INTRO REL ST
INTRO REL ST RELS 102
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Richard H Davis Introduction A Brief History of Religions in India in Religions oflndia in Practice Donald S Lopez Jr ed Princeton NJ Princeton University Press 1995 pp 352 I 2 STUDY QUESTIONS What is the point ofthe story with which Davis begins his introduction What are some of the terms in the shared religious vocabulary of India THE QUESTION OF HINDUISM WNT No01 What is the place of Hinduism among the religions of India What integrating characteristics of other world religions does Hinduism lack In what senses is Hinduism both the oldest and the youngest religion What is the history ofthe word Hinduism among IndoAryans Persians Muslims British and Indians What are the centralist and pluralist views of Hinduism What have been the paradigmatic formulations of Hinduism What have been the most serious challenges to these paradigmatic formulations THE INDOARYANS AND THE VEDAS 2000600 BCE 1 N Who were the Aryans Where did they come from What technological innovations enabled them to conquer indigenous peoples For what languages did they provide the basis Distinguish the IndoEuropeans and the IndoAryans Trace the movement ofthe IndoAryans into northern India The Rg Veda 20001200 BCE WNT 001 What are some of the meanings of Veda and what is its status among its proponents Describe the contents of the Rg Veda Who was Indra Whowhat waswere the dasas the Indus Valley civilization the Dravidians and what was their influence in the development of later Indian religion Who was Agni Who or what was Soma Sacri ce and Society 1200600 BCE N 59 What social changes took place during this period What religious changes took place during this period In the purpose of sacrifice In the status of the gods How did the priestly caste emerge What was its status What was the varna system The Upanishads and the Renunciatory Model 900600 BCE WNT What does Upanishad mean and why are they called vendanta How do the concepts oftransmigration samsara karman and moksa fit together How do these concepts change the nature of sacrifice What is asceticism How do the Vedas come to define and not define Hindu orthodoxy THE NEW RELIGIONS OF THE SIXTH CENTURY BCE I 2 What did the new religions ofthe sixth century agree on What did they disagree on 3 What is the purpose of yoga 4 What were the later developments of yoga 5 What were the similarities between Jainism and Buddhism in their beginning Jainism 1 How did Jainism begin 2 Why is Mahavira considered more than human 3 What are the life style and devotional practices of a Jain lay follower 4 How is a Jain renouncer initiated 4 What are the five great vows undertaken by a Jain renouncer 5 How did the Jain community divide into two communities 6 How did the public role of Jainism change in the medieval period Buddhism 1 How did Buddhism begin 2 How did Buddhism spread 3 Why did monastic cells become the institutional form of Buddhism 4 How did Buddhism critique the Vedas 5 What was Asoka s role in the rise of Buddhism 7 How did Buddhism decline in power and influence 8 How has Buddhism been revived in India since the 1950 s HINDUISM REDEFINED 600300 BCE The Epics assumed final form around 300 CE What is an epic What was the audience and content of these epics Who is Vishnu Krsna Rama What is avatara What advantages did it offer in expanding the community of Vishnu worshipers 5 What is the story line ofthe Bhagavad Gita How does it lead to bhakti WNT The Puranas and Hindu Theism 300700 CE 1 How have lndian rulers tried to integrate the multiple religious communities in their kingdom 2 What is the most significant aspect ofthe Puranas 3 What are Vilshnu s essential attributes 4 How does Siva evolve from Rudra 5 Describe Siva s character 6 Who is Brahma 7 What is the Hindu trinity 8 Identify Laksmi Parvarti Durga the Great Goddess How does the Great Goddess evolve from other female deities 9 What has been and continues to be the role ofthe Puranas in Hindu culture TEMPLE HINDUISM 7001200 CE 1 How did lndian rulers change their patronage 2 What are the three functions ofa Hindu temple How does temple puja develop and how is it related to the Vedic tradition What is bhakti What was the role of poets in spreading bhakti movements What was the paradox inherent in the Bhakti conceptualization ofthe gods How did lndian diversity increase during this period slower ISLAM IN INDIA 12001700 CE When where and how did lslam originate How and why did lslam spread so rapidly Identify the stages of Islamic expansion in relation to India in the 8 h C l lm C 12m C and 16m Nr 4 Describe both sides of Islam in India Orthodox Islam and Political Authority 1 How do