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by: Hudson Stamm


Hudson Stamm
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Hideko Norman

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Hideko Norman
Class Notes
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hudson Stamm on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 199 at Western Kentucky University taught by Hideko Norman in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/216708/psy-199-western-kentucky-university in Psychlogy at Western Kentucky University.




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Date Created: 09/30/15
Jenna Woosley PSY 19 Chapter 8 Emotional and Social Development in Early Childhood Article Erikson s Theory Initiative vs Guilt i As the word initiative suggests young children have a new sense of purposefulness They are eager to tackle new tasks join in activities with peers and discover what they can do with the help of adults They also make strides in conscience development b Selfunderstanding lselfamp Meself I Selfconcept a The sets of attributes abilities attitudes and values that an individual believes de ne who he or she is 2 Selfesteem a The judgments we make about our own worth and the feelings associated with those judgments Article II Peer Relations i As children become increasingly selfaware and better at communicating and understanding the thoughts and feelings of others their skill at interacting with peers improves b Advances in Peer Sociability I Nonsocial activity a Unoccupied onlooker behavior and solitary play 2 Parallel play a A form of limited social participation in which the child plays near other children with similar materials but does not interact with them 3 Associative play a A form oftrue social participation in which children are engaged in separate activities but they interact by exchanging toys and comment on one another s behavior 4 Cooperative play a A form oftrue social participation in which children s actions are directed toward a common goaL Jenna Woosley PSY Chapter 9 39239 Physical Development 612 years Body Growth 0 Slow regular rate The lower part ofthe body grows the fastest 0 Middle childhood ibones lengthen amp broaden o Ligaments aren t rmly attached amp increasing muscle strength exibility 0 Growing Pains I Teeth amp Hair loss is replaced by permanent ones 0 Common Health Problems 39 Myopia near sightedness affects 25 of children 39 alnutrition 39 Obesity 39 Unintentional Injuries 0 Motor Development 39 Gross Motor Development 0 Flexibility ce 0 Agility o orce 39 Fine Motor Development 39239 Cogaitive Development 0 Piagget s Theogy 39 Concrete Operational Stage 0 Extends from 711 39 39 39 39 0 Thought is far more logical exible and organized than it was earlier I Achievements 0 Conservation 0 Ability to pass conservation tasks provides clear evidence of operations 0 Mental actions that obey logical ru es 39 Decentration ocusing on several aspects of a problem amp relating them 39 Reversibility 0 Capacity to think through a series of steps and then mentally reverse directions retuming to the var starting porn 0 Classification 710 years an incluxion problem amp can focus on relations between a general category amp two specific categories at the same time 0 Spatial Reasoning I 39 39 of familiar p o Seriation 0 Ability to order items along a quantitative dimension such as length amp weight 39 Transitive Inference I Limitations 0 Lack of Abstract thinking 0 Horizontal Decalage 39 Information Processing I Capacity amp Speed I Inhibition Cognitive I Attention o AttentionDeficit Hyperactive Disorder ADHD 39 Inan ion irnpulsivity and excessive motor activity resulting in academic and social problems I Memory Strategies s a 39 Repeating to self 0 Organization 39 Relating items together 0 Elaboration 39 Creating a relationship between tow or more pieces of information that are not members of the same category I Language Development 0 Vocabulary 0 Grammar o Pragmatics 7 communicative side oflanguage I Learning in School 0 TeacherStudent Interaction 39 Educational SelfFulfilling Prophecy 7 children may adopt teacher s positive or negative views and start to live up to them 0 Teaching Children w LeamingDisabilities 39 Dyslexia Jenna Woosley PSY 19 Chapter 7 Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood A Physical Development i Body Growth 1 Children grow more slowly in early childhood than they did in first 2 years 2 cf General growth curve 7 rapid growth during infancy slower gains in early and middle childhood and rapid growth again during adolescence Body size and a variety of internal organs follow the general growth curve ii Brain Development 1 Between ages 2 amp 6 years the brain increases from 70 to 90 of its adult weight 2 As formation of synapses myelination cell death and smaptic pruning occur preschoolers improve in a wide variety of skills 7 physical coordination perception attention memory language logical thinking and imagination 3 Frontal lobe areas of brain 7 devoted to planning and organizing behavior grow rapidly from 3 to 6 years of age For most children the left cerebral hemisphere where language centers locate is especially active between 36 years and then level off b In uence on Physical Growth and Health i Heredi amp Hormones a Genes in uence growth by controlling the body s production of hormones 2 Growth Hormone GH a A pituitary hormone that from birth