RURAL SOCIOLOGY AGRI 108
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This 87 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ava Muller on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AGRI 108 at Western Kentucky University taught by John Kessell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see /class/216727/agri-108-western-kentucky-university in Agriculture Education at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Rural Sociology RELIGION Functions of Religion 1 2 3 4 Relief of FearAnxiety Explains Unknown SelfJustification Social Control Church an organization of believers having a common faith and creed The difference in denominations is scriptural interpretation music wine common cup Teaches religious doctrine encourages members to follow doctrine Provides counseling service Carry welfare social recreation functions Church 1 Trained professional ministers exception Cumberland Presbyterians Passive Participation Hierarchical Appeals to Intellect Accepts cultural vales P PWP Sect A religious group within an organized religion that recognizes special teaching Examples Christian Scientist Amish Seventh Day Adventist Jehovah s Witnesses deny trinity Church ofJesus Christ of Latter Day Saints Sect 1 Untrained parttime ministers 2 Active Participation 3 Congregational decisions made by congregation 4 Appeals to Emotions 5 Rejects cultural values 6 Lower socioeconomic members Cult religious body focusing on a single deity or spirit worshipping 1 Worships a person principle or idea in lieu of God 2 All socioeconomic levels 3 A person is normally involves in a church or sect before becoming involved with this group 4 Thrives on insecure people Characteristics of the Rural Church 1 Small size Traditional slow to change Limited Programs PWP Limited Theology Problems of the Rural Church 1 Finances no guaranteed income Tithing 10 Lord s Acre whatever you make from one acre of land to church 2 Reluctance to change inherited leadership family owned and operated 3 Inadequate geared toward adults lack of finance for Sunday Schools midweek services athletics social gatherings for young people 4 Cemeteries 5 Lesser qualified ministers Characteristics of Growing Denominations 1 Personal Salvation precise literal scriptural interpretation 2 High propitiations of families in child bearing ages 3 Remain aloof from other denominations 1 Members older 2 Theologically and politically liberal 3 Leaders in ecumenical council of churches m a nun Blemlurlno nId n 19m Hum vahm Mmkulw mu Snare uspA Aymkure m Bunk ma 927 lbsyear ii3939onsumption is decreasing 39 j Like 1129 lbsyear retail weight Consumption is increasing Why Meat consumption is slightly decreasing Why an average of 3089 eggs were consumed by each citizen consume 1674 lbs of ice cream Butter 42 lbs 1272 lbs Him fresh and frozen r w U M H L 39 r f fr V rfI39JJL 9 were consumed in can for every childday teens drink 3 cansday More calories consumed than in cookies candy and ice cream combined Dependence as Weakened Bones vathappenst0 a difference we be genetically engineering foods Are the foods grown outside white meat consumption better than red meat consumption zeco rd Keeping Farmers Common Stereo Types of US Rich Apathetic Aggressive Ignorant Fat Ethnocentric Conservative Materialistic Selfish Hypocritical Individualistic 1 The farmer is an independent actor equal to all other men in partnership with God and selfsufficient 2 Agriculture is the basic industry on which all progress and prosperity are based 3 Agricultural life is natural and morally desirable while urban living produces an emphasis on the evils of leisure and materialism in place of hard work Farmer Nonmaterialistic Honest Selfsufficient Hard worker Average age 52 Decreased Income RF 13 Poverty level High Debt Ratio Family size RF 23 children vs 18 Urban Farmers continued Parttime farmers Kentucky and Tennessee Divorce Rates lower in Rural Farm areas Husband Farmswife work public Wife works for insurancehealth benefits Farmers US government defines farmers as persons living in a rural territory on places which had or normally have sales of agricultural products of 1 00000 or more in one year Values Family God Animals Crops Land Pnde Life itself Owning land equipment house etc Conservationist Individualist Respect Grows crops Livestock production Yearly income from commodities Devote time to the land Sells crop andor livestock for lively hood Long hours Small profit No Respect for Farmers cont Love what they do pride Moral values Poor Tends the land Contributes Life 391 392 393 394 395 396 Role of farmwife Bookkeeping Errands Take care of house Production Reproduction Raising children Shoulder to lean on supporter Environment Environmental regulations Control supply and demand Price support 2030 farm incomes KY 42 Farm incomes from Gov Based subsidies ages of Subsidies 86 Grain Farmers KY 49 Beef Farmers KY 23 Dairy Farmers KY 25 Swine Farmers KY Bush reduced subsidies by 325000 Government Roles Free Market taxes property Estate taxes SSI Medicare Control prices Price support Dairy and Tobacco subsidies program Diversification Children Free labor Workers Respectful Work habits KY Major farm income 1 Horses 2 Poultry 3 Tobacco 4 Beef KY income Rural areas 1 Meth 2 Marijuana 3 Migrant workers Most migrants are illegal coyotes These are all nontaxed incomes World Competition Weak Dollar abroad Inflation Cash Flow High Debt ProblemsIssues Health Farming is 3rel most dangerous occupation High rate Skin cancer High rate Lung cancer High levels of Stress High rate Drowning High rate Heart disease ProblemsIssues Weather Costs of products Costs of chemicals Prices Consumer demand Innovativeness and Adopter Categories Innovativeness The degree to which an individual or other unit of adoption is relatively earlier in adopting new ideas than other members of the social system Not everyone adopts at the same time People can be classi ed by their adoption habits 2530 opportunities for adoption needed to classify someone into an adopter category Frequency Adopter Categories novatorsI 25 Early Late Majority Majority Ea yl dopterls Laggards 16 135 34T 34 me Innovator Venturesome First 25 to adopt Willing to take risks Eager to try new things Accepts mistakes in judgment Can deal with mental abstractions Follows practices not always accepted by others Innovator Underconforms to social system