Islam and Hinduism differ in their understanding of the Divine 2 How do Muslim mosques differ from Hindu temples 3 How did temples become indices of political control 4 How do Muslims categorize religions Su sm 1 How do Sufis differ from more conservative Muslims 2 What is the most basic relationship among Sufis 3 How did Muslim worship change during the medieval period 4 How did Sufi religious practice become more like yoga and bhakti 5 How did Sufism contribute to making lslam an indigenous lndian religion HINDUISM UNDER ISLAM 12001700 CE 1 How did Islam in India change the political situation in India and how did Hindus respond to this situation Devotional movements 1 What is common and what is different among bhakti movements 2 How did bhakti deities change during the medieval period 3 According to Rupa Gosvami what are the five predominant relationships between humans and God What was the most characteristic pattern of medieval bhakti In what ways did medieval bhakti become critical of temple Hinduism Ulrb Tantra 1 When did tantrism develop and from what sources did it develop 2 What are the two ways that historians of Indian religions use the word tantra 3 What is the highest goal of tantra 4 How is tantra promulgated 5 Why is tantra considered by some to be a degenerate form of Hinduism 6 What is the role ofthe Goddess in tantra 7 How do tantric groups view the erotic 8 Why does tantra take a skeptical view of social definitions of right and wrong Guru Nanak and Sikhism 1 How and when did Sikhism begin 2 What did Nanakteach about God God s worship and orthodox religion 3 How did Nanak organize his followers 4 What is the status of Sikhs today THE BRITISH PERIOD 17571948 CE 1 What aspect of the British worldview particularly challenged South Asian religions 2 What forms of Christianity had been in India prior to the coming ofthe British 3 What was the primary effect of British missionaries in India 4 How did the Orientalists view Indian religions 5 How did James Mill view Indians and Hinduism 6 What were the views of the following Indian reformers Rammohan Roy Svami Dayananda Nirankari movement Syed Ahmed Khan Mohamed Ali Svami Vivekananda 7 What British practices contributed to the hardening of religious community boundaries in India quot 0 515quot 0399 RELIGIONS OF HOME AND VILLAGE 1 Why do scholars frequently overlook domestic religious traditions 2 What are the common themes of domestic religious traditions 3 What precautions should be observed in speaking of great and little traditions THE CONTEMPORARY SCENE 1 What are the major controversies about the nature and role of religion in contemporary Indian society SERMONS ON SEVERAL OCCASIONS BYTHE REV JOHN WESLEY AM SOMETIME FELLOW OF LINCOLN COLLEGE OXFORD First Series CONSISTING OF FORTYFOUR DISCOURSES PUBLISHED IN FOUR VOLUMES IN THB YEARS 1746 1748 1750 AND 1760 FOURTH EDITION 1787 TO WHICH REFERENCE IS MADE IN THE TRUSTDEEDS OF THB METHODIST CHAPELS AS CONSTITUTING WITH MR WESLEY39S NOTES ON THB NEW TESTAMENT THE STANDARD DOCTRINES OF THE METHODIST CONNEXION LONDON THE EPWORTH PRESS SERMON XXXIV CATHOLIC SPIRIT And when he was departed thence he lighted on Jehonadab the son of Rechab coming to meet him and he saluted him and said to him Is thine heart right as my heart is with thy heart And Jehonadab answered It is If it be give me thine hand 2 KINGS X 15 1 It is allowed even by those who do not pay this great debt that love is due to all mankind the royal law 39Thou shalt love thy neighbour as thyself carrying its own evidence to all that hear it and that not according to the miserable construction put upon it by the zealots of old times 39Thou shalt love thy neighbour thy relation acquaintance friend 39and hate thine enemy39 not so 39I say unto you saith our Lord 39Love your enemies bless them that curse you do good to them that hate you and pray for them that despitefully use you and persecute you that ye may be the children may appear so to all mankind of your Father which is in heaven who maketh His sun to rise on the evil and on the good and sendeth rain on the just and on the unjust 2 But it is sure there is a peculiar love which we owe to those that love God So David 39All my delight is upon the saints that are in the earth and upon such as excel in virtue And so a greater than he 39 A new commandment I give unto you That ye love one another as l have loved you that ye also love one another By this shall all men know that ye are My disciples if ye have love one to another39 John xiii 34 35This is that love on which the Apostle John so frequently and strongly insists 39This saith he 39is the message that ye heard from the beginning that we should love one another39 I