Prin Of Sociology
Prin Of Sociology SOC 2000
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Giovanna Casper on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 2000 at Western Michigan University taught by Lisa Sanders in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/216811/soc-2000-western-michigan-university in Sociology at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
The Histry of Sociology itself is the product of social change A new industrial economy The growth of cities Political change The rise of science The rise of science Prior to the Enlightenment the world was understood and organized through the lens of religion Fields of science such as astronomy and physics showed another way of understanding the world Auguste Comte wanted to extend science to include the study of society Auguste Comte Comte coined the term sociology in 1838 Applied the scientific approach to societies Comte believed that all societies went through three stages The theological stage The metaphysical stage The scientific stage Positivism Positivism is a scientific approach to knowledge based on positive facts as opposed to speculation Early Positivists believed that society operated according to certain laws just like the physical world operated according to gravity and other laws of nature Today s sociologists believe that society is too complex to be explained by rigid laws Sociological Theory A theory is a statement of how and why specific facts are related Sociological theories explain social behavior in the real world A theoretical approach is a basic image of society that guides thinking and research 3 Theoretical Approaches StructuralFunctional approach SymbolicInteraction approach SocialConflict approach GenderConflict RaceConflict The StructuralFunctional Approach The structuralfunctional approach is a framework for building theory that sees society as a complex system whose parts work together to promote solidarity and stability Social structure refers to any relatively stable pattern of social behavior Social functions are the consequences of a social pattern for the operation of society as a whole StructuralFunctional Approach con t Manifest functions are the recognized and intended consequences of any social pattern Latent functions are the unrecognized and unintended consequences of any social pattern Social dysfunction is any social pattern that may disrupt the operation of society The SocialConflict Approach The SocialConflict approach is a framework for building theory that sees society as an arena of inequality that generates conflict and change This approach rejects the idea that social structure promotes the operation of society as a whole rather society benefits some people while hurting others SocialConflict Approach con t The GenderConflict approach is a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between women and men It is closely linked to feminism which is the support of social equality for women and men SocialConflict Approach con t The RaceConflict approach is a point of view that focuses on inequality and conflict between people of different racial and ethnic categories People of color on average have Shorter life expectancy Lower income Less schooling Worse health The SymbolicInteraction Approach The SymbolicInteraction approach is a framework for building theory that sees society as the product of the everyday interactions of individuals Unlike SocialConflict and StructureFunction Sl is a microlevel orientation A microlevel orientation is a closeup focus on social interaction in specific situations The opposite is a macrolevel orientation which is a broad focus on society as a whole Symbolic Interaction con t Society is constructed by people as they interact with each other We live in a world of symbols that we attach meaning to in order to create reality Particular settings must be understood from the point of view of the people in them SymbolicInteraction con t Goffman s dramaturgical analysis describes us as actors on a stage playing out various roles Social exchange analysis is the idea that interaction is guided by what each person stands to gain and lose from others
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