Introduction to Psychology: Week Two
Introduction to Psychology: Week Two PSYX 100S - 04
Popular in Intro to Psychology
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miranda Seith on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 100S - 04 at University of Montana taught by Allison Kaoru Powell (P) in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 18 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Montana.
Reviews for Introduction to Psychology: Week Two
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/30/15
Introductionsycb oIogy Week Gwo Looking for Causes Experimental Research What is an Experiment A Research method in which the investigator manipulates a variable under carefully controlled conditions and observes whether any changes occur in a second variable as a result a Experiments allow researches to detect cause and effect relationships Variables 1 Independent Variables conditions or events that an experimenter varies in order to see its impact on another variable a This is the variable the experimenter controls b Free independent to be varied by the experimenter Dependent Variable a variable that is thought to be affected by manipulation of the independent variable a Data collected by the researcher b Depends on he manipulation of the independent variable Extraneous Variables any variables other than the independent variable that may influence the dependent variable a Ex Age gender noise level personality traits b Controlling Extraneous Variables 1 Participants are randomly assigned into with experimental group or control groups 2 Random Assignment all subjects have an equal chance of being assigned to any group or condition in the study Confounding Variables occurs when two variables that are linked together in a way that makes it difficult to sort out their individual effects a When an extraneous variable confounds with an independent variable a researcher cannot tell which is having what effect on the dependent variable C Experimental Groups and Control Groups 1 Experimental Group consists of subjects who receive some special reattempt in regard to the independent variable a Given some level of independent variable 2 Control Group Consists of similar subjects who do not receive the special treatment given to the experimental group a b Given no independent variable Purpose isolate the effect of the independent variable on the dependent variable If experimental and control groups are alike in all respects except for exposure to the independent variable any difference between the two groups on the dependent variable must be due to the manipulation of the independent variable D Research Designs 1 DescriptiveCorrelational Research a Only permits investigators to describe patterns of behavior and discover associations between variables Experimenter cannot manipulate the variables Cannot determine a cause and effect relationship Correlation not a causation exists when two variables that are related to each other 1 Correlation Coefficient A numerical index of the degree of relationship between two variables a Indicates the direction of a relationship positive or negative b Details how strongly the two variables are related 2 Positive Correlation two variables co vary in the same direction a High scores on variable X gt high scores on variable Y b Ex increase in number of sodas per day leaves for an increase in the risk of diabetes 3 Negative Correlation two variables co vary in the opposite direction a high scores on variable X gt low scores on variable Y b Ex Hours of exercise per day increases risk of diabetes decreases Strengths of Correlation i The size of the coefficient indicates the strength of the association between variables 2 Coefficient can vary between 0 and i a Positive correlation range O to 100 b Negative correlation range 1 00 to O Q Coefficient near 0 no relationship between variables Coefficient near 1 high relationship between variables 1 00 or 100 perfect correlationl to l correspondence 2 Types of Correlational Research a Naturalistic Observation b Case Studies c Surveys E Advantages of Experimental Research 1 Allow researchers to explore questions that could not be examined with experimental procedures Broaden the scope of the phenomena that psychologists can study Disadvantage Cannot demonstrate cause and etfect relationships for correlation is not causation