John ill I l 39Hereby perceive we the love of God because He laid down His life for us and we ought it love should call us thereto 39to lay down our lives for the brethren39 verse 16 And again 39Beloved let us love one another for love is of God He that loveth not knoweth not God for God is love39 iv 7 8 39Not that we loved God but that He loved us and sent His Son to be the propitiation for our sins Beloved if God so loved us we ought also to love one another39 verses 10 ll 3 All men approve ofthis but do all men practise it Daily experience shows the contrary Where are even the Christians who 39ove one another as He hath given us commandment39How many hindrances lie in the way The two grand general hindrances are first that they cannot all think alike and in consequence ofthis secondly they cannot all walk alike but in several smaller points their practice must differ in proportion to the difference of their sentiments 4 But although a difference in opinions or modes of worship may prevent an entire external union yet need it prevent our union in affection Though we cannot think alike may we not love alike May we not be of one heart though we are not of one opinion Without all doubt we may Herein all the children of God may unite notwithstanding these smaller differences These remaining as they are they may forward one another in love and in good works 5 Surely in this respcct the example of Jehu himself as mixed a character as he was of is well worthy both the attention and imitation of every serious Christian 39 And when he was departed thence he lighted on Jehonadab the son of Rechab coming to meet him and he saluted him and said to him Is thine heart right as my heart is with thy heart And Jehonadab answered It is If it be give me thine hand39 The text naturally divides itself into two parts First a question proposed by Jehu to Jehonadab 39ls thine heart right as my heart is with thy heart Secondly an offer made on Jehonadab39s answering 39It is39 39If it be give me thine hand39 I 1 And first let us consider the question proposed by Jehu to Jehonadab 39ls thine heart right as my heart is with thy heart The very first thing we may observe in these words is that here is no inquiry concerning Jehonadab39s opinions And yet it is certain he held some which were very uncommon indeed quite peculiar to himself and some which had a close influence upon his practice on which likewise he laid so great a stress as to entail them upon his children39s children to their latest posterity This is evident from the account given by Jeremiah many years after his death 39I took Jaazaniah and his brethren and all his sons and the whole house oftlle Rechabites and set before them pots full of wine and cups and said unto them Drink ye wine But they said We will drink no wine for Jonadab or Jehonadab the son of Rechab our father39 it would be less ambiguous ifthe words were placed thus 39Jehona dab our father the son of Rechab39 out of love and reverence to whom he probably desired his descendants might be called by his name 39commanded us saying Ye shall drink no wine neither ye nor your sons for ever Neither shall ye build house nor sow seed nor plant vineyard nor have any but all your days ye shall dwell in tents And we have obeyed and done according to all that Jonadab our father commanded us39 Jerxxxv 310 2 And yet Jehu although it seems to have been his manner both in things secular and religious to drive furiousy does not concern himself at all with any ofthese things but lets Jehonadab abound in his own sense And neither ofthem appears to have given the other the least disturbance touching the opinions which he maintained 3 It is very possible that many good men now also may entertain peculiar opinions and some of them may be as singular herein as even Jehonadab was And it is certain so long as we know but in part that all men will not see all things alike It is an unavoidable consequence of the present weakness and short ness of human understanding that several men will be of several minds in religion as well as in common life So it has been from the beginning of the world and so it will be 39till the restitution of all things39 4 Nay farther although every man necessarily believes that every particular opinion which he holds is true for to believe any opinion is not true is the same thing as not to hold it yet can no man be assured that all his own opinions taken together are true Nay every thinking man is assured they are not seeing humanurn est errare et nescirequot 39to be ignorant of many things and to mistake in some is the necessary condition of humanity39 This therefore he is sensible is his own case He knows in the general that he himself is