysical has an impact on a person s Level of responsibility Level of accountability Level of praiseblame Level of rewardpunishment VVVVV Notjust legal also personalinterpersonal religious and morality ll Basic Positions on Metaphysical State a Hard Determinism i Everything including choices actions and wills is determined ii No freedom Even if you think that you are free you aren t iii Somewhat like the Evil Genius Theory by Descartes b lndeterminism i Some or all ofa person s life is controlled by luck or chance accident ii Is this freedom gt No freedom is having some control over your life gt lndeterminism life is controlled outside of your power c Libertarianism i We are totally free and undetermined ii We are responsible for everything we do gt Opposite of Hard Determined d Compatiblism Soft Determinism i Meaning determined and libertarian are compatible gt A bothand position gt Hence Soft ii Room for free choice and action lll Thoughts a The your past suggests that your future is predetermined b Past determines future future effects present c How long is the present when you take into account how big the past and future are Leibniz For as a lesser evil is a kind of goof even so a lesser good is a kind of evil if it stands in the way ofa greater good Fortunate Mistake A little acid sharpness or bitterness is often more pleasing than sugar shadows enhance colours and even a dissonance in the right place gives relief to harmony Evil is the spice of life We do not need too much ofa good thing Leibniz writes That we only pay attention to evil we have a xation on it and ignore all the good in the world There is a quantity of Good amp Evil for the entire Universe 0 Contributes to the perfection of the whole Why Leibniz is Different 1 Concept of God s Understanding 7 for seeing 2 Concept of God s Will 7 for choosing The world everything is interconnected 1 Time beginning to end 2 Space entire Universe This world has a numerical identity individuality 0 Numerical Identity A function of Qualitative Considerations I Speci c featurescomponents I Everything in the Universe is essential to it s identity 0 There are other possible Universes o Universe sum total of everything 0 Everything effects everything else even the smallest things Precreation God Decides to create the best overall 1 God s Understanding Sees an in nite number of possible worlds 2 God s Will 1 Antecedent Will before I Looks at everything amp wants the good for each individual thing I Focused on particulars I God wants no suffering 0 Example the Lion and the Antelope I Can he create a world like this NO 2 Consequent Will I Collective will I Sum of all the competing antecedent wills I Necessary selective 7 exclusive I Constraints on Antecedent will 7 Compossibility 0 God can t create antecedent world because of the rules oflogic There is a structure in the Universe due to interconnectedness o Separately things could be perfect amp good but this is not possible Question SO which world does God create Answer the relative best God wants us to be happy therefore he cannot be blamed for evil because he creates the best He is morally obligated to create the best possible worlds Kind of a Stephen King Pet Cemetery type idea on why people can t just live forever Very Circle of Life philosophy Blackburn Heart Deterrninism and Indeterrninism 0 Quantum physics 9 his point being everything is predictable 0 Just because we aren t aware we are still being in uenced Dualism Body Mind amp Indeterrninism Ghost in the Machine I Assuming that free actionschoices are what happens when the Ghost is in control of the machine body amp mind I How can we know that the Ghost is acting freely I Problem with dualism just puts another unknown variable the soul into the mix of already building questions about free will I IF we cannot understand how human beings are free we cannot understand how such a homunculus can be free either 0 Homunculus 7 a kind of ethereal little human being It takes in deliberates wants various things is swayed or in uenced or guided by different pieces of information and then causes and actionchoice I The physical system is a closed system needing physical cause to produce a physical effect Fatalism MLast section ofthe reading The idea of Fate Running from Fate will only bring it about I Self ful lling prophecy Compatiblist Position I Compatiblist De nition subject acted freely if they could have done otherwise in the right sense Subject could have done otherwise in this sense provided they would have done otherwise i she had chosen differently o InterventionistLibertarian I If something cannot control the future because it cannot control the way the past controls the future I BUT ifthe something is a part of the way in which the past controls the present amp future 7 it w control the future 0 This is Causal Order inside control 0 Causal routines in the process