Intro to El
Intro to El SPED 3700
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lourdes Klocko on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SPED 3700 at Western Michigan University taught by Sarah Summy in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/216765/sped-3700-western-michigan-university in Special Education at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
l SPED 37005700 apter Cognitive Model 2 Cognition The way people think about and perceive the world precipitate extreme emotions which in turn affect behavior We can make ourselves crazy By changing how we think we can make ourselves sane 3 Cognition Two basic ways people are taught to think differently By restructuring their cognitions and view of the world By using new or different cognitive skills and strategies 4 Definition The cognitive model is fairly recent and is a reaction to the behavioral model external Cognitive psychologists believe that not only external events but also the way people construe the events in uence hum an behavior There is a reciprocal relationship between thinking feeling and behaving 5 Connection to Previous Models Cognitive models assumes as do the biophysical and psychodynamic schools that covert human processes are the primary cause of disturbance and disorders Key component people s perception and thinking People s beliefs and biased thinking about these external variables make them unhappy andor fearful 6 Two Categories of Typical Thinking Patterns ortterm Cognitive Processes Expectations appraisals attributions that cause anxiety Longterm Cognitive Process Typically unconscious cognitive processes such as a belief system that affects the shortterm 7 Cognitive Interventions Each interventions assumes that faulty thinking patterns cause feelings that in turn influence behavior Cognitive Therapists draw out analyze then change the individual s thoughts hoping to discover and then revise Rosenberg amp Seligman I 989 8 Cognitive Therapies C gnitive Restructuring Reattribution training Relaxation training Positive imagery procedures Assertiveness training Corrective selftalk Thought evaluation Reverse role play and reframing thoughts Problemsolving 9 Cognitive Behavioral Therapy Cognitive and behavioral Selfinstruction Selfmonitoring Selfevaluation 10 Evaluation Questionnaires Thought listing Thinkaloud l 1 Education Applications Ellis Rational Emotive Behavior Therapy SPED 37005700 chapter six notes 1 Multiple Steps Ideas p 97 Everyone hates meProve that everyone hates me Works best for mild disturbances not for psychotic thinking bipolar Minimal efficacy Educational Applications Interpersonal Problem Solving Identify and define the problem Generate many possible solutions Analyze each solution in terms of possible immediate and future consequences and the amount of effort or resources to be expended Also determine how the solution Will affect others Choose a solution and list the steps to the solution Implement the chosen solution and evaluate the results Nichols 1996 Spivack et al 1976 H N H 9 Educational Applications Selfmanagem ent or selfregulation Selfinstruction training Selfmonitoring p 153156 SelfEvaluation 14 Cognitive Strategy Instruction CSI Miem onic s 15 REBT 16 Packages examples on p 159 SPED 37005700 chapter six notes 2 N 04 4gt I 0 l 8 SPED 37005700 Chapter 8 An EcologicalSystems Perspective The Family System Involving Parents Goal To reduce the discrepancy between environmental expectations for a child and the capabilities of that child to fulfill those expectations Within this model we target not only the individual for change but also the systems and situations with which the individual interacts Program Assumptions Each child is an inseparable part of a small social system Disturbance is not viewed as a disease located within the child but rather as discordance in the system Discordance may be viewed as a disparity between an individuals abilities and the demands or expectations of the environments llfailure to match I between the child and the system The goal of any intervention is to make the system work and to make it work ultimately without the intervention Assumptions Continued Improvement in any part of the system can benefit the system This broader view of disturbance gives use to three major areas for intervention Changing the child Changing the environment Changing attitudes and expectations Apter 1982 Bronfenbrenner s Ecological Systems Model Child and hisher characteristics Microsystem Mesosystem Exosystem Macrosystem p 200 Systems Family School Community Evaluation Ecological Assessment Describes the environment Lists the demands on the student including expectations of others in those environments Defines the skills and behaviors needed by the student to be successful in those environments TIES BRP2 ACID Family Behaviors that are discouraged in more than one setting are more likely to influence the student SPED 37005700 chaptereight notes 1 Home for elementary and middle school students is still a significant source of influence and control 9 Understanding ParentChild Dynamics 10 N UJ l we 1 Three Basic Parenting Styles Permissive Loose nondemanding parents do not set limits and rarely use punishment but may reason with their child Authoritarian Parents value obedience and conformity to a set of specific standardsstandard based upon beliefs very rigid Authoritative Marked by a concern for both obedience and expression of individuality use reason and discussion Parenting Style Research Overly permissive parenting linked to children who are highly aggressive with low impulse control Parents who use severe punishment linked to higher rates of aggression and delinquency Punishment paired with perceived parental rejection linked to a marked degree of aggression and delinquency Parenting marked by warmth linked to children who are more likely to exhibit good social adjustment and to possess high selfesteem Positive Parenting Practices Fair consistent discipline Monitoring of the child s whereabouts and activities Positive and supportive behavior management techniques Parent involvement in the child s daily life Problem solving that models how to deal with