mistaken although in what particulars he mistakes he does not perhaps he cannot know 5 I say 39perhaps he cannot know39 for who can tell how far invincible ignorance may extend or that comes to the same thing invincible prejudicewhich is often so fixed in tender minds that it is afterwards impossible to tear up what has taken so deep a root And who can say unless he knew every circumstance attending it how far any mistake is culpable seeing all guilt must suppose some concurrence ofthe will of which He only can judge who searcheth the heart Every wise man therefore will allow others the same liberty of thinking which he desires they should allow him and will no more insist on their embracing his opinions than he would have them to insist on his embracing theirs He bears with those who differ from him and only asks him with whom he desires to unite in love that single question 39Is thy heart right as my heart is with they heartquot 7 We may secondly observe that here is no inquiry made concerning Jehonadab39s mode of worship although it is highly probable there was in this respcct also a very wide difference between them For we may well believe Jehonadab as well as all his posterity worshipped God at Jerusalem whereas Jehu did not he had more regard to statepolicy than religion And therefore although he slew the worshippers of Baal and 39destroyed Baal out of lsrael39 yet from the convenient sin of Jeroboam the worship ofthe 39golden calves39 he 39departed not39 2 Kings X 29 8 But even among men of an upright heart men who desire to 39have a conscience void of offence it must needs be that as long as there are various opinions there will be various ways of worshipping God seeng a variety of opinion necessarily implies a variety of practice And as in all ages men have differed in nothing more than in their opinions concerning the Supreme Being so in nothing have they more differed from each other than in the manner of worshipping Him Had this been only in the heathen world it would not have been at all surprising for we know these 39by39 their 39wisdom knew not God39 nor therefore could they know how to worship Him But is it not strange that even in the Christian world although they all agree in the general 39God is a Spirit and they that worship Him must worship Him in spirit and in truth yet the particular modes of worshipping God are almost as various as among the Heathens 9 And how shall we choose among so much variety No man can choose for or prescribe to another But every one must follow the dictates of his own conscience in simplicity and godly sincerity He must be fully persuaded in his own mind and then act according to the best light he has Nor has any creature power to constrain another to walk by his own rule God has given no right to any of the children of men thus to lord it over the conscience of his brethren but every man mustjudge for himself as every man must give an account of himself to God 10 Although therefore every follower of Christ is obliged by the very nature of the Christian institution to be a member of some particular congregation or other some Church as it is usually termed which implies a particular manner of wor shipping God for 39two cannot walktogether unless they be agreed39 yet none can be obliged by any power on earth but that of his own conscience to prefer this or that congregation to another this or that particular manner of worship I know it is commonly supposed that the place of our birth fixes the Church to which we ought to belong that one for instance who is born in England ought to be a member of that which is styled the Church of England and consequently to worship God in the particular manner which is prescribed by that Church l was once a zealous maintainer ofthis but I find many reasons to abate of this zeal I fear it is attended with such difficulties as no reasonable man can get over Not the least ofwhich is that ifthis rule had took place there could have been no Reformation from Popery seeing it entirely destroys the right of private judgement on which that whole Reformation stands 11 I dare not therefore presume to impose my mode of worship on any other I believe it is truly primitive and apostol ical but my belief is no rule for another I ask not therefore of him with whom I would unite in love Are you of my church of my congregation Do you receive the same form of church government and allow the same church officers with me Do you join in the same form of prayer wherein l worship God inquire not Do you receive the supper of the Lord in the same posture and manner that I do nor whether in the administration of baptism you agree with me in admitting sureties for the baptized in the