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by: Sally Jast


Marketplace > Western Kentucky University > Biology > BIOL 224 > ANIMAL BIOLOGY DIVERSITY
Sally Jast
GPA 3.64

Philip Lienesch

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Philip Lienesch
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This 74 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sally Jast on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 224 at Western Kentucky University taught by Philip Lienesch in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 82 views. For similar materials see /class/216717/biol-224-western-kentucky-university in Biology at Western Kentucky University.




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Date Created: 09/30/15
23 September 2010 UNIT 2 NOTES 0 Reproduction o Asexual Reproduction production of individuals without gametes I ADVANTAGES o 1 Only need one individual to reproduce o 2 No genetic change good if environment is stable 0 3 All individuals are producing offspring o 4 More efficient at passing on genes 100 of genes passed on to next generation 0 Every individual passes on energy to the next generation 0 5 Speed as how fast they can reproduce I DISADVANTAGES o 1 NO Recombination of genes 0 Not adaptive to the environment not very efficient with their metabolism I Different types of Asexual Reproduction o Unicellular o Fission Mitosis o MulticellularOrganisms o Budding Gemmulation Fragmentation OOO Parthenogenesis I Species reproduce both AS and S o Ovaries produce diploid eggs 0 Before females are born they produce ovaries 0 Sexual Reproduction The production of new individuals by the union of gametes usually from two different parents I SPERM AND EGG I Advantages for Sexual reproduction o 1 Genetic Recombination offspring are genetically unique 0 Genes stay in gene pool 0 Genetic Variation Comes from I A Exchange of genes between homologous chromosomes during crossing over 0 Meiosis I B Shuffling of homologous Chromosomes in Meiosis I C Random fusion of gametes o Ofall gametes its random change which ones connect with each other 23 September 2010 UNIT 2 NOTES 0 Especially favorable when the environment is not stable I Disadvantages of Sexual Reproduction o 1 Need two parents must expand energy to find identify and copulate with mate 0 2 Genetic 39 39 is LquILCIr 39 39 if 439 are stable 0 3 Only half of individuals are producing offspring o Males use resources and contribute little energy to producing new members of the population 0 4 Less efficient at passing genes offspring are only half your genes 0 A clone is 100 your offspring I Types of Sexual Reproduction o 1 Bisexual Reproduction Union ofGamete from male Spermatozoan and Female Ovum o 2 Dioecious individuals either male or female 0 3 Monoecious each individual produces sperm and egg 0 Called Hermaphrodites o SequentialHermaphrodism I Individual changes sex during life usually male then female 0 Somatic Cells cells make up the body of an individual except gametes o Gametes Haploid sex cells Usually called sperm and egg 0 Primordial germ cells cells that give rise to gametes through the process of meiosis and cytokenesis 0 Primary sex organs where gametes are produced also called gonads Testis and ovary o Accessary sex organs penis and vagina o Syngamy the union of 2 gametes to form a zygote o Gametogenesis process of gamete production 0 Spermatogenesis Formation of sperm occurs 0 Testis are composed of coiled tubes called seminiferous Spermatogonia 2n Primary Spermatocyte Zn 000 Sperm n found in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules I Characteristics of mature sperm 0 Head Acrosome Nucleus o Midpiece Mitochondria 0 Tail Flagellum o Sertoli cells in seminiferous tubules nourish sperm cells 0 Uogenesis formation of the ovum in the ovary o Oogeonia 2n 23 September 2010 UNIT 2 NOTES 0 Primary Oocyte 2n undergo meiosis I Unequal cytokenesis results in 1 secondary Oocyte n 0 Secondary Oocyte n undergo Meiosis II I Unequal cytokenesis results in 1 n Ovum 0 Polar Bodies o Meiosis begins in developing embryo o Meiosis II is not complete until after sperm enter the egg 0 Fertilization can be internal or external 0 External sperm and egg are expelled from body I Water 0 Internal sperm transferred from male to female sperm may be stored in the spermatheca Seminal receptacle for futre use common in invertebrates 0 Path of a sperm Urogentical System I Testes I Epididymis I Vas Deferens Cloaca Birds or Urethra Mammals I Uretha 0 Path of Ovum I Produced in follicles tissue surrounding the the developing egg in ovary the released is called ovulation Eggs enter oviduct a shell may be formed around the egg zygote birds Reptiles I Zygote enters uterus o Spermatheca o Sperm Completion o OVIPAROUS release of their eggs into the environment before fertilization or after fertilization o OVOVIVIPAROUS retain the fertilized egg zygote internally but do not supply any additional nutrients to the zygote o VIVIPAROUS animals are those that retain the zygote in the motor who provides nourishment to the developing young 0 Reproductive Hormones I Hormones o Molecules that are produced in one part of the body and stimulate a response in another part of the body Target or receptor cells 0 MALE TESTOSTERONE o Produced in the leydig cells found between the seminferous tubules of the testes 23 September 2010 UNIT 2 NOTES 0 FEMALE HORMONES from the brain and ovaries function to control the release or gametes and the state the uterus I Esterus Cycle Reproductive cycle of most mammals I Female only receptive to copulation during esterus I Endomerium is absorbed is no pregnancy 0 Menstrual Cycle Found in monkeys Apes and Humans I Females are receptive throughout cycle 0 Pituitary gland of brain produces o Follicle stimulating hormone FSH o Luteinizing Hormone LH 0 Cells of follicle produce estrogen o Progesterone is produced by the corpus luteum 0 Human Chorionic Gonadotrodin hCG I Hormone produced by the Developing Embryo 0 Pregnancy tests look