COLLEGE CHEMISTRY II
COLLEGE CHEMISTRY II CHEM 222
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Viola Durgan on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 222 at Western Kentucky University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/216753/chem-222-western-kentucky-university in Chemistry at Western Kentucky University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Chemistry 222 Chapter 16 7 Principles of Chemical Equilibrium Petrucci 8th Ed THINGS TO KNOW 7 THINGS TO DO This is a very important chapter in that it sets down the basic description of chemical equilibrium that will I and in subsequent chapters Doing good work here will pay off We will cover the entire chapter sections 16 7 The SUMMARY of Chapter 16 on page 656 covers the important facts You should know the definition of e2 in the KEY TERMS list on page 657 LeChatelier39s Principle section 166 is an especially important concep chapter You should know how to use the following equations For an equation of the form aA bB cC dD denotes the equilibrium state The relationship between the four concentrations at equilibrium is page 631 C C D d Aa B h K c For the system not at equilibrium the reaction quotient Q is page 623 Note For the reaction quotient the initial concentrations are used not the eqm values C c D d A a B b For gaseous systems in equilibrium express concentration at partial pressure page 640 pc PS a b PA PE KP The relationship between KC and Kp for a system in equilibrium page 635 eqn 1612 Kp KCRT39 R 00821 LiatmmoliK For many problems the quadratic equation will be useful for 43xZ O o quot 2 o o b 7 b 421C 2a a43 b16 c 025 There are several problems presented through out the chapter and you should work each one of these as WE Review Questions on pages 657 amp 658 Answers are on page A56 in the Appendix Also do the followii 25 29 33 37 39 45 49 67 In addition several sets of problems will be handed out in class Chemistry 222 Chapter 15 A Chemical Kinetics Petrucci 8th Ed THINGS TO KNOW 7 THINGS TO DO We will cover sections 151 through 159 of the chapter Part of sections 1510 amp 151 1 will be included in 2 of activation energy The SUMMARY of Chapter 15 on page 613 covers the important facts You should know the definition of e2 in the KEY TERM list on page 615 You should know how to use the following equations summarized in Table 155 zeroeorder timeeconcentration equation AL o k t AO zeroeorder halfelife equation tZ AO 2k 3 firsteorder timeeconc equations lnAt k t lnAO or lnAOAt k t firsteorder halfelife equation tZ 0693 k 3 secondeorder timeeconc equation 1At k t 1A0 secondeorder halfelife equation tZ 1kAO 3 ln X 2303 lOg X relates log base eto log base 10 Rate A t units ofrate are quotconcentration over timequot Rate k AaBbCC etc the experimental rate law Arrhenius equation for determining activation energies and rate constants k as a function of temperature page 601 1112 T1 k1 R TITZ Understand the terms in the equation that sums the Collision Theory of reaction rates k Z p f Where f e39 EMT from the Absolute Theory of reaction rates 5 There are several problems presented through out the chapter and you should work each one of these as we the review questions on pages 616 amp 617 Answers are in the Appendix on page A756 25 29 33 37 39 45 49 67 Chemistry 222 Chapter 17 r Acids and Bases Petrucci 8th Ed THINGS TO KNOW 7 THINGS TO DO We will cover the entire chapter sections 171 through 179 Much of the material in this chapter is of criti importance in the physical and biological sciences You need to have a good understanding of the concepts language of acidibase chemistry The SUMMARY of Chapter 17 on page 702 covers the important facts and you must know the meaning of the KEY TERMS list page 703 You will be responsible for every fact indicated in the summary The conce conjugaterpairs in the BAL concept is important You will need to have a clear understanding of the difference between weak and strong acids and bases an quantitatively calculate the pH of their aqueous solutions To this end you should know how to use the following equations pH lOgHaq pOH lOgOl l39 and the rearranged forms ofeach Haq 103913139I OH 10 POI39I SQ pH pOH 1400 inwater at 25 C KW Haq OH39 10 X 103914 lVlZ at 25 C for the autoionization ofwater PKa 3910gKa pr 3910gKb SQ Forweak acids HA HAW HQ A m K