ofthinking amp acting page 91 I No control example drowning Independent Causal Routine WillyNilly whether you will it or not I Control example going to a restauran 0 COME UP WITH YOUR OWN EXAMPLE I Dependant Causal Routine I HOW is this an issue It is more ofa dismissal of freedom Model 9 Modules of the Brain page 92 Scanner Gathers information Senses brains minds memory emotional preferences Tree Producer Delivers options for behavior based on scanner Generates different possibilities Evaluator Ranks options in terms of built in programmed acquired parametersconcems Producer Fixes on the best option and outputs neural signals to deliver Where s the Freedom I In exibility amp variability of the system I The better you are at scanning the more options you have 0 People who have more experience are better scanners o In uences on people are actually making us freer I More options I Better evaluating THEREFORE Freedom amp Deterrninism go hand in hand In uences determinism gives us more options for choices Jenna Woosley Phil 120 Pierre Laplace W l Laplace a 1749 1827 b French 0 Mathematician Search for Order a For an algorithmformula to life b Laplace looks at the Universe as a machine All parts are interrelated i Laws descried the workings of everything These allow you to predict the UniverseFuture Leaves no room for chance No freedom Chance amp Freedom only ignorance makes us assume these 10509 gt Chance Can happen anytime NO ORDER gt Choice Choose when it happens SELECTION gt Necessity it must happen IRONCLAD ORDER III norance of Re ularMechanical Laws of Nature a Final Causes i Because of this they assumed arbitrary laws of nature Arbitrary V llful divine beings Example Greek Gods and their mythology Purpose b Material Causes i You look at the regularities of events ii Creates a Completely predictable universe No Purpose N Parts and Laws a Laws i Describe the interaction of parts ii Descriptions are mathematical formulations which point out regularities Algorithms Observed regularities involve casual relationships Casual relationships are a sequence of life events gt X 9 Y Casual relationships relationships of in uence Laplace sees the Universe in this manner and believed there wereare no exceptions V Principle of Sufficient Reason a No Exceptions rule b There is a reason or cause to why everything happens i When ii How c There are no uncaused events or happenings d Universe is graspablecomprehensible by reason i It makes sensequot has an explanation VI Re39ection of Freedom of Indifference a Indifference means actionschoices are not related to anything b Indifference regarding how freedom is exercised c Parts ofthe universe are material physical Psychological social i Example Burdan s Ass ii Hungry Ass and two identical bales of hay iii The donkey will starve to death iv Fatal equilibrium v Relevance to Laplace Burdan s Ass is a negative example lfthe world were actually like his example then there would be no life d There are differences causesspecific events e Some people use dualism as escape i Dualism body physical Soul spiritual nonphysical Arguments for God 1 Argument one 2 Miracles a A violation of the laws of nature as we know them b ISSUE All religions have miracles i So who is right c Expectations are different for miracles i Miracles are personal and hard to prove I Usually based on testimony 2 Could be exaggeratedmistaken 3 Moral Values a Absolute Values need an Absolute unchanging Foundation b God is the absolute foundation of moral values c ISSUES i Maybe there are no moral values ii Maybe there are other foundations for moral values 1 like human decency 4 Ontological Argument a St Anselm Descartes Leibniz amp Hartshome b Based on the concept of God i God is the greatest conceivable being A being greater then which none can be conceived a Meaning such a being cannot NOT exist 2 To say a perfect being might not exist is saying that this perfect being isn t perfect a Perfection of necessary existence c ISSUE critics say this is simply a play on words 5 Teleological ArgumentIntelligent Design a Argument from design amp order of the Universe b Reveals the world has a certain purpose i Examples acorns amp squirrels ii Human nose c Fittedness of means to end d Goals are reached through means adapted to get to them e There must be a designer because there is too much to the design 6 Cosmological Argument a Aquinas Thomas of Aquino b Based on the sheer existence of the Universe i Why is there something rather then nothing ii Answer God 1 God created iii everything c Three Ways i Argument from Motions l something cannot be both potentially and actually in motion at once therefore the starting force must be God a Locomotion b Qualitative Change ii Argument from effrcient causality 1 If any one cause is taken away there will be no effect 2 But if the series of ef cient causes stretches back ad infinitum there will