for hCG DEVELOPMENT 0 Fertilization Syngamy 0 the union of sperm 0 Restores diploid state in zygote o Stimulate mitotic division Layers of the outer covering of mature egg Sea Urchin o Jelly Layer 0 Uitelline Envelope 0 Plasma Membrane When sperm contact the uitelline envelope species specific proteins bind to receptors The sperm penetrates the uitelline membrane and the sperm membrane fuses with the plasma membrane Prevention of polyspermy o 1 First Block time frame of seconds a change in the electrical potential of the plasma membrane prevents any other sperm from fusing to it o 2 Cortical reaction time frame os 1 minute vesiciles cortical granules fuse with the egg membrane Water diffuses in o Fertilization membrane 0 Pronucles of egg and sperm fuse to form zygote nucleus Stages in Development 0 1 Fertilized Egg Zygote o 2 Cleavage stage zygote divides repeatedly by mitosis 23 September 2010 UNIT 2 NOTES I No increase in size 3 Blastula hollow chamber develops in the center of the morula 4 Gastrulation invagination of cells forms the primitive gut Archenteron 5 Neurogenesis only in Chordata Nerve cord develops 0000 6 Organogenesis formation of the organs of the body 0 How zygote develops will be greatly affected by the amount of yolk in the ovum o solecithal Egg Little yolk yolk evenly distributed echinoderms mammals o Mesolecithal Egg Moderate amount of yolk unevenly distributed 0 Amphibians I Vegetal pole hemisphere of the egg with the most yolk I Animal pole hemisphere with the least yolk o Telolecithal egg Large amount of yolk unevenly distributed fish reptiles birds cytoplasm found in blastodisc 0 Patterns of cleavage the differences in the amount and distribution of yolk will affect how cleavage proceeds o Holoblastic Cleavage cytokinesis divides the cell in two I Found in isolecithal and meso lecithal eggs I In mesolecithal eggs the vegetal pole divides slower resulting in fewer cells than in animal pole o Meroblastic Cleavage cleavage only occurs in the active cytoplasm results in layers of cells 0 Symmetry of Cleavage o 1 Radial Cleavage as cells divide the cells appear stacked parallel to a central axis I Found in amphibians and echinoderms characteristic of deuterostomes o 2 Spiral Cleavage as cells divide the stacked layers lie in the furrows I Found in annelids mollusca and arthropoda characteristics of Protostomes 0 During gastrulations he three germ laters are generated 0 ectoderm Mesoderm Endoderm 0 There are two basic patterns by which the mesoderm layer originates I Entercoelous mesoderm forms as piuches off the archenteron seen in Deuterstomes I Schizocoelous mesoderm cells develop around the base of the archenteron seen in protostomes 0 Development in telolectihal eggs 23 September 2010 UNIT 2 NOTES 0 Meroblastic cleavage cleavage only occurs in the active cytoplasm results in layers of cells 0 Primative steak groove down central axis of blastodisc 0 During gastrulation cells start to differentiate the process by which a cell becomes specialized o Neurogenesis chordate Development of the nerve cord from ectoderm tissue 0 Neural plate forms a neutral folds that form a tube the hollow nerve cord 0 Neural crest cells split off tube develop into I Cranial nerves I Pigment cells I Bones of the skull I Parts of endocrine glands o Organogenesis development of the organs of the body 0 Embryo 2 weeks to 2 months organ systems are developing 0 Cell Fates o Determined the point at which a cells has differentiates to the point that it cannot be induced to become a different type of cell 0 Totipotent an isolated cell that can develop into an individual I Deuterostomes regulative development I Protostomes mosaic development PHYLUM ANNELlDA Lophotrochozoan Protostome o Charateristics 15000 Species Trochophore Larvae O O 0 Body composed repeated segments Metamerism separated by septa I Advantage parts of the body can be manipulated individually I Anterior end of animal has a prostomium I New segments are added in front Setae quotHairquot hairlike spikes that can be used to grip sediment I Terrestrial worms short hard satae I Aquatic worms longer flexible setae Complete digestive Tract O Musculature with longitudinal and circular muscles Flexible cuticle secreted by epidermis Respiration mainly by diffusion across skingills and parapodia as accessory structures Excretion by paired nephridia in each segment Sexual Reproduction OOOOOO Monoecious or diecious larvae are trochophore 23 September 2010 UNIT 2 NOTES 0 Asexual Reproduction I Budding and fermentation 0 CLASS OLIGOCHAETA oligo few Chaeta Long Hairs I 3000 Species Mostly terrestrial and freshwater I Australian earthworm can be meters long Respiration specialized structures for exchange of gases 0 Must keep cuticle moist for oxygen to diffuse into body 0 Drought Earthworms dig deeper 0 Flood Earthworms come out of ground Circulatory System closed in moist respiratory pigments Hemoglobin Dissolved in blood fluid also contains amoeboid cells Complete Digestive System 0 Mouth Pharynx Esophagus Crop Gizzard Intestine Rectum Anus Typhlosole invagination of dorsal surface of digestive tract increase surface area Excretory System Pair of Nephridia per segment 0 Nephridia Generalized term for excretory systems that empty outside the organism o Protunephridia excretory system with tubes ending at flames cells 0 Metanephridia excretory with a tube that takes in coelomic fluid and releases waste outside the body through a nephridiopore Nephrostome Bladder Nephridipore OOOO Terrestrial Urea O Aquatic Ammonia I Nervous System 0 BiLobed brain ventral nerve cord a pair of ganglia branch off in each segment I No eyes but similar photoreceptors in epidermis I Reproduction o Monoecious Hermaphroditic but crossfertilize with another worm o Sperm are transferred to the mates seminal receptacle mucas band secreted by clitellum accepts eggs and sperm Fertilization is external 23 September 2010 UNIT 2 NOTES 0 CLASS POLYCHAETA Clam Worms 10000 Species Parapodia paired extensions on each segment used in