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by: Dillon Luettgen


Marketplace > Western Kentucky University > History > HIS 120C > WESTERN CIV SINCE 1648
Dillon Luettgen
GPA 3.59

Charles Borders

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Charles Borders
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dillon Luettgen on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 120C at Western Kentucky University taught by Charles Borders in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see /class/216726/his-120c-western-kentucky-university in History at Western Kentucky University.


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Date Created: 09/30/15
In order to experience and understand the complete effect Nazis had on Jewish daily life we first need to understand what life was like before the Nazi invasion started First we are going 77 4 to talk about daily life and the history of Jewish women We were so German we were so assimilated we were so middle class reading through books and books this is something constant that was said prior to the attacks on the Jewish community Kaplan p5 They thought everything was going smoothly they had no idea what was in store for them over the next several years Slowly the Jews were being hated against Kids still went to school even though they were told not to women still went to the store for food even when the store said Jews were not allowed The effects were so slow that people almost didn t realize what was happening To better understand the effects gender had on the Jewish people we also need to understand thoughts and accounts from males during the Nazi Germany Only then can we compare what was truly different The book starts off by saying the racism and sexism go handinhand First to be attacked was the men The Nazis could destroy their business leaving women to keep everything in order Sometimes women would also sell the house get a paying job and pick somewhere to leave after she had figured out Jewish people were being discriminated against Jewish women were more sensitive to discrimination more eager to leave Germany more willing to face uncertainty abroad than discrimination and ostracism at home Kaplan p8 Next the book tells us about the daily life This is so we can see how much life changed during and after the war We are going to look at the interaction between Jews and the German population Life was normal for those who were not affected deigning to serve Jews denouncing neighbors or Jewish friends became normal Everyone adapted to this way of life Before the discrimination started the Jewish community had already started mixing in with everybody else They started to marry outside of the religion and have children The book then goes on to talk about why the Jews were picked on Hitler and many of his followers believed that the Jewish wanted to take over the world They were the root of all evils Hitler had to do something to make sure the Jews wouldn t take over so he took it upon his self to take them out In summary Jews thought Nazis would die out after they got a couple victories They lived their life as normal as they could with the limitations that were set on them A boycott in 1933 tried to uncover Jews and destroy their businesses Later in 1935 the Nuremberg Laws took away everything the Jews had their rights as citizens In two years Jews had been stripped of everything they worked so hard for Males were the rst to feel the wrath of the new Nazi Germany the Nazis spared women physical abuse for the time being German Jews became scared that their house was going to get searched to look for something to put them in jail So in private they burned books newspapers and magazines that showed any hint of rebellion People were put in jail for having these Being someone in that time your wish would to only be in jail they would beat you and torture you to the edge of life Fear fear feari morning noon and night Kaplan p21 Jewish people were scared to do anything a trip to the store the bank or even outside the house could lead to being beaten So Jews hid in fear fear for their lives The boycott in 1933 foreshadowed horrible things that were going to happen People were urged not to go into their stores and buy their goods When someone raised the question Who after all was a Jew Kaplan p22 the boycott ultimately failed The Nazis could not point out who was a Jew and who was not This did not stop the Nazis They forced Jews to sell their businesses the Aryans By the end of 1938 twenty to twentyfive percent of Jewish businesses remained But if the business started before 1914 then the Jewish were able to keep the establishment Even with this one rule not many businesses were able to stay open In 1933 the Goebbels took over the creative side of Jewish life Jews were no longer allowed to be in music lms theater arts and even journalism With little Jewish businesses being open and Jewish employees red from their job Jews began to work with one another Women would work for their husband because he was no longer able to pay a worker With more and more women having to go into the work force they soon realized they didn t really have an education for anything Women learned many skills and languages in hopes of nding a job Women were great at adapting to the time they were more eager to go into a job and change their way for a job Whereas men were more stubborn and stopped training for a job at thirty women would train all the way until they were fty Jews had to nd places to live since they no longer felt safe in the house they currently had No one wanted to rent places to Jews let alone a Jew buy property from them It was very hard for Jews to feel safe and with no house it was almost impossible Along with this they also had atough time nding food They couldn t nd a place that sold kosher food that was cheap enough to buy No matter the circumstances the Jewish needed to eat so secretly people would butcher kosher so they could eat Even then the meat was still expensive and many could not afford Instead Jews had to eat meals without any meat in them and a cookbook was put out offering vegetarian recipes Something that indicated that the Nazis had taken over was the interaction between the Jewish and everybody else If you were on the bus or train with Jewish people nonJewish people would call them out and announce who they were Something that made it hard for people to tell who was Jewish and who was not were the caricatures that were placed