manner of administering it or the age ofthose to whom it should be administered Nay ask not of you as clear as I am in my own mind whetheryou allow baptism and the Lord39s supper at all Let all these things stand by we will talk ofthem if need be at a more convenient season my only question at present is this 39Is thine heart right as my heart is with thy heart39 12 But what is properly implied in the question I do not mean What did Jehu imply therein But What should a follower of Christ understand thereby when he proposes it to any of his brethren The first thing implied is this Is thy heart right with God Dost thou believe His being and His perfections His eternity immensity wisdom power Hisjustice mercy and truth Dost thou believe that He now 39upholdeth all things by the word of His power39 and that He governs even the most minute even the most noxious to His own glory and the good ofthem that love Him Hast thou a divine evidence a supernatural conviction ofthe things of God Dost thou 39walk by faith not by sight39 looking not at temporal things but things eternal 13 Dost thou believe in the Lord Jesus Christ 39God over all blessed for ever39 Is He revealed in thy soul Dost thou know Jesus Christ and Him crucified Does He dwell in thee and thou in Him Is He formed in thy heart by faith Having absolutely disclaimed all thy own works thy own righteousness hast thou 39submitted thyself unto the righteousness of God which is by faith in Christ Jesus Art thou 39found in Him not having thy own righteousness but the righteousness which is by faith39 And art thou through Him 39fighting the good fight of faith and laying hold of eternal life39 14 Is thy faith 2 ed with the energy ofove Dost thou love God 1 do not say 39above all things39 for it is both an unscriptural and an ambiguous expression but 39with all thy heart and with all thy mind and with all thy soul and with all thy strength39 Dost thou seek all thy happiness in Him alone And dost thou find what thou seekest Does thy soul continually 39magnify the Lord and thy spirit rejoice in God thy Saviour39 Having learned 39in everything to give thanks dost thou find 39it is a joyful and a pleasant thing to be thankful39 Is God the centre ofthy soul the sum of all thy desires Art thou accordingly laying up thy treasure in heaven and counting all things else dung and dross Hath the love of God cast the love ofthe world out of thy soul Then thou art 39crucified to the world39 thou art dead to all below and thy 39life is hid with Christ in God 15 Art thou employed in doing 39not thy own will but the will of Him that sent thee39of Him that sent thee down to sojourn here awhile to spend a few days in a strange land till having finished the work He hath given thee to do thou return to thy Father39s house Is it thy meat and drink 39to do the will ofthy Father which is in heaven39 ls thine eye single in all things always fixed on Him always looking unto Jesus Dost thou point at Him in whatsoever thou doest in all thy labour thy business thy conversation aiming only at the glory of God in all 39whatsoever thou doest either in word or deed doing it all in the name ofthe Lord Jesus giving thanks unto God even the Father through Him39 16 Does the love of God constrain thee to serve Him with fear to 39rejoice unto Him with reverence39 Art thou more afraid of displeasing God than either of death or hell ls nothing so terrible to thee as the thought of offending the eyes of His glory Upon this ground dost thou 39hate all evil ways39 every transgression of His holy and perfect law and herein 39exercise thyself to have a conscience void of offence toward God and toward man39 17 Is thy heart right toward thy neighbour Dost thou love as thyself all mankind without exception 39If you love those only that love you what thank have ye39 Do you 39love your enemies39 Is your soul full of goodwill of tender affection toward them Do you love even the enemies of God the unthankful and unholy Do your bowels yearn over them Could you 39wish yourself temporally 39accursed39 for their sake And do you show this by 39blessing them that curse you and praying for those that despitefully use you and persecute you39 l8 Do you show your love by your works While have time as you have opportunity do you in fact 39do good to all men39 neighbours or strangers friends or enemies good or bad Do you do them all the good you can endeavouring to supply all their wants assisting them both in body and soul to the uttermost of your power lfthou art thus minded may every Christian say yea if thou art but sincerely desirous of it and following on till thou attain then 39thy heart is right as my heart is with thy heart II 39If it be give me thy