on is necessary for development of all body tissues except the central nervous system and genitals ii ThyroidStimulating Hormone TSH a A pituitary hormone that stimulates the thyroid gland to release thyroxin which is necessary for brain development and for GH to have its full impact on body size Emotional WellBeing a Preschoolers with very stressful home lives suffer more respiratory and intestinal illnesses and more unintentional injuries than others b Extreme emotional depravation can interfere with the production of GH and lead to psychological dwarfism aka deprivation dwarfism iv Infectious Disease 1 Infectious Disease amp Malnutrition a Poor diet depresses the body s immune system making malnutrition children for more susceptible to disease b Disease in turn is a major cause of malnutrition hindering both physical and cognitive development 2 Immunization a In industrialized nations widespread immunization of infants and young children has let do a dramatic decline in childhood diseases during the past halfcentury b Among American preschoolers 24 are not fully immunized a rate that rises to 40 for povertystricken children ii39 0 Motor Development i Gross Motor Development 1 Less topheavy now 9 Balance improves 9 running jumping etc ii Fine Motor Development Selfhelp skills a Young children gradually become selfsufficient at dressing and feeding a Example drawing amp painting b Scribbles9 first representational forms9more realistic drawings B Cogpitive Development a Piagnet s Theory the P 39 39 Stage Advances in mental representation a Mentalrepresentations 7 internal depictions of information that the mind can manipu ate i Example images amp concepts i Language Development 1 Piagnet however didn t believe that language plays a major role in cognitive development ii Development of MakeBelieve Play 1 Piagnet believed that through pretending young children practice and strengthen newly acquired representational schemes a Makebelieve play with deferred imitation i Example child playing doctor with doll b Makebelieve playsociodramatic play i Allows children to combine schemes with those of peers developing a sophisticated understanding of story lines c Benefits of makebelieve play i Many studies reveal that makebelieve strengthens a wide variety of mental abilities attention memory logical reasoning language etc b Limitations of Preoperational Thoughts i Egocentrism l Inability to distinguish between one s own perspective and someone else s a Example I can t see you so you can t see me 2 Animistic Thinking or animism a Tendency to attribute life obj ects that are not alive 7 Failure to distinguish the appropriate occasions for using human and non human perspective ii Inabili to Conserve 1 Conservation understanding that certain physical characteristics of obj ects remain the same even when their outward appearance changes a Example number of pizza slices 7 more slices more pizza c Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theog l Stresses the social context of cognitive development 2 Children participate in social dialogues with more knowledgeable individuals who encourage them to master culturally important tasks ii Private Speech 1 Selfdirected speech that children often use to plan and guide their own behavior a The amount of private speech depends on the difficult of the task iii Zone of Proximal Development ZPD 1 Scaffolding a Adjusting support offered during a teaching session to fit the child s current level of performance 1 Information Processing 1 Attention l Steady gain in children s ability to inhibit impulses and keep their mind on a competing goal ii Memo 1 Recognition amp Recall a Ability to tell Whether a stimulus is the similar to one the child has seen before b Memory Strategies deliberate mental activities that improve our chances of remembering 2 Memog for Familiar Events a Scripts a general description of What occurs and then it occurs in a particular situation b Basic means through which children organize and interpret everyday experiences c Once formed they are used to predict What will happen in the uture 3 Memog for OneTime events a Autobiographical Memog representations of personally meaningful onetime events Elaborative S le asking varied questions add information to children s statements and volunteer their own recollections and evaluations of events i Children who experience elaborate dialogues produce more organized and detailed personal stories c Repetitive S le providing little information and ask the same shortanswer questions over and over e Language Development i Vocabula 1 FastMapping a Connecting new words with their underlying concepts after only a brief encounter b Leads to the development of mutual exclusivi bia 7 they assume that words refer to entirely separate nonoverlapping categories ST ii Grammar 1 Overregularization a Children sometimes overextend the rules to words that are exceptions Jenna Woosley PSY 19 92909 Chapter 5 Cognitive development in Infancy amp Toddler hood A Piaget s Cognitive Development Theog a Piaget s idea about cognitive change Children are active thinkers b Scheme schema a speci c structure or organized way of making sense of experience that changes with age Two processes account for changed in the scheme adaptation amp organization i Example baby s sucking to discover scheme ii Adaptation the process of building scheme through direct interaction with the environment