H HA a HA For weak bases B suchasthe nitrogen bases qu H200 BHaq OH39WD K BH39l OH39l b B The principles of equilibrium will be applied in several calculations in this chapter There are many questions and problems posed through out the chapter and you should work each one of tl well as all the Review Questions on page 703 Answers in given in the Appendix on page A757 Also do these 31 33 41 44 55 57 62 67 69 79 and the problem sets that will be handed out in class Chapter 17 provides the basis for the material in Chapter 18 Chemistry 222 Chapter 18 r AcidrBase Equilibria Petrucci 8th Ed THINGS TO KNOW 7 THINGS TO DO Like chapter 17 this is a veg important chapter We will cover sections 181 through 184 Several handouts will accompany this chapter The SUMMARY of Chapter 18 on page 738 covers the important facts You will be responsible for each ten TERMS list on page 740 You should know how to use the following equations from Chapter 17 pH ologHaq pOH logOH39 pH pOH 1400 at 25 C pKa log Ka pr log Kb Ka X Kb KW for conjugate pairs KW Htw OH 10 X 10 14 M2 at 25 C SQ For weak acid ionizationl HAW HQ A m l H39 l A39l a HA K For weak base ionization hydrBlyqsisr HZOW HB HB39 OH39 b B 50 gt OH m M K The HendersoneHasselbalch Equation for buffers H o K o 10 E p p a g acid these are conjugate acidebase pairs At the equivalence point in a titration for monoprotic acids and monohydroxy bases Macid X Vacid M base X Vbase There are several questions and problems posed through out the chapter and you should answer each one 2 all the Review Questions on pages 7407741 Answers are given in the Appendix on page A57 The additional problems handed out in class will complete the chapter Remember there are three types of hydrogencontaining weak acids and two types of weak bases The chemical equations given here are generic and apply to any weak acids or weak bases respectively Chemistry 222 Chapter 20 r Spontaneous Change Entropy and Free Energy Petrucci 8th Ed THINGS TO KNOW 7 THINGS TO DO We will cover the highlights of this chapter in sections 201 through 207 The important concepts of them and their application to equilibrium will be studied Id addition we want to answer the question quotWhy do reactions occurquot The SUMMARY of Chapter 20 on page 813 covers the important facts and you should know the meaning 0 in the KEY TERMS list on page 814 You should know how to use the following equations RHS right hand side and LHS left hand side H n H fR1IS W H fL1IS P 247 Gm n QWHS n Gmms p 797 Srxn nSWHS nS fLHS p 791 o G o H o T S aka the GibbseHelmholtz equation p 794 and note table 201 o G RTaneq p 802 Keq is Kp for gases KC for dissolved substances G o G RTan p 801 Sfusion H JSTfus Svaporization HvapTvap for State eql librium SW Know the statements for and significance of The First Law of thermodynamics pages 2327233 The Second Law of thermodynamichage 793 The Third Law of thermodynamics page 791 Thermodynamic data in the Appendix in Table D2 on pages A718 to A724 will be used in several calculatio Specifically the data are absolute entropies S std enthalpies of formation Hg and std free energies o G f 3 There are several questions and problems posed through out the chapter and you should work each one as those in the Review Questions on page 814 and 815 Chemistry 222 Chapter 19 7 Solubility Equilibria et al Petrucci 8th Ed THINGS TO KNOW 7 THINGS TO DO We will cover only that part of the chapter dealing with solubility equilibria sections 191 to 195 pages 741 The first two paragraphs of the SUMMARY on page 773 covers the needed material for solubility equilibria responsible for the associated terms in the KEY TERMS list on page 774 You should know how to use the following equations For a slightly soluble salt MA MXAW X M aq y Am KSp MquotA y M and A the cation and anion will have the appropriate charge dictated by the formula of the salt Comparison of K the solubility product with Q the reaction quotient can predict whether precipitation V sp If Q gt Ksp the precipitation occurs If Q lt Ksp precipitation will not occur If Q Ksp the dissolved solute is in equilibrium with undissolved solid The questions and problems posed throughout the sections of the chapter we cover should be done as well 2 1 through 14 in the Review Questions on pages 7747775
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