hand39 I do not mean 39Be of my opinion39 You need not I do not expect or desire it Neither do I mean 39I will be of your opinion39 I cannot it does not depend on my choice I can no more think than I can see or hear as I will Keep you your opiruon l mine and that as steadily as ever You need not even endeavour to come over to me or bring me over to you I do not desire you to dispute those points or to hear or speak one word concerning them Let all opinions alone on one side and the other only 39give me thine hand39 I do not mean 39Embrace my modes of worship39 or 39I will embrace yours39 This also is a thing which does not depend either on your choice or mine We must both act as each is fully persuaded in his own mind Hold you fast that which you believe is most acceptable to God and I will do the same I believe the Episcopal form of church government to be script ural and apostolical If you think the Presbyterian or lnde pendent is better think so still and act accordingly I believe infants ought to be baptized and that this may be done either by dipping or sprinkling If you are otherwise persuaded be so still and follow yow own persuasion It appears to me that forms of prayer are of excellent use particularly in the great congregation If you judge extemporary prayer to be of more use act suitable to your own judgement sentiment is that I ought not to forbid water wherein persons may be baptized and that I ought to eat bread and drink wine as a memorial of my dying Master however if you are not convinced of this act according to the light you have I have no desire to dispute with you one moment upon any ofthe preceding headsquot Let all these smaller points stand aside Let them never come into sight 39lfthine heart is as my heart ifthou lovest God and all mankind ask no more 39give me thine hand 3 I mean first love me and that not only as thou lovest all mankind not only as thou lovest thine enemies or the enemies of God those that hate thee that 39despitefully use thee and persecute thee39 not only as a stranger as one of whom thou knowest neither good nor evil I am not satisfied with this no 39ifthine heart be right as mine with thy heart then love me with a very tender affection as a friend that is closer than a brother as a brother in Christ a fellow citizen ofthe New Jerusalem a fellow soldier engaged in the same warfare under the same Captain of our salvation Love me as a companion in the kingdom and patience ofJesus and a joint heir of His glory 4 Love me but in a higher degree than thou dost the bulk of mankind with the love that is longsuffering and kind that is patient if I am ignorant or out ofthe way bearing and not increasing my burden and is tender soft and compassionate still that envieth not if at any time it please God to prosper me in His work even more than thee Love me with the love that is not provoked either at my follies or infirmities or even at my acting if it should sometimes so appear to thee not according to the will of God Love me so as to think no evil of me to put away all jealousy and evilsurmising Love me with the love that covereth all things that never reveals either my faults or infirmities that believeth all things is always willing to think the best to put the fairest construction on all my words and actions that hopeth all things eitherthat the thing related was never done or not done with such circumstances as are related or at least that it was done with a good intention or in a sudden stress of temptation And hope to the end that whatever is amiss will by the grace of God be corrected and whatever is wanting supplied through the riches of His mercy in Christ Jesus 5 I mean secondly commend me to God in all thy prayers wrestle with Him in my behalf that He would speedily correct what He sees amiss and supply what is wanting in me In thy nearest access to the throne of grace beg of Him who is then very present with thee that my heart may be more as thy heart more right both toward God and toward man that I may have a fuller conviction ofthings not seen and a stronger view of the love of God in Christ Jesus may more steadily walk by faith not by sight and more earnestly grasp eternal life Pray that the love of God and of all mankind may be more largely poured into my heart that I may be more fervent and active in doing the will of my Father which is in heaven more zealous of good works and more careful to abstain from all appearance of evil 6 I mean thirdly provoke me to love and to good works Second thy prayer as thou hast opportunity by speaking to me in love whatsoever thou believest to be for my soul39s health Quicken me in the work which God has given me to do and instruct me how to do it more