respiration and locomotion Well developed HEAD EYES JAWS OR TENTACLES Eyes vary from simple photo sensors to imageresolving eyes with a lens for focusing Other sensory Organs o Statocyst orientation 0 Nuchal organs Chemo Some polychaetes are predatory such as errant polychaete while others are filter feeders Christmas tree worm or deposit feeders planktonic train Many Polychaetes burrow in sediments may use tube to set up water currents REPRODUCTION o No permanent sex organs 0 Gonads develop in the wall of coelum and deposit eggssperm into coelum 0 Some produce specialized reproductive segments posteriorly o Atoke anterior segment 0 Epitoke posterior reproductive section o In synchromy with other members of the population the epitures separate from the atoke and swim to surface where they rupture releasing gametes 0 CLASS HlRUDlNlDA LEECHES Mostly freshwater but a few terrestrial and marine Usually lt 6 cm Body plan usually 34 segments MAY LOOK LIKE MORE DUE TO SUPERFICIAL ANNULI o Septa between segments LOST o Sucker at both ends 0 Dorsouentrallyflattened 0 NO SATAE Digestive Tract modified Leeches release Hinudin into wound when feeding Phylogeny annelids are Iophotrochozoan Oligochaetes and Hirudinae are sister taxa 23 September 2010 UNIT 2 NOTES PHYLUM ROTIFERA Roto Wheel Fera Bearing 0 Characteristics 0 Mostly freshwater few marine species 0 Lophotrochozoan Protostomes I Forchophore Larvae 0 Have Pseudocooelum o Corona ciiated structure on anterior end used for generating water currents feeding and locomotion o Lorica protective plates or rings from fibrous layer in epidermis feratella o NERVOUS SYSTEM BiLobed 0 Brain cephalization o Reproduction Both sexual and asexual o Parthenogenesis most of year reproduction is asexual population is composed of females that produce diploid amictic eggs 0 When conditions worsen females produce haploid mictic eggs I If not fertilized eggs develop into Haploid males I If males fertilize the eggs then develop into diploid zygote called a dominant egg PHYLUM NEMATODA Nematos Thread 0 Characteristics 0 25000 species described Have pseudocoelum Density of billions per acre Ecoysozoan protostomes molt as they grow 000 Many are parasitic infect most plants and animals I Ascaris Iumbricoides LARGE roundworm of humans infect about 25 of population in some Southeast US areas 0 Often pass through stomach during life cycle 0 Cuticle noncellular secreted by hypodermis epidermis I Longitudinal muscles are used to make the body wiggle for locomotion I No Circular muscle I High coelomic pressure 0 Sexual Dimorphism copulatory spicules sperm have no flagellum Ameboid movement 0 Females can release 200000 eggs per DAY 0 Some Nematode examples 0 Hookworm 23 September 2010 UNIT 2 NOTES I Enter through skin and migrate to intestine where they feed on hosts blood 0 Trichinella Spiralis I cause trichinellosis very rare in US Enter through undercooked pork young enter bloodstream and encyst in various tissues especially muscle 0 Pin worm I Most common nematode parasitic 16 Adults 30 Children Females migrate at night to lay eggs around anus Tape Test 0 Filarial Worms I Infect Lymphatic system associated with growth of connective tissue and swelling of extremeties o Elephantiasis river Blindness Dog Heartworm45 PHYLUM ARTHROPODA jointed foot 0 Characteristics 0 About 11 Million species described 0 Body composed of repeated segments metamerism but septa have been lost I In contrast to annelids much specialization of segments are seen 0 Tagmosis fusion of segments to form a larger specialized body sections I HEAD THORAX ABDOMEN I Head Appendages used as sensory and feeding structure I Thorax contains many organs Esp Repro or be used in locomotion o Arthropods exhibit much more specialization of appendages I Functions sensory feeding locomotion reproduction o The cuticle of arthropods is greatly modified from that of annelids more durable specialized for molting I Molting process of shedding old cuticle and secreting a new one I The cuticle contains two layers 0 Epicuticle outermost layer 0 Procuticle inner most contains chitin Nitrogenous Polysaccharide Proteins and calcium salts increase rigidity made of two layers I Exocuticle secreted prior to molting temporary protection I Endocuticle secreted after molting 0 Forms tough durable shell I The cuticle of arthropods is greatly modified form that of annelids o More durable specialized for molting o Arthropods have various adaptations for gas exchange tracheal system branching system of tube that deliver atmospheric gases directly to cells 0 Metamorphosis is an adaptation seen in insect arthropods that decreases competition between larvae and adults also allows for specialized structure during these two periods in life cycle III I I I I I I 39 I I I O 23 September 2010 UNIT 2 NOTES 39 Egg I Larva specialized for feeding I Pupa larva undergoes drastic metamorphosis into adult I Adult Specialized for dispersal and reproduction o Hemimetabolus incomplete Metamorphosis I Metamorphosis from young to adult is gradual 0 Egg 0 Nymph 0 Adult SUBPHYLUM TRILOBITA all extinct 0 Very successful from Precambrian to Carboniferous about 200 my 0 Body with head thorax and abdomen 0 Two grooves running longitudinally SUBPHYLUM CHELlCERATA horseshoe crab spiders 0 First pair of appendages modified into cheliceae which are used to grasp food or inject poison 0 Four or five pair of walking legs 0 No mandibles or antennae CLASS MEROSTOMATA horseshoe crabs Living fossils have changed little through time Synchronize mating by moon tides Cephalothorax head and thorax fused 2 simple 2 compound eyes 0 Telson most posterios segment 0 Tail spine anus CLASS ARACHNIDA spiders ticks scorpions 0 Characteristics 80000 species 4 pair walking legs 1 pair pedipalps 1 pair chelicerata fangs 4 pair of eyes OOOOO Spinning gland produces webbing I Used in capture of food creating shelter or protecting eggs SUBPHYLUM MYRIPODA many footed 23 September 2010 UNIT 2 NOTES 0 Characteristics 0 1 pair ofantennae o Appendages