in the newspaper People were getting Jewish mixed with Aryans and just the opposite So unknowingly people were letting Jews into schools stores and shops People were so idiotic that if a Jewish person did not look like the pictures then they would not believe they were JewishPeople were now throwing rocks and breaking into Jewish houses on a daily basesWomen and men alike were afraid to stay in their house for the fear that they were going to get broken into and beaten to death Neighbors were outing the Jewish families and warning everyone to say away from them The worst kind of hate came from a friend Knowing someone before the Nazi Germany and now they won t talk to you This was one of the biggest signs that Germany had changed Jewish people tried to help their nonJewish friends by avoiding them Many nonJews still wanted to talk and be around Jews but for the fear of their friends Jews stayed away The straint between Jews and nonJews were tightened when the Nuremberg law came out and put limits on who Jews could be with sexually In the end Germany succeeded in their effort to segregate Jews completely by the 1930 s Since nonJews were not for the most part talking to Jews Jewish people had to turn to one another This was not that hard mostly for the fact that they lived in such close proximities of each other They tended to stay away from public meeting places such as the movies cafes and concerts Instead they just meet each other at their house and occasionally went to the movies When Jews gathered at a house one thing was on everyone s mind where they being watched And by whom In private Jews tried to return to a life of normalcy They still celebrated holy days and even went on vacation Yes they were still discriminated in some other countries but it was not as bad as it was in Germany This helped the Jewish community hold onto something they could grasp With this new way of thinking came role reversing for males and females The females were now the protectors of the family the woman brought home the money Women were also standing up for the males in the families just as they used to do for the women Even though things seemed to be going better for the Jews within a community there was still the threat of being beaten and tortured everywhere they went So the thought of moving out of the country was in the back of everyone s minds Jews ed the personal hostility of villages and smaller tons by seeking the anonymity and hence relative safety of large cities Kaplan p62 With more Jews around you were more likely to be left alone then in a small town where you might be the only Jew With more and more Jewish leaving Germany the circle of friends became smaller and smaller The Jews who stayed behind felt left out and a little piece of them died everything someone they knew left At this time women had more power and more say over the family then the man did Around 1936 people were migrating left and right Many males didn t feel the need to leave they were not susceptible to the discrimination as much as the women were Things that held the men back where their involvement with the economy and their love for the German culture and politics Even though the roles may be been reversed the man still made the decision on whether they should leave or not But of course the Nazis got wind of all the Jewish people leaving They were going to have none of this So they made policies against the Jews immigrating thirtytwo nations assembled at the Evian Conference regretted they could not take in more Jews Kaplan p70 This shows that not only Germany was discriminating against the Jews The other countries didn t need working middle class they needed people who could farm their land They also did not want a lot of elderly people which at the time a lot of Jewish people were Another way Nazis controlled the Jewish was to limit how much money and what property they could leave the country with About 37000 Jews left Germany in 1933 Kaplan p72 This is not a large number by any means but year after year more Jews left By 1935 a large number of Jews had to come back to Germany because they were becoming poor in the other country Next the book talks about mixed families This is where one parent is Jewish and the other parent is not whether they are Aryan or not If you were a part of the mixed family no matter what percentage Jewish you were you were treated as a full Jew During this time of great distress you would think that people wouldn t marry as much But on the contrary people were getting married more now than they have in the past It was hard enough for Jews to get married to one another let alone marrying someone outside of the Jewish community This led to the question of who really was a Jew Of course the Nuremberg Laws found a way to describe someone Jewish It was said that if you had three Jewish grandparents you were said to not be Jewish or have a spouse that was Jewish you were not Jewish You just had Jewish grandparents this helped the Nazis because many of them had Jewish relatives in their families Another category said if you are Jewish you have one Jewish grandparent and if you are Aryan you don t have any Jewish grandparents Aryans were told not to marry anyone that had Jewish relatives To get around be called a Jew some Jews tried and registered as Christians but they were still classi ed as Jews Ifyou were Aryan and were thought to or actually had sex with a Jew you were to shave your head so that everyone could tell what you had done Aryan people who were thought to have been with a Jew lost their jobs family and dignity If you were a Jewish male and thought to have a relationship with anyone outside your religion then you were sent to prison a sentence of four to ve years was the average Even though it was thought of to be bad to marry outside of religion you cannot help who you love Jews and their partners went outside the country to get married When they came back they wanted to start a family And the birth rates of Aryans increased while the birth rates of German Jews decreased Families that were mixed faced great challenges They were hated not only by their neighbors or employers but also from their familiesThis might be due to the fact that not only were the mixed families hated on but the families of the mixed couple are hated against as well This could have led to a divorce The divorce rates are higher for Jewish couples more than nonJewish couples Even though the family might have wanted to get a divorce