perfectly Yea 39smite me friendly and reprove me39 whereinsoever I appear to thee to be doing rather my own will than the will of Him that sent me O speak and spare not whatever thou believest may conduce either to the amending my faults the strengthening my weakness the building me up in love or the making me more fit in any kind for the Master39s use 7 I mean lastly love me not in word only but in deed and in truth So far as in conscience thou canst retaining still thy own opinions and thy own manner of worshipping God join with me in the work of God and let us go on hand in hand And thus far it is certain thou mayest go Speak honourably wherever thou art of the work of God by whomsoever He works and kindly of His messengers And if it be in thy power not only sympathize with them when they are in any difficulty or distress but give them a cheerful and effectual assistance that they may glorify God on thy behalf 8 Two things should be observed with regard to what has been spoken under this last head the one that whatsoever love whatsoever offices of love whatsoever spiritual or temporal assistance I claim from him whose heart is right as my heart is with his the same I am ready by the grace of God according to my measure to give him the other that l have not made this claim in behalf of myself only but of all whose heart is right toward God and man that we may all love one another as Christ hath loved us III One inference we may make from what has been said We may learn from hence what is a catholic spirit There is scarce any expression which has been more grossly misunderstood and more dangerously misapplied than this but it will be easy for any who calmly consider the preceding observations to correct any such misapprehensions of it and to prevent any such misapplication or from hence we may learn first that a catholic spirit is not speculative latitudinarianism It is not an indifference to all opinions this is the spawn of hell not the offspring of heaven This unsettledness ofthought this being39 driven to and fro and tossed about with every wind of doctrine39 is a great curse not a blessing an irreconcilable enemy not a friend to true cathol icism A man of a truly catholic spirit has not now his religion to seek He is fixed as the sun in hisjudgement concerning the main branches of Christian doctrine It is true he is always ready to hear and weigh whatsoever can be offered against his principles but as this does not show any wavering in his own mind so neither does it occasion any He does not halt between two opinions nor vainly endeavour to blend them into one Observe this you who know not what spirit ye are of who call yourselves men of a catholic spirit only because you are of a muddy understanding because your mind is all in a mist because you have no settled consistent principles but are forjumbling all opinions together Be convinced that you have quite missed your way you know not where you are You think you are got into the very spirit of Christ when in truth you are nearer the spirit of Antichrist Go first and learn the first elements of the gospel of Christ and then shall you learn to be of a truly catholic spirit 2 From what has been said we may learn secondly that a catholic spirit is not any kind of practical latitudinarianism It is not indifference as to public worship or as to the outward manner of performing it This likewise would not be a blessing but a curse Far from being an help thereto it would so long as it remained be an unspeakable hindrance to the worshipping of God in spirit and in truth But the man of a truly catholic spirit having weighed all things in the balance of the sanctuary has no doubt no scruple at all concerning that particular mode of worship wherein he joins He is clearly convinced that this manner of worshipping God is both scriptural and ration He knows none in the world which is more scriptural none which is more rational Therefore without rambling hither and thither he cleaves close thereto and praises God for the opportunity of so doing 3 Hence we may thirdly learn that a catholic spirit is not indifference to all congregations This is another sort of latitudinarianism no less absurd and unscriptural than the former But it is far from a man of a truly catholic spirit He is fixed in his congregation as well as his principles He is united to one not only in spirit but by all the outward ties of Christian fellowship There he partakes of all the ordinances of God There he receives the supper ofthe Lord There he pours out his soul in public prayer and joins in public praise and thanks giving There he rejoices to hear the word of reconciliation the gospel of the grace of God With these his nearest his