anpramous contrast with crustacean biramous o Terrestrial Adaptations trachea and malpigian tubules 0 CLASS CHILOPODA Centipedes o Dorsoventrally flattened usually with many segments 0 One pair of legs per segment o CLASS DIPLOPODA Millipedes o Tubular usually with many segments 0 Two pair of legs per segment Larval instars only 1 per segment SUBPHYLUM CRUSTACEA Shell 0 Characteristics 0 70000 species described 0 Most are marine but are important and abundant in freshwater there are a few terrestrial species Most mobile some sessile 2 pair of antennae 2 pair of mandibles biramous legs modified for masticating food 000 Exoskeleton of crustaceans is very strong fortified with calcium I Areas around joints are not calcified so flexibility is not lost I Excretory system green glands function mostly in osmoregulation maintaining water balance ammonia diffuses across thin parts of cuticle o Reproduction 0 Sexual Usually cross fertilize o Asexual may be parthenogenetic 0 Development is usually indirect with a larval form called a nauplius 0 CLASS MALACOSTRACA 0 Characteristics 39 One pair ofantennae 39 Appendages uniramous contrast with crustacean biramous 39 Terrestrial adaptations Trachea and Malpigian Tubules 39 Mouth with mandibles 39 Three Tagmata 0 Head thorax abdomen 39 Typicalled 2 pairs of wings outgrowths of cuticle O Phylogeny 39 Arthropods were once thought to have evolved from annelids current phylogenies place them with ecdysozoans 23 September 2010 UNIT 2 NOTES Arthropodization tagmosis may have happened a few times in evolutionary history arthropoda may be polyphyletic 39 Hexapoda and crustacean may be sister taxa with milli and centipedes less closely related SUPPORT o Integument protectice outer covering of the body 0 Invertebrates epidermis sometimes covered by a non cellular cuticle o Vertebrate Integument o 2 basic layers 0 Epidermis layer of cells of ectodermal origin 0 Dermis layer of cells of mesodermal origin 0 Epidermis gives rise to hair feathers scales and claws o Stratified Squamous Epithelium o The proximal layers undergo mitosis o Keratin tough waterprost protein 0 Sratumcorneum layer of cells that have undergone keratinization resistant to water UNIT 3 NOTES 0 Hydrostatic support exoskeleton endoskeleton o Exoskeleton I The cuticle of arthropodsis greatly modified more durable specialized for molting o Endoskeleton I Chordata and Echinoderms mesoderm origins o NOTOCHORD 0 Large cells within a fibrous sheath conced by an elastic sheath 0 CARTILAGE o Chondrocytes imbedded in a protein gel with strand of collagen another protein 0 BONE o Osteocytes imbedded in a matrix of calcium I Endochondral Bone I Intramembranous Bone I Cancellous Bone cavity areas inner parts I Compact Bone results in heavy strong tissue outer part 0 Axial Skeleton I The skull vertebral column rib cage 0 Dermal bone in the skull FORAMEN MAGNUM attaches to the spine with 0 Atlas Attaches to the skull first membrane Axis allows side to side swiveling of skull 5 other cervical neck membrane 12 Thoracic Vertebrate rib cage attaches to 5 Lumbar Vertebrate 5 Sacral Vertebrate o 4 Candal Vertebrate coccyx I Fusion of vertebrae has occurred when a more solid structure is need to support the weight of the animal or to act as a support for muscle attachment 0 Seen in Birds Frogs Humans o Sacral Vertebrae o Caudal Vertbrae o Appendicular Skeleton I Bones of the limbs and supporting pectoral and pelvic girdles OOOOO UNIT 3 NOTES 0 Pectoral structures associated with the forelimbs o Pelvic Associated with the hind limbs o Modified Skeletons I Birds pneamatized bore light but strong I Chondichthian fish cartilaginous I Bone Strength is proportional to the cross sectional area 0 As the size of an individual increases the weight increases more rapidly than the strength ofthe bones the bones need to be bigger proportionally to carry the weight I Allometry the proportional sizes of structures compared to the body 0 Large animals will have their limbs directly under the body o Contractile Tissue cells that are specialized for contraction actin and myosin 0 Muscle can only contract PULL o Antagonistic muscles 2 separate muscles are needed to more a bone in 2 directions FLEXOR AND EXTENSOR o Striated muscle cells are called fibrous o Fibers are packaged into fascicles o Fascicles are packaged into muscles 0 Myofibrils structure inside of cell made of contractile proteins that are responsible for contractions o Sacromere functiona unit of a myofibril o THICK FILAMENTS MYOSIN o THIN FILAMENTS ACTN o Sliding filament model of contraction fiaments do not shorten Sarcolemma The plasma membrane ofthe fiber Sarcoplasmic Reticulum system of channels that surround the myofibrils and is continuous with the sarcolemma Contration of the fiber is stimulated by a motor neuron When stimulated by a motor neuron the sarcoplasmic reticulum releases Calcium into the myofibril The calcium binds to troponin and troponin shifts over allowing the myosin to attach to the actin UNIT 3 NOTES ATP is used to separate the head ofthe myosin the actin molecule The energized myosin reattaches and pulls on the actin sliding the 2 filaments by each other When neural stimulation stops the calcium is removed from the myofibril and the actin and myosin are no longer able to attach Motor Unit Recruitment Some fibers are specialized o SLOW FIBERS specialized for sustained contractions slow to react but have holding power 0 High density of mitochondrion good supply of myoglobin tissue has good blood capacity 0 FAST FIBERS speciaized for quick response fatigues easily 0 Lower density of mitochondrion little myoglobin little vascular tissue operate anearbically I Dark meat will be in the legs of chickens and birds 0 Some fast fibers are specialized for aerobic operation breast muscles of ducks Flow of Air Air enters nose nasal chambers pharynx trachea bronchi bronchioles alveoli We have to keep the inner lining of the lungs moist if we breathe dry sir our bodies become dehydrated o Lungs are housed in the