Made up of two processes assimilation amp accommodation Assimilation use of current scheme to interpret the external world i Example sucking scheme is used to identify if new item is suckable 2 Accommodation children create new schemes of modify old ones after noticing that their current ways of thinking do not t the environment completely i Example Dag Scheme vs New pig Scheme iii Organization the internal rearrangement and linking together of schemes so that they form a strongly interconnected cognitive system B The Sensorimotor Stage a Sensorimotor Stage Infants build schemes through circular reactions in which infants try to repeat a chance event caused by their own motor activity The reaction is circular because as the infant tries to repeat the event again and again a sensorimotor response that rst occurred by chance becomes strengthened into a new scheme b Sensorimotor Substages table 51 i Re exive Scheme birth 1 month active exercise and reinforcement of inborn re exes ii Primary Circular Reactions 1 7 4 months repetition of interesting acts centered on one s own body iii Seconda Circular Reactions 4 7 8 months action gets a response from another person or object leading to baby s repeating original action iv Coordination of Seconda Circular Reactions 8 7 12 months behavior is more deliberate and purposeful as infants coordinate previously learned schemes such as looking at and grasping a rattle and use previously learned behaviors to attain their goals such as crawling across the room to get a desired toy 1 They can nd hidden object in rst location in which it is hidden object permanence 2 Object Permanence the understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight a Out of sight out of mind before an understanding of object permanence begins b They can engage in intentional or goaldirected behavior coordinating schemes deliberately to solve simple problems starting an understanding of object permanence v Tertia Circular Reactions 12 7 18 months exploration of the properties of obj ects by acting on them in novel ways 1 Ability to search in several locations for a hidden object vi Mental Representation 18 7 24 months substage 6 brings the ability to create mental representations 7 internal depictions of information that the mind can manipulate The most powerful mental representations are images mental pictures of objects people and spaces and concepts categories in which similar objects or events are grouped together 1 Because of the development of mental representations 18 to 24montholds can 0 a Invisible Displacement ability to nd hidden objects b Deferred Imitation ability to remember and copy behavior of models that are not present c MakeBelieve Play type of play in which children pretend acting out everyday and imaginary activities 2 ViolationofeXpectation method a Object permanence i Piaget 7 8 months or older ii Even 45monthsold infants started longer at the impossible event than at the possible event C Information Processing a b Attention newborns can pay attention to one stimulus but it is hard for them to shift attention i Infants attend to novel amp eyecatching events during the rst year ii Then toddler s sustained attention improves especially when they play with toys Memog i How long can a baby remember 1 Operant conditioning task a 2 to 3 month olds 7 1 week b 6montholds 7 2 weeks 2 Habituation task a Novelty preference b Familiarity preference i Face andlotion experiment models blowing bubbles as well as brushing teeth and hair ii Measuring Memog Recognition requires children to select previously learned information from an array of options 2 Recall requires children to reproduce information on their own without any cues a Habituation happens when a child can tell or recognize that a new stimulus is identical or similar to a pervious one D Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theog E Fquot Vygotsky believed that through joint activities with more mature members of their society children come to master activities and think in ways that have meaning in their culture Zone of Proximal Development ZPD i Vygotsky s theory a range of tasks that the child can not yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners 1 Upper Limit level of additional responsibility child can accept with assistance of an able instructor 2 Lower Limit level of problem solving reached on these tasks by child working alone E Language Development a Getting Ready to Start Talking i Cooing vowellike noises make by infants beginning around 2 months of age i Example 0000 ii Babbling repetition of consonantvowel combinations in long strings beginning around 4 months of age i Example Bababababa b First Words i Around 12 months of age toddlers say their first recognizable words ii Under Extension when toddlers first learn words they sometimes apply them too narrowly i Example child s de nition of mam only applying to their mother iii Over Extension when toddlers often apply a word to a wider collection of objects and events that is appropriate i Example using car to identify all vehicles c Twoword utterance phase i Telegraphic speech when vocabulary increases and approaches 200 words about 2 years old toddlers start to combine two words ii There twoword utterances are called telegraphic speech because they leave out smaller and less important words like a telegram F Individual Differences in language learning a Referential Style