they kept it to themselves and made peace for the dignity of the family In 1933 a law was passed saying no more crowding ofthe German schools the schools were allowed to have one and a half percent Jewish population This is a place where a lot of Jewish kids faced the harsh reality of the Nazis taking over German There was no adult or parent around to protect them Even outside of the classroom at school events Jews were not allowed to come they had been banned Of course it varied where the Jewish family lived If you were in a rural area you were less likely to feel the effects In small towns and villages the effects were heavy upon their shoulders It was common in a school to have classroom segregated one for Germans and one for Jewish students If you were not sure what your religion was because you had a mixed family you better believe the Nazis would make sure you knew before you left school As said before women were more emotional than men during this tie The women of the household took on the pain and stress their kids would bring home from school This is most likely because women dealt with the kids When they were kicked out of school the moms picked them up The moms looked a new school and the moms where the first person called when something went wrong in the class Younger kids did not understand what was going on why their old friends weren t talking to them anymore They shared this with their family on the contrary older kids mostly kept to themselves They knew their parents were busy and didn t have time to deal with them so they held everything in When they wanted to talk to a parent it had to be the mom Fathers just didn t understand they told the buys to toughen up and act more manly To get their minds off of what was happening around them Jewish teens began to come together in youth groups Unlike their parents the youth thought there was no future for them The parents tried to hold on to what they had The careers that the kids wanted also made problems for the parents and the kids Girls wanted to work behind desk and with kids such as a teacher Their parents on the other hand wanted them to learn a skill Boys were allowed to go after whatever career they wanted although going into agricultural or trades was the best pick Between 1934 and 1939 thousands of parents made the agonizing decision to send their children out of Germany and into the unknown Kaplan p 116 Parents were worried about their children so they sent them out of Germany in the hopes of escaping and making something out of themselves By 1939 most teenagers had left Germany In 1938 the Nazis collected Jewish men and sent them to concentration camps In the fall of 1938 Jews were required to stamp a J on their clothes so they could easily be identi ed This is the time were the Nazis picked up every Jew no matter what age or gender Mobs destroyed holy items and books and plundered Jewish homes while forcing Jews to watch Kaplan p 122 Nazis were becoming more bold and daring taking Jews to the camps left and right The thoughts that nonJewish Germans had was that what the Nazis were doing was perfectly okay Some women were publicly humiliated beaten and even killed people thought this was normal After seeing what was to happen to the Jews emigration became a big priority Laws were being put up about emigration restricting how many people were let out Not only did you have to get papers from the country you wanted to go to you also had to get papers so that you could leave Germany This process could take many months to follow through By the end of 1938 the Jewish population was older than fty In 1940 people between the ages of eighteen to sixty were sent to force labor camps The average day consisted of ten hours of working per day Even though working took up a good portion of their day was working they weren t protected against workplace injuries Something that helped the days go by was the new friendships that were formed Day after day they worked with these people so why not form a bond that many people don t have at this time In 1941 probably in late spring the Nazis decided upon the Final Solution the annihilation of European Jewry Kaplan p 179 At the end of 1941 mental disorders and suicide rates went up The person most likely killed themselves because this was a tame death opposed to the death the Nazis would in ict upon them The suicide rates were higher in men Later in the years people started to plan the suicides they would do these in groups Sometimes even a whole household would commit suicide By October 1941 most Jews that were deported were killed Some people at this time understood what was going to happen and deported themselves without being accompanied by anyone After being deported the Jews were taken to assembly points This is where they waited for the trains to take them to the concentration camps Next to death having your family broken up at these assembly points was the hardest thing By 1942 the letters asking Jews to evacuate were stopped being sent Instead the Nazis went into the public and rounded up the Jews they could nd and put them in cars to head to their deaths March 63911 some prisoners were released The German Jews that remained in Germany during deportation went into hiding There were many ways for Jews to hide They could remove their stars and live as Aryans or hid out of site from everyone For those who had not hidden earlier the roundup of Jewish forced laborers at the end of February 1943 was the final push Kaplan p202 At this time Jews that were in the work force were deported Although most Jews who were in hiding tried to stay out of the light a bond started to form between Jews that were hiding If one Jew knew the whereabouts of the Nazis then they would inform the other This was a way to make things safer After the war ended the few Jewish people left came out of hiding Even though they were lucky to be alive their homes businesses and lives were still destroyed There were no happy endings Kaplan p228 Ireally enjoyed this book Like the last book report I enjoyed the subject But I m social studies major so I like it all The book was very informative and went into a lot of details that I had not known about It s interesting to see what people went through and to have all of the accounts in a book so you get the whole effect Works Cited Kaplan Marion A Between DignitV and Despair Jewish Life in Naiz Germanv New York Oxford University Press 1999


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