thoracic cavity surrounded by ribs diaphragm underneath Negative Pressure Breathing when diaphragm contracts it enlarges the thoracic cavity and air is drawn into the lungs o Ribs Ribs do not play a role in normal breathing maybe after a marathon 0 Breathing is regulated by the pons and medulla oblongata o The brain monitors C02 and adjusts breathing accordingly 0 Hemoglobin Respiratory pigment found in all vertebrates o Affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen changes in a non linear fashion I As hemoglobin attaches to additional 02 its affinity increases 0 At low 02 partial pressures hemoglobin has low affinity for it 0 At high 02 partial pressures hemoglobin has high affinity for it o In lungs 02 diffuses into plasm High 02 hemoglobin loads up UNIT 3 NOTES 0 In tissues 02 used in cells respiration 02 diffuses into tissues plasm level drops and hemoglobin unloads o Diffusion of C02 into plasm changes the pH resulting in hemoglobin dumping more C02 called the bohr effect I C02 H20 HZCOZ o Cutaneous Respiration o Gases diffuse across body surface 0 Not efficient supplemental respiration for fish and amphibians o Gills 0 Useful in aquatic environment counter current orientation allows for efficient transfer of oxygen 0 Countercurrent Orientation 0 Blood and water flow in opposite directions more efficient transfer of gases 0 Lungs internal 0 Gas is pumped in and out 0 Good for terrestrial environments when 02 demands are high 0 Positive pressure in frogs keep their body temperature high 0 Vary from simple sacs in lung fish and amphibians to highly subdivided structures in mammals and birds 0 The more subdivisions are higher the surface area for diffusion o The human lung has 50times SA ofskin 0 Birds have high metabolic rate I Air travels perpendicular I Birds have 2 breaths of air stored inside their body 0 Process two breaths of air at one time o Arthropods have various adaptations for gas exchange tracheal system branching system of tube that deliver atmospheric gases directly to cells 0 Circulatory system 0 blood travels throughout the body delivering oxygen and nutrients collecting nitrogenous waste and carbon dioxide 0 OPEN SYSTEM I Blood called hemolymph o CLOSED SYSTEM I What we have UNIT 3 NOTES I Blood is always inside ofa vessel capillary beds have very fine tubes with thin layer of vessels 0 Vertebrate circulatory System 0 Hearts I Used to pump blood through system 0 Arteries I Vessels that carry blood arterioles o Veins I Vessels that carry blood W I Venules flow into veins 0 Capillaries I Very small vessels come in close proximity to all cells into the body I Capillaries can be closed off with smooth muscle i the heart arteries branch into smaller o Arteries I Arteries are thicker than veins exposed to higher blood pressure I Arteries are designed to put up with the pressure from the heart the blood if at high pressure when it first comes out of the heart 0 Veins I Blood in veins is under low pressure I One way valves and pressure from muscles help drive it back to the heart THE HEART o Atrium 0 Chamber that collects blood retuning to the heart minimal contraction power 0 The only thing to stretch out the muscles in the heart is the pressure from the blood coming back into the heart after it contracts I Takes quite a bit of pressure to do so 0 Ventricle o Takes blood from atrium I Forcefully contracts sending blood throughout the body FISH o 2 Chambered Heart 0 Heart Gills Body Heart 0 Side vessels lead into more capillary beds Amphibians Reptiles o 3 chambered Heart 2 atria 1 ventricle 0 Heart Lung Heart Body Heart UNIT 3 NOTES 0 Pulmonary Circuit Systemic Circuit leaves heart and goes to the tissues that need oxygen Right Atrium receives blood from the body Systemic Circuit 0 Low 02 High C02 0 Left Atrium o Receives Blood from Lungs Pulmonary Circuit 0 High 02 Low C02 Birds and Mammals quoti no mixing of oxygenated and deoxygenated blood 0 AV Values between atria and ventricle o Semilunar Valves separate the ventricles from the arteries 0 Blood flows from the left ventricle to the aorta Huge ventricle Vessels come off aortic arch to supply the head and forelimbs 0 Blood flows through smaller vessels to capillary beds were 02 is released and C02 is absorbed 0 Blood gflows into larger vessels venules and veins and flows in to vena cave back to the heart right atrium lavglnvgmzm Lincity 0 Blood flows from the right ventricle into the pulmonary arteries 0 Blood flows into the capillaries in the lung picks up 02 and releases C02 0 0xygenated blood flows into the pulmonary veins that lead back to the left atrium BLOOD o Circulatory Fluid and associated cells 0 There are three main components of blood 0 1 Plasma mostly water with proteins Electrolytes ionsgucose and dissolved gases 0 2 Blood Cells I Erythrocytes red blood cells contain hemoglobin in mammals no nucleus other vertebrates have nucleated RBCs I Leukocytes white blood cells immune response phagocytize dead cells and invading cells 0 3 Cells Fragments I Platelets mammals pinched off of white blood cells invoved in clotting I Thrombocytes other vertebrates same role as platelets I Blood Clotting o Platelets adhere to areas where tissues have been damaged and stimulate activation of the enzyme Thrombin UNIT 3 NOTES I Thrombin Changes 0 Fibrinogen into Fibrin I The fibrin net captures blood cells and forms a plug Lymphatic System I System of blind end tubes that eventually empty into veins in the neck I Return fluid that quotleakquot out of circulatory system I The Lymphatic System also plays a role in o Immunity I White blood cells lymphocytes are produced in lymph nodes and macrophages protect the body from infection 0 Digestion I Lacteals in the intestine absorb fats Deuterostomes First opening to digestive tract Blastopore Develops into the anus I Although Mobile they metamorphose into radially asymmetrical adults I Unique Water Vascular System used in locomotion and feeding I Endoskeleton of mesodermal origin I COMPLETE DIGESTIVE TRACT with anus on