be no rst efficient causes which is patently not the case iii Argument from necessity amp contingency Hume s Objections to I Objection One a Not a strong enough Analogy i Leafplant because ofinner workings plants must be like animals amp Humans ii Based a conclusion on similarity Analogies can be wrong c The Universe is disorganized compared to watches amp houses i Watches amp Houses are human fabrication external ef cient causes ii Universe is Spontaneous therefore making it different 1 Apples to Oranges d Adjustment of means to ends i House 7 has stairs means to second oor end 1 7 Design amp purposiveness ii Universe 7 Legs means to Walk end ii39 Stairs are the way they are so that one can ascend to the next oor iv Legs are the way they are so that living things that have them can move 1 SO THAT 7 Purpose Clause in order that a 7 Result Clause as a resultconsequence 2 Result Clause refuses to put a purpose on things v Result Clause undoes the Purpose Clause II Objection Two a Other Possible Explanations for Adjustments i Natural Explanations b Human Intelligence is merely one explanation for the adjustments for means to ends i Example beaks of different birds c To suggest intelligence that is behind the adjustments is the extrapolation of one sort of explanation to the whole Universe i Meaning human intelligence number one d What gives us the right toput this means to explain everything i Over Extension Intelligence is not the only way order can be produced Other Explanations of OrderDesign on Universe i Theory of Evolution 1 Leaves room for Randomness amp Chance 2 Increasingly Better Fit between organism amp environment Gradual better II Transitional life forms missing links b Relationships appear to be designed ST 339 3 Adapted animals have advantage forward thrust that keeps evolution going a Some organisms can be well adapted amp suddenly a trait can become useless I Example Dinosaurs 4 DisorderNon order 9 Greater Order less 9 more a Gradual adjustment of means to ends 5 Design explanation disagrees Order 9 Order more 9 less I Basic Idea of Evolution 1 Living things inherit characteristics from their parents 2 Inheritance involves variation a Variation among Kind b Variation among Kin 3 Limitation of resources 4 Competition for resources 5 Selection a Survival of the Fittest i Best adapted to a given environment III Objection Three a The supposed design of a world is a singular event i YET causeeffect relationships are identi ed through repeated experience 1 to say one thing causes another we must see the event repeatedly ii Without experience you do not know what leads to what iii Design of the world is something that was notcannot be experienced 1 HUGE PERSUMPTION IV Objection Four a Arguments prove too much or too little b Too Much i If the argument wishes to prove a perfect God 1 There is an insuf cient bases for such a conclusion 2 Imperfect world 7E perfect designer ii You do not need an in nite God for a nite world Not enough evidence c Too Little i Imperfect God leaves room for want V Objection Five a There is evidence of serious aws in the world and these are inconsistent with a perfect designer i Multiformed aws b PROBLEM OF EVIL i Religion gives resources to deal with evil ii But it is also challenged by evil 1 If God is omnipotent then he can eliminate evil 2 If God is onmibevolent then he wantsto eliminate evil 3 If God is omniscient then he knows how to eliminate evil c Knows How knowledge 4 God is all of these by de nitions 5 Then WHY is there evil in the world Explanations of Adaptation in the World I Traditional Creationism a Book of Genius literal truth II Intelligent Design Creationism a The structure amp development of the world over time is the handy work of a designer b No need of Genius c Acknowledge Evolution but maintain the changes as they occur are individual part of a divine plan III Theory of Evolution a Simple 9 CompleX b There is a role for randomness amp chance unlike other eXplanations IV Theistic Evolution a There is a creator but the creator uses evolution to create b Deistic View 0 Contemporary Compromise Jenna Woosley Phil 120 110609 I God Religion and Evil A Faith amp Reason 3920 Faith 2 simple acceptance 2 Cause 2 Reason 2 Cognitive Struggle 2 Reason 1 Causes for BeliefFaith a Influences 1 A person s beliefs are controlled by how they were brought up as a child 2 Reasons for BeliefFaith a Consideration of Alternatives b Consideration of Pros amp Cons C Merits of Position 3920 Once we become aware of options we have to have a reason for our Religious Choice 0 Burden of Deciding o Is there a God amp can we prove it 39239 Pantheism 0 Pan all Theism God God everything Nature 0 O O o Spinoze Jenna Woosley Phil 120 110609 I God Religion and Evil A Faith amp Reason 3920 Faith 2 simple acceptance 2 Cause 2 Reason 2 Cognitive Struggle 2 Reason 1 Causes for BeliefFaith a Influences 