norms Very cosmopolitan has outside interests Possesses some opinion leadership Highest social status Makes friends with other innovators Uses impersonal sources of information Innovator Has closest contact with source of information Considers distances no barrier to solving problems Better educated Observant Can obtain sizable nancing or support Early Adopter Respected Next 135 to adopt Progressive Model followed by others Greatest opinion leadership Realizes need to maintain peers39 respect Early Adopter Formal leader within community High social status Large specialized operations Above average education Very localite Greatest contact With local change agents Early Majority Deliberate Next 34 to adopt More conservative Above average social status Average sized operation Average nancial resources Slightly above average education Early Majority Many informal contacts in community Contact with early adopters Contact with change agents Some opinion leadership Rarely holds formal leadership positions Sources of information are magazines friends neighbors Early Majority Relatively long adoption period Follows with deliberate Willingness Predictable Late Majority Skeptical Next 34 to adopt Questions new ideas About average social status Small income Slightly belowaverage operation Late Majority Slightly below average education Little travel outside community Little activity in formal organizations Secures ideas from peers in same category Slower than average to adopt Late Majority Less use of mass media Little opinion leadership Little specialization in operation Forced to adopt by economic necessity social pressures Public opinion must favor proposed change Laggard Traditional Last 16 to adopt Most localite Smallest operations Oldest Very little opinion leadership Laggard Low level of education Few organizational memberships except church Sources of information include neighbors friends relatives Cannot handle mental abstractions Suspicious of the innovation innovators change agents Laggar d Adoption lags far behind awareness Has social contact with other laggards Lowest social status Oriented to the past Fearful of debt Maslow s Hierarchy of Needs L Selfactualisation personal growth and fulfilment Esteem needs achievement status responsibility reputation Belongingness and Love needs family affection relationships wor oup etc Safety needs protection security order law limits stability e Biological and Physiological needs basic life needs air food drink shelter warmth sex sleep etc Poverty Guidelines Persons in Family or Household 1 8 For each additional person add 48 Contiguous States and DC 10400 14000 17600 21200 24800 28400 32000 35600 3600 Alaska 13000 17500 22000 26500 31000 35500 40000 44500 4500 2008 HHS Poverty Guidelines SOURCE Federal Register Vol 73 No 15 January 23 2008 pp 3971 3972 Hawaii 1 1960 16100 20240 24380 28520 32660 36800 40940 4140 Persistent Poverty Counties Counties that have poverty rates of 20 or higher between the years 1970 amp 2000 340 of the 386 88 are nonmetro Nonmetro South has 82 of the nonmetro persistently poor counties Persistence Poverty Counties RENEW persistmt paw41y Melquot p si wnt panm lt 38 of households living in poverty are in single mother househalds r 34 are in twoadult households Remaining 28 percent live alone 0r with nemelatives ir39 i fMyth Z The vast majority of poor are African American or Hispanics 48 living in poverty in America are white 729 percent living in poverty in rural areas in US were white 1 Many paverty are nct 0f wurking age 7 Elderly 48 are ohjldren Many have a mark 5 Naticmally 30 0f the working age living in paverty were already waking Nationally the majcrity af rural pear families have at least one member marking Myth 4 Rural Agriculture at Less that 10 of the rural population lives on farms 3 1992 only 76 of rural employment was in farming 51 was service employment Child Poverty 697 End of the 1990 s 3 One of every five rural Children was living in a family with income below official poverty line Women 8c Poverty 58 of the rural population 65 and older 7 l of rural population age 85 and older 9 In 2003 women constituted 65 of the rural poor age 65 and above Owsley County Kentucky 2000 Population 4858 Historically a small scale farming area non mining Population today is half the size of the population in 1940 the poorest nonhispanic white county in the country Owsley County Kentucky Cont Child poverty rate of 56 Median household income 15800 US nonmetro medium 33700 36 of children have no working parent in the household e Very high incidence of disability among ages 2164 e 34 of adults completed less than one year of high school Nationally 9 Social Classes Where do we t in The Lower Class 20 of the total US Population Generally Poorly Educated Low Literacy and Employment If Poor Health Lower Class Low Rate of Political Participation High Rate of Unemployment 39 Many Working Class 70 of the US Population Blue Collar White Collar and Blue Collar 30 Blue Collar Lower Majority have z Working Class Usually Perform a Skill for Employment Some Political Power May Belong to Labor faiiri i ii ll Emphasis is on Activities Lower Middle Class Blue Collar Plant Workers Owners of Small wealth Lower Upper Middle Class 10 of US Population Highly Educated Works in Executive and Fields Work is an Upper Middle Class Often Leaders in Their Communities Involved in Politics May have Investment Upper Class 13 of US Population The wealth of the top 1 in the United equals the wealth of the lower Leaders in a Profession Many times Wealth r Very Involved in So Who Are We Mockinqbird Vallev Kentucky Ranks 10th in Highest Income places in the US 134745 with a population of 190 Belle MeadeTennessee Ranks 27th 104908 with a population of 2943 Glenview Kentucky Ranks 74th 85094 with a pop Of 558 100 Poorest Counties in the US Kentucky has 16 We are 2 Overall 18th Clay County Kentucky 9716 21St McCreary County Kentucky 9896 31St Wolfe County Kentucky 10321 33039 Leslie County Kentucky 10429 39th Martin County Kentucky 10650 40th Knox County Kentucky 10660 US Average Per Capita Income is 21587 100 Poorest Counties by Median Household Income Kentucky has 29 and Ranks 1 Ranks 3rOI Owslev County Kentucky 15805 Ranks 4th Clay County Kentucky 16271 Ranks 11th Martin County Kentucky 18279 Average Median Household Income In US is 41994
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