aboral Surface I Most dioecious separate males and females I Development includes a free swimming bilateral Larvae I Coelomic cavities extensive extending out into arms I Central disk usually with five arms Arms broad at base I Mouth on underside of animal oral o Ambulacral grooves radiating down each arm part of water vascular system I Watervascular system 0 Modified coelum that functions as a hydraulic system to manipulate tube feet in ambulacral groove 0 System of tubes that open to sea water at madreporite on aboral surface Madreporite has small opening works like a sieve w r I Madreporite stone canal ring canal radial canals lateral canals tube feet ampulla I Accessory Parts o Tiedeman s Bodies produce coelomocytes cells in coelomic fluid UNIT 3 NOTES 0 Polian Vesicles pouches off ring canal used for fluid storage I Tube Feet extend out of ambulacral Groove tipped with sucked used to grasp substrate or prey o Contraction of muscles in smpulla forces the tube foot to extend o Contraction of muscles arranged longitudinally shorten tube foot 0 Sucker at end of the tube foot can exert 25 30 grams of force allow sea star to live in a very turbulent area I Endoskeleton although calcareous plates ossicles of skeleton are covered by epidermis spines protrude across surface 0 Structures of Epidermis I Pedicellariae tiny pincers used to clean skin of debris and in some to collect food 0 Skin gills Papilae extension of coelom aid in respiration and excretion as do tube feet Mouth Esophagus cardiac stomach pyloric Stomach Intestine Anus o Digestive glands pyloric cecum produce digestive enzymes and used for absorbing nutrients I Excretion o No Specialized structures diffusion across skin gills and tube feet 0 Hermal System another system offluid filled ducts function unknown I Nervous System 0 No cephalization simple ring with radial cords in each arm light sensitive organ at tip of each arm I Reproduction o Dioecious fertilization external may communicate chemically to signal others to release gametes synchronized reproduction o Asexual reproduction by fragmentation regeneration O 21 if ijr i 0 Similar shape to sea star but longer usually flexible arms that are narrow at the central disc 39 No Epidermal Structures 39 Madreporite on oral surface 39 No ambulacral groove ll39l l l 39 r 397 l Vli39f lilili i O Bodyt closed in hemispherical endoskeletonal test dermal some flattened and bilateral sand dollars 39 Have tube feet and spines covering body 39 Aristotle s lantern jaw like apparatus for masticating food 1 gt7 35 gate along the oralaboral axis bilateral Symmetry 39 Epidermis Leathery hydrostatic skeleton UNIT 3 NOTES 39 Modified tube feet form a ring of tentacles around mouth cloaca at anus Respiratory tree 0 Branching tube system off cloaca used for respiration and excretion 39 Can use CUVIERIAN TUBULES or release of internal organs as self defense STICKY THREADS 0 Common fossils in Midwest attached to substrate aborally Phylogeny o Crinoides are most ancestral with Ecinoidea and Holothuroides most derived 0 Whether Asteroidea and Ophiuroidea diverged separately or form a clade is still unknown 0 Neuron o transmit electrical impulses o Glial Cells o epithelial support cells 0 Sensory Neurons 0 receive a signal from a sensory receptor and send it to the brain 0 Receptors are cells that react to environmental stimuli and stimulate sensory neurons 0 Rods cones pressure receptors Sensory neurons transmit a signal from a sensory receptor toward the brain Neurons that transmit a signal from on neuron to another are called interneuron o Neurons that transmit a signal to a gland or muscle fiber are called motor neurons 0 Signal path 39 0 Signal Transmission 0 The signal travels along the neuron as an electrical impulse action potential and between cells as a chemical signal Neurotransmitter o Resting Potential o Enzymes in the membrane ofa neuron create a difference in the ion concentration inside and outside of the cell The membrane is permeable to K but not to Na and Cl Sodium potassium pump Active transport ATP is used to move Na out of cell and K inside I Resting Membrane Potential 70 millivolts OO UNIT 3 NOTES 0 Membrane is polarized unequal charges inside and out the neuron is ready to fire 0 Depolarization I When a neuron at rest is stimulated the action potential is formedgt I Depolarization Sodium channels in membrane open sodium diffuses in K now diffuses out because ofthe reversed polarity I The sodium potassium pump kicks in restores resting potential 0 When a section of the membrane depolarizes it stimulates depolarization in adjacent sections the signal Action Potential travels toward axon I Speed of action potential increases with axon diameter I SCHWANN CELLS o Epithelial cells that wrap around axon and insulate membrane from action potential 0 MYELIN SHEATH o The signal jumps along gaps between Schwann Cells Nodes of Ranvier 0 Chemical Transmission of signal between cells 0 When the action potential reaches the end of the axon neurotransmitters are released from the membrane I Synaptic Cleft I Neurotransmitters I Receptors 0 Why are neurons one way signal transmitters o The nervous systems has TWO main parts 0 1 Central Nervous System I Composed of brain and spinal cord I Processes nervous stimuli and coordinates responses to stimuli 0 The brain in Higher Vertebrates LOOK AT PICTURE o Hindbrain o Midbrain o Forebrain 0 LEFT SIDE I Controls right side of the body I Language mathematics logic and reasoning activities 0 RIGHT SIDE UNIT 3 NOTES I Controls movement on the left side of the body I Spatial artistic and musical activities 0 Corpus Callosum allows sharing of information between two sides 0 Cranial Nerves 0 There are a few ganglia bundles of neurons that come directly off the brain I Fish and amphibians have 10 pairs I Reptiles birds and mammals have 12 pairs 0 Spinal Cord Hollow 0 Dorsal portion carries information from the tissues to the brain SENSORY o Ventral Portion carries information from the brain to the tissues MOTOR I 