some toddlers produce many words that refer to objects They use language mainly to name things b Expressive Style some toddlers frequently produce pronouns and social formulas such as stop it thank you and byebye They use language mainly to talk about the feelings and needs to themselves and other people G Supporting earlv 39 development a Adults in many cultures speak to young children in childdirect speech i Creating Zone of Proximal Development H Theories of development a Navtist Perspective Noam Chomsky 7 Nature i All children are born with a language acquisition device LAD and innate system that contains a set of rules common to all languages It permits children no matter which language they hear to understand and speak in a ruleoriented fashion as soon as they pick up enough words b Behavior Perspective BF Skinner 7 Nurture i Language is acquired through operant conditioning c Interactionist Perspective 7 Nature amp Nurture Jenna Woosley PSY 19 Chapter 6 Emotional amp Social development in infancy and toddler hood A Erikson s theory of infancy and toddler personality a Trust vs Mistrust birth 7 one year i From warm responsive care infants gain a sense of trust or confidence that the world to good ii Mistrust occurs when infants have to wait too long for comfort and are handled harshly iii First Stage b Autonomy vs Shame amp Doubt one 7 three years i Using new mental and motor skills children want to choose and decide for themselves ii Autonomy is fostered when parents permit reasonable free choice and do not force or shame the child iii Second stage B Emotional Development i Basic Emotions Happiness interest surprise fear anger sadness and disgust 7 are universal in humans and other primates have a long evolutionary history of promoting survival and can be directly inferred from facial expressions Social Smile a Between 6 and 10 weeks the human face evokes a broad grin 3 Stranger Anxiety a Most frequent expression of fear is to unfamiliar adults 4 Separation Anxiegg a Babies sometimes become upset when their adult leaves the room 5 Secure Base a Point from which explore venturing into the environment and then returning for emotional support b I 39 quot and quot to the Emotions of Others i Social Referencing 1 They actively seek emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation c Emergence of SelfConscious Emotions i SelfConscious Emotions l Emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self Examples are shame embarrassment guilt envy and pride C Development of Attachment i Attachment 1 The strong affectionate tie we have with special people in out lives that lead us to feel pleasure when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress 2 By second half of the first year infants have become attached to familiar adults how have responded to their needs b Harrow s Surrogate mother experiment i Monkey and towel vs wire fake mother ii Infants become attached to family members who seldom feed them c Ethological Theog of Attachment Bowlby i Attachment bonds can best be understood in an evolutionary context in which survival of the species 7 through ensuring both safety and competence 7 is of utmost importance ii Promotes survival iii Is the most widely accepted view 1 Preattachm ent Phase 7 birth to six weeks 2 Attachmentinthemaking phase 7 six weeks to 68 months 3 Clearcut phas 7 68 months to 18 months2 years a Separation anxie 4 Formation of reciprocal relationship 7 18 months2 years a Internal working model set of expectations about the availability of attachment figures and their likelihood of providing support during times of stress The internal working model becomes a vital part of personality serving as a guide for all future close relationships 19 d Ainsworth 39 Strange Situation 1 1 lt A laboratory procedure involving short separations from and reunions with the parent that assesses the quality of the attachment bond Secure attachment 1 These infants use the parent as a secure base When separated they may or may not cry but if they do it is because the parent is absent and they prefer her to the stranger When the parent returns they actively seek contact and their crying is reduces immediately 2 About 65 of North American infants show this pattern Avoidant attachment 1 These infants seem unresponsive to the parent when they are present When she leaves they usually are not distressed and they react to the stranger in much the same way as to the parent During reunion they avoid or are slow to greet the parent and when picked up they often fail to cling 2 About 20 of North American infants show this pattern Resistant attachment 1 2 Before separation the infants seek closeness to the parent when they are present and often fail to explore When the parents leave they are usually distressed and on the return they display angry resistive behavior sometimes hitting and pushing Many continue to cry after being picked up and cannot be comforted easily About 10 15 NA infants Disorganizeddisoriented attachment 1 Th39 Equot is pattern re ects the greatest insecurity At reunion these infants show confused contradictory behaviors They might look away while being held by the parent or approach parent with flat depressed emotion Most communicate their emotion with a dazed facial expression A few cry out after having clamed down or display odd frozen posture 5 NA infants


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