bestbeloved brethren on solemn occasions he seeks God by fasting These particularly he watches over in love as they do over his soul admonishing exhorting comforting reproving and every way building up each other in the faith These he regards as his own household and therefore according to the ability God has given him naturally cares for them and provides that they may have all the things that are needful for life and godliness 4 But while he is steadily fixed in his religious principles in what he believes to be the truth as it is in Jesus while he firmly adheres to that worship of God which he judges to be most acceptable in His sight and while he is united by the tenderest and closest ties to one particular congregation his heart is enlarged toward all mankind those he knows and those he does not he embraces with strong and cordial affection neighbours and strangers friends and enemies This is catholic or universal love And he that has this is of a catholic spirit For love alone gives the title to this character catholic love is a catholic spirit 5 If then we take this word in the strictest sense a man of a catholic spirit is one who in the manner abovementioned gives his hand to all whose hearts are right with his heart one who knows how to value and praise God for all the advantages he enjoys with regard to the knowledge of the things of God the true scriptural manner of worshipping Him and above all his union with a congregation fearing God and working righteousness one who retaining these blessings with the strictest care keeping them as the apple of his eye at the same time loves as friends as brethren in the Lord as members of Christ and children of God as joint partakers now of the present kingdom of God and fellow heirs of His eternal kingdom all of whatever opinion or worship or congregation who believe in the Lord Jesus Christ who love God and man who rejoicing to please and fearing to offend God are careful to abstain from evil and zealous of good works He is the man of a truly catholic spirit who bears all these continually upon his heart who having an unspeakable tenderness for their persons and longing for their welfare does not cease to commend them to God in prayer as well as to plead their cause before men who speaks comfortably to them and labours by all his words to strengthen their hands in God He assists them to the uttermost of his power in all things spiritual and temporal He is ready 39to spend and be spent for them39 yea to lay down his life for their sake 6 Thou 0 man of God think on these things lfthou art already in this way go on lfthou hast heretofore mistookthe path bless God who hath brought thee back And now run the race which is set before thee in the royal way of universal love Take heed lest thou be either wavering in thy judgement or straitened in thy bowels but keep an even pace rooted in the faith once delivered to the saints and grounded in love in true catholic love till thou art swallowed up in love for ever and ever CATHOLIC LOVE Weary of all this wordy strife These notions forms and modes and names To Thee the Way the Truth the Life Whose love my simple heart inflames Divinely taught at last I fly With Thee and Thine to live and die 2 Forth from the midst of Babel brought Parties and sects I cast behind Enlarged my heart and free my thought Where39er thc latent truth I find The latent truth with joy to own And bow to Jesu39s name alone 3 Redeem39d by Thine almighty grace taste my glorious liberty With open arms the world embrace But cleave to those who cleave to Thee But only in Thy saints delight Who walk with God in purest white 4 One with the little flock I rest The members sound who hold the Head The chosen few with pardon blest And by th39 anointing Spirit led Into the mind that was in Thee Into the depths of Deity 5 My brethren friends and kinsmen these Who do my heavenly Father39s will Who aim at perfect holiness And all Thy counsels to fulfil Athirst to be whate39er Thou art And love their God with all their heart 6 For these howe39er in flesh disjoin39d Where39er dispersed o39er earth abroad Unfeign39d unbounded love find And constant as the life of God Fountain of life from thence it sprung As pure as even and as strong 7 Join39d to the hidden church unknown In this sure bond of perfectness Obscurely safe I dwell alone And glory in th39 uniting grace To me to each believer given To all Thy saints in earth and heaven CW RELS 102 Introduction to Religious Studies Western Kentucky University Dr Alan Anderson 102 Handout Welsh Sermons on Several Occassions CATHOLIC SPIRIT httpMANwwkuedualananderson l02Handouts102WesleyCatholicSpirit
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