31 Spinal nerves come off the spine one per vertebrae o 2 Peripheral Nervous System I Network of nervous tissues connecting a parts ofthe body to the central nervous system I Contains somatic Nervous System and Autonomic Nervous System 0 Sensory Division 0 Cells carrying signal toward the brain 0 Motor Division 0 Cells carrying signals away from brain 0 REFLEXES interneuron connect the sensory and motor nerves before signal sent to brain signal to muscle can be sent out from spine 0 Autonomic Nervous System I Nerves ofthe motor division that control unconscious functions 0 Sympathetic Division 0 Increase heart rate and breathing o Decrease digestion o Norepinephrine o Parasympathetic Division o Decrease heart rate and breathing 0 Increase Digestion I Acetylcholine I Vagus cranial nervehg o Nervous Systems General Trends UNIT 3 NOTES Characteristics with Chordates Post anal tail Pharyngeal gill slits Hollow dorsal nerve cord Lacks a notochord Buccal Diverticulum Development includes a free swimming bi lateral larvae very similar to that seen in Echinodermata ooooo Membership based on 5 main characteristics 0 1 Presence of a notochord be a long structure muscles attach to it o 2 post anal tail 0 3 pharyngeal slits area where you find where slits or pouches during development to allow organisms to filter out nutrients out of water 0 4 dorsal hollow nerve cords o 5 endostyle Endoskeleton o Supportive tissue being deeper in body Segmented muscles 0 Annelids arthropods and chordate are segmented Complete digestive system Bilateral symmetry Triploblastic Eucoelomate 79 ll n Members of Urochor tunicates o 1600 Species o A few are free living all have mobile tapole larvae o Larvae have all 5 chordate characteristics adults do not I Swamps I Filter feeder l 1 lancelets I Small benthie marine aso called Amphioxus o 25 species 0 Very simple animals with all 5 chordate characteristics in a free living adults o Gil slits are used to separate food matter UNIT 3 NOTES 7 ll 7LCl rimquot 1 I Members of vertebrata are characterized by being chordates with o Endoskeleton of cartilage or bone 0 Includes vertebrae in axial skeleton o Well developed nervous system with cephalization o Paired limbs appendages first used stabilization in water later support on land Well developed respiratory system pharyngeal gill arches become infused with capillary beds as water filtered oxygen is added to blood Vertebrate Natural History The Reptiles Sau Part WFSI39ERN KENTUCKY UNNERSITY jos Pedro S do WKU Evolution and Classi cation of organisms The Reptiles Sauria How doth the little crocodile How doth the little crocodile Improve his shining tail And pour the waters of the Nile On every golden scale How cheerfully he seems to grin How neatly spreads his claws And welcomes little shes in With gently smiling jaws Lewis Carroll 0 Classi cation Class Reptilia SUPERKINGDOM Eukaryotaz eukaryotes Organisms made up of cells containing DNA enclosed in a nucleus KINGDOM Metazoa Animalia metazoans Multicellular organisms BRANCH C Eumetazoa eumetazoans Organisms more complex than mesozoans parasites of marine invertebrates and sponges GRADE II Bilateria bilaterals Organisms with bilateral symmetry Coelomata coelomatesThe coeloma is an internal cavity coated by a mesodermic membrane the peritoneum DIVISION B Deuterostomia deuterostomes Newly formed mouth anus formed from the blastoporus PHYLUM Chordata chordatesThey have a notochord a cellular cord which crosses the body serving as a skeletal axis CLADE Craniata craniatesThey have a skull or cranium a box covering the brain SUBPHYLUM VertebratavertebratesA vertebral column surrounds the nerve cord and acts as a skeletal axis SU PE RCLASS Gnathostomata gnathostomesThey possess jaws Class Reptilia SERIES Amniota animals that develop an amniotic eg a fluid lled cavity containing the embryo Reptiles birds and mammals CLASS Saur39opsida sauropsids Reptiles and birds SUBCLASS Anapsida ORDER Testudines turtles SUBCLASS Diapsidaz birds crocodiles and squamous reptiles SUPERORDER Lepidosaur iaztuataras lizards and snakes ORDER Sphenodontia ORDER Squamata INFRACLASS Archosauromorpha DIVISION Archosaur39ia birds and crocodiles Includes the extinct dinosaurs SUBDIVISION Crurotarsi SUPERORDER Crocodylomorpha ORDER Crocodylia crocodiles Classes of Taxa a a Monophyletic a monophyletic group includes the ancestral group and all of its descendants Classes of Taxa b b Paraphyletic a paraphyletic group includes the ancestral group and some but not all of its descendants Classes of Taxa c Polyphyletic a polyphyletic group does not include the most recent common ancestral of the considered groups Class Reptilia Avian Dinosau rs Anapsid Skull j jugal p parietal po postorbital q quadrate qj quadmtojugal sq squamosal Diapsid Skull j jugal p parietal po postorbital q quadrate qj quadmtojugal sq squamosal Eur a Sld Skull jjugal y P p parietal po postorbital q quadrate qj quadmtojugal sq squamosal Synapsud Skull j jugal p parietal po postorbital q quadrate qj quadmtojugal sq squamosal Reptilian Skin Moulting OEGL ouler epidermm gmerannn ayer IEGL mm r cpmcvma gonelahun my 56 slvalum gsnmnanvum y C ezvage Zone mus wllh lymphauc Huldy Eegmrmg or Renewa Phase Concmsmn oi Renewal Phase Renewa Fhase Skm mamas dun 3km ver mm 5km and eyes clear and Lasxs an avenge Speclames Mme become smny w days m up ue Shedamg begins 3 days Lzsls appmxmmely aner 5km cleans 374 days Resnng Phase ndennue uengm Endysxs x uu 1 mm mm whgmwm my M Yolk 1m Spruvg rW rlngl Epidermis Dennis r Keratinizedlayer 7 Epidermis 39l 1 lower epidermal aquot mmtlon Stratum inte39mediu39 Keratinproducing zone Dermal papilla 39 Inner epidema39 Germinal matrix generation 0 000 a Basal cell layer p Melanin 39 39 Stratum corneum granules 39 Figure 613 chtilc skin a Epitlcnnal scale Extent of 39 Transmonal layer projection and overlap of epidermal scales varies among reptiles 39 v and even along the body of the same indivnlunl Snake hotly scales top and tuberculnr scales Ul rnam39 lizards bottom are illmtated