1 A person s beliefs are controlled by how they were brought up as a child 2 Reasons for BeliefFaith a Consideration of Alternatives b Consideration of Pros amp Cons C Merits of Position 3920 Once we become aware of options we have to have a reason for our Religious Choice 0 Burden of Deciding o Is there a God amp can we prove it 39239 Pantheism 0 Pan all Theism God God everything Nature 0 O O o Spinoze JennaWoosley Phil 120 10209 St Augustine Freedom amp Divine Foreknowledge St Augustine Son of St Monica Saint Sanctus Holy 354 430 AD Unsettled Time Period Augustine started out as an nonChristian i Dabbled in Manicheans ii Then later converted f Compatiblist ll Confessions a One ofAugustine s writings which mention his conversion the idea of Time is written in this particular writing Augustine became a Christian with a vengeance meaning lived the rest of his life as a very active Christian Ill The City of God 413 426 a Written while battle of heretics was going on in Rome b The City of God V8 The City of Man i Martin Luther was greatly influences by Augustine 0 Debate of God s Foreknowledge and it s impact on human freedom i If God foresees my choicesactions those choicesactions will truly happen Then are they free choicesactions IV Debate with Cicero Cicero orator senator writer a Wrote on free will he argues against divine foreknowledge Divination prophesying b Prophesies are ambiguous with a vague meaning i Sooth Sayers 0 Reasons Why i Divine Foreknowledge is incompatible with human freedom Therefore you are not responsible for actions Which leads to a social break down d Cicero condemns divine foreknowledge because ofthe consequences ofthe idea V Augustine s Refute of Cicero a God Must foreknowledge the future because he is perfect b Augustine says Cicero is impious and he is insulting God 0 Augustine says God s foreknowledge is compatible with human freedom i How Because human choice free choice is part ofwhat God foresees God s foresight doesn t make us do things itjust mean that we will choose to do it ii How can this solution work onpm Vl How to Foresees Free Acts a Extrapolation of the future from the past i Deduction ii God knows the past and the present so it is easy to predict the future iii PROBLEM seems to make free acts deducible b God s View from No Where Timeless Perspective i He is not hindered by the dimension of time He can view it wholly all together from beginning to end at once ii PROBLEM What does it mean to be out of time What does it mean to say God is no where ii PROBLEM Free acts seem to be unrelated to anything else Pop up actions iv PROBLEM What about God s own free acts providence Are they also foreseen Defense of God Reconcile God s Nature as a perfect being with the existence of evil Theodicists 9 justify God s behavior Theo God Dice Justice Kinds of Evil 1 Metaphysical Evil Imperfection 2 Physical Evil Suffering 3 Moral Evil sin immorality evil Theodicy Arguments 1 Big Plan 7 Eventual Resolution Compensation a Components aren t always goo b Everything is contributing to good though c Idea of heaven 2 Punishment 7 a People suffer because they sin b Maybe you aren t the sinner but you are being punished for your ancestor s actions c Original Sin of AdamEve 1 Why am I being punished for Adam s Actions ii Represents that deep routed evil within man 1 What about Children 3 Character Building 7 a Makes a person stronger and more morally developed 1 Suffering doesn t always build character 2 Starving Children 4 Contrast 7 a Deals with knowledge amp desire b Must have both in the world i Without evil we would not know good ii Without evil we would not do good c Why does the difference have to be so vast 5 The Forces of Evil 7 a Who created the Devil b Who s really in charge c God stands by while his creation tortures us 6 Test 7 a Evil is not wanton purpose to challenge us to succeed b Most people Fail these tests 39 How can something created with aws be eXpected to pass such a test People are sometimes born into bad situations and aren t properly prepared for the tests iii Bottom line Not Fair H i gt1 Limits of Human Knowledge 7 a Appeals only to deisms b Shrugs of the challenge 8 Good Outcome 7 a This world may suck but in the neXt we will be rewarded b Why do we have to go through immense torture to get to heaven c If heaven is an equalizer unfairness of levels of suffering on earth 9 Higher Morality 7 a Fairness b Why should it be respected 10 Evil Isn t Real 7 a Just a perception of things b BUT evil IS real 11 Gift of Free Will 7 a God gave humans free will amp humans use freedom to choose their morals b Human s freely bring about evil c Gift that is deadly compare free will with the Trojan horse d God cannot be blamed for evil i If you know what is going to happen then aren t you responsible for it ii Using people for unfair purpose
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