conflicts and crisis Patterson 1992 Healthy Families Becvar amp Becvar 1988 A legitimate source of authority established and supported over time A rule system consistently enforced Stable consistent nurturing behavior Effective childrearing and marriagemaintenance practices A set of goals toward which each member of the family works Flexibility to adapt to normal developmental changes as well as crises Family Stressors Divorce Marital conflict lllness Death Loss of employment Social lsolation is common in families that abuse Systems Approach to Developing Healthy Family Relationships Family Therapy Parental Involvement in school programs Teacher Strategies Their role with parents is a consultative one SPED 37005700 chaptereight notes 2 Parents should be viewed as individuals not homogeneous groups 17 Parental Requests Information Exchange Consumer and Advocacy Training Training on home implementation Counseling and Therapy Parentcoordinated service programs 18 CrossCultural Communication Respect individuals from other cultures Make continued and sincere attempts to understand the world from others points of view Remain open to new learning Be flexible Have a sense of humor Accept ambiguity Approach others with a desire to learn Lynch 1992 19 Parent lnterview Statement of the Problem Developmental History Personality History Sociological Information School History Parental Goals and Expectations 20 TeacherParent Do s Maintain a sense of humor Be accepting of yourself and the parent with whom you work Be positive and sincere Demonstrate respect for the parents Listen Use language that the parents can understand 21 TeacherParent Don ts Attempt to have all the answers Argue with parents Make agreements or promised that you may not be able to keep Patronize parents Make moralisticjudgments Minimize what the parents have to say 22 Reintegration Barriers to Reintegration Training in Reintegration 23 Reintegration Supporting students with EBD in the Least Restrictive Environment Maximize instructional time Plan for success Active supervision of all students High rates of positive student to student interaction SPED 37005700 chaptereight notes 3 Use of precorrection to prompt students before mistakes Clear classroom expectationsrules taught Positive reinforcement to promote meeting classroom expectations Clear consistent scheduling and routines with time limits for all daily activities to provide structure and help students learn to manage time efficiently Social Systems Working together How Why When Promoting Systems Changes CASSP Figure 84 p 226 26 CASSP The system of care must be childcentered and family driven Services should be community based Real interagency coordination and cooperation are essential Services must be culturally sensitive The youngsters with the most sever disorders must be served by the system A balance of least restrictive to most restrictive options should be maintained SocialWelfare Systems Health services Family planning Housing services Emergency aid Protective services Barriers of System Integration Services not tailored to the needs of individual clients Poor working relationships among agencies Decision makers who do not perceive the need for services Inability to reach potential clients Political and social resistance to change Medical model that focuses on pathology rather than preventative services Lack of clear definition of mental health Services that dehumanize and frustrate clients 29 Teacher Roles Teacher as Consultant Teacher as Liaison Teacher as Part of a Social System N P N U N l N 9 SPED 37005700 chaptereight notes 4 l SPED 37005700 Chapter 7 Behavioral Model 2 Behavioral Model Behavioral Theory assumes that disordered behavior is a function of environmental in uences and past experiences Disturbed behavior if generally viewed as a repertoire of inappropriate behaviors that have been learned Applied Behavior Analysis 3 Behavioral Theory Refers to how a person acts rather than how he feels or thinks There are few internal human elements that cannot be expressed as observable behaviors 4 Behavior Developed and maintained Behaviorists assert that only differences between many disordered behaviors and normal behaviors are the frequency magnitude and social adaptiveness of the behaviors Behaviors deviate from societal expectations 5 Assumptions Behavior is reducible to responses or actions that can be observed analyzed and measured Behavior can be controlled through administering reinforcement rewards and punishment therefore behavior is modifiable through learning 6 3 Major Divisions Respondent or classical conditioning Operant conditioning Social learning or modeling 7 Evaluation Teachers are often in a central role regarding evaluation within the behavioral model Checklists or BRS Behavior Recoding Functional Behavioral Assessment 8 Educational Applications Components of instructional purposes and behavior management ie social skills Setting goals Assessing for current level of functioning Specifying learning objectives in behavioral terms Planning lmplem enting instruction Monitoring student performance Evaluating student performance 9 Reducing Behavior Contributory antecedents should be altered Alternative behavior should be taught Existing consequences should be altered such that appropriate behavior is reinforced while inappropriate behavior is not Punishers should be added only as necessary The behavioral intervention should be monitored and evaluated Decreasing Behavior Differential reinforcement Punishment Timeout ln school suspension Interim Alternative Education Program Corporal punishment Physical Restraint Increasing Behaviors Reinforcers Table7l p 179 Contingency contracting H O Token economies Level systems Positive Behavior Support PBS An ABA model of discipline based on proactive and preventative approaches Premise by constructing a supportive context for students clear expectations prompting and reinforcing appropriate behavior use of effective instructional techniques and using FBA data for discipline planning them most student problem behaviors will be prevented reducing the need for punis ers WWWpbisorg
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