Between scales is a thinned area of epidermis a hinge allowing skin exibility h Skin shedding Just lscl39nrt the old b Outerlaycr of epidermis is shrd the basal cells produce an inner epidermal generation White blood cells collect in the splitting m to promote separation of new from ultl nutcr epidermis i i Stratum basale Chromatophore i r gt J L i Epidermis in epidermis Dennis Chromatophore Blood capillary Figure 614 Blrkl skin a Growth of a leather l39nllit39le The feather itself forms within a sheath that like this leather IS a keratimzcd derivative of the epidermis h Section ntxkin showing the stratum basalt and the kcratmiwtl surface layer the stratum corneum Cclls moving out of the basal layer spend time rst In the tmnsnmnal lnycr hallm rcaching tlic surincc This miildlc transitinnal layer is eqmvzilent m the spinnsum and granulosum layers of mammals Turtle Scales and Marking maxm 5cm 1 DIGIT A 4 2 7 2 4 DIGIT 1 mum 7 mmwa vmmnm mucus 5cm chTE mama sum 7 7 4 4 DIGIT 3 DIGIT 2 tunma 2 1 1 2 mm Fig 2 mum uI Tympam unpue with m Pluxinn mm mm Duilnzl men nutzrnmthingxyxtm sz wmma 20 Transition zone Annulation zone Enlargement zone Figure 415 Lateral View of a species of Amphishaona to show the segmentation pattern in the different regions of the body The penetration zone re ects the frictionreducing fusion of head segments The annulation zone shows the regular pattern of body annulr useful in locomotion The transition zone trorn one to the other also allows some flexibility permitting the mouth to open and the head to swing on the head joint 2 3 2 Reptilian Brain Fourth ventricle Medulla oblongata e Alligator Diencephalon Cerebrum OlfaCtOW ract Olfactory HI Infundlbulum II Pituitary HINDSRAIN mane TECTUM CEREBEM sPINAI com FOWEEHAIN 39 F M 39 v uoLsus of ms LATERAL nasczunme TRISEMNAL 1mm 1mm FOREBRAIN INJECTION A OPTIC TECTUM CEREBELLUM HINDBRMN RETICULARIS INJECTION B Lows RC Infrared Vision in Snakes The members of at least three families of snakes and one species of bats can cue on prey by interpreting infrared signals Infrared and visible light information are integrated by the brain to produce a combined picture of the environment Rattlesnakes Viperidae Crotalinae pythons Pythonidae and boid snakes Boidae have structures in the head that transduce infrared signals into nerve impulses HINDBHAIN facial pits loreal infra and supra labial pits were made when the rst Sgg m m specimens were captured by 39 biologists but their function if H OPTIC NERVE MW MMWWW a BHANCHOFTRIGEMINALNEFN Noble and Schmidt I937 were the rst to show that the facial and FOHEBRMN V The anatomical descriptions of the 39 H labial pits detect heat Bullock and collaborators I956 showed that the pit organs can detect infrared radiation released by warm objects independently from whether the MFlWLLED iNNfR CAVITY TERMINALNERVE mes 39 0F THIGEMENAL AXON l AIRmuse omen 0mm TRIGEMINAb 1 NERVE enmewes Li OF WT stimuli were presented in the dark or in the light Detection Threshold 0 Threshold tests showed that a change in the temperature of the pit as small as 0003 C induced conspicuous changes in the ring rates of the more sensitive neurons Bullock and Dieke I956 1 eadly accura e ii g z W m i Deadly accute The morphological characteristics of the pit organs and in some species their number and placement are responsible for the directional capabilities of the infrared sense Deadly accute 2 The morphological characteristics of the pit organs and in some species their number and placement are responsible for the directional capabilities of the infrared sense The aperture of the pit organ is roughly less than half the diameter of the sensory surface thus it can act as a pinhole camera and the location of the illuminated patch on the sensory surface can give a clue to the location of the warm source Deadly accute 2 The morphological characteristics of the pit organs and in some species their number and placement are responsible for the directional capabilities of the infrared sense The aperture of the pit organ is roughly less than half the diameter of the sensory surface thus it can act as a pinhole camera and the location of the illuminated patch on the sensory surface can give a clue to the location of the warm source Trigonometric calculations show that to localize a small warm source with accuracy within 5 the snake should be able to discriminate the position of the illuminated patch to within I75 umThis accuracy is plausible for the pit membrane has 7000 receptors each 60 um across LAT Hemph Tectum Card tel Tectum AOB Tectum med 33 B cort plate OLFN MOB fasicils tectum Basal tel hYPOth 2 Reptilian Movement lchthyosaurs Pterodactyls Draco volans Dinosaurs Nuchal tendon Must le slips Figure 420 The muscles that pull the head up when an amphisbacmd widens a tunnel insen on the nuchal tendon from their origins on the neural arches of the anterim vertebtae Not only does this allow the animal to generate the force tar back along the body but it also makes the muscle pinnate smce its fibers lie at an angle to the line of force that they prudute Nuchal tendon Dentary Esophagus Pectoral region Occipital Condyle Cervical vertebra Figure 430 The sagittal section of an African spadesnouted amphisbaenlan Monopeltis shows the position of the nuchal tendon when the head pushes the movement of the head the enlarged pectoral shields which lie ventral to the cervical vertebrae must slide forward as the tip of the snout does not extend as far forward in the dorsalmost as In the ventralmost position ol the w39 e cord at the head joint and the compression of esophagus and trachea between vertebrae and skin 43 Muscle to rib end Muscle io rib side inlegumemary muscle from raphe to raphe integumem b Contracled sxreiched Figure 411 Motiiity of the amphisbaeman skin results from the stretching a ody The intrinsic dermal muscles Eth p e anima repulsion occurs by contraction of the mus cular connections between locally fixed skin and he ribsv


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