HIST150 World War 1
HIST150 World War 1 History 150
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Foster on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to History 150 at Ball State University taught by Dr. Malone in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 47 views. For similar materials see The West in the World in History at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
Hist150 World War 1 Overview th • Defining event of the 20 century*** • “Man against machine” • First industrialized war th • Huge impact on social, economic, and political developments of the 20century Events in the summer of 1914 • International relations were rough • June 28: assassination of archduke Francis Ferdinand***** o Caused outbreak of war • July 28: Austria declared war on Serbia a month later • The alliance in place and war plans caused conflict between the major powers in Europe***** • August 4, 1914: ww1 be gins****** • Central vs. Allied powers o Central: Austria and Germany o Allied: Russia, France, and Britain . Later, Italy and United States The mood in Europe • Theme between extracts of Stefan Zweig and Hitler o “enthusiasm” o short war. “home for Christmas…” o “manly adventure” The new kind of war 1. Weapons chimerical warfare. More casualties due to artillery a. The first effective use of poison gas; the Germans used chlorine gas b. Germans were the first country to use mustard gas c. The tank first used by the British 2. New mode of fighting – trench war 3. Total war: Gov. power expands “Big Bertha” Railway howitzer The war begins • Schlieffen Plan (constructed in 1905) to fight a two -front war with France and Russia • Goes through Belgium, the German army closes in on Paris • Battle of the Marne: over a million of soldiers o Desperate to send soldiers, sent by taxi • French and British soldiers together stop the German soldiers • Battle of Marne destroyed the Schlieffen Plan • Both sides started diggi ng tranches. Known as the Western Front Trenches • Front trench Wartime Experiences: The Western Front Volunteer Army: ‘Pals’ Battalion’ • Recruitment of volunteers for the British army (Britain did not introduce conscription (a military draft) until January 1916) • Recruitment posters encouraged women to convince their boys to join • Men joining up with their friend • Results: nearly 2.5 million men volunteered for the army The Battle of the Somme • July 1 , 1916: a disaster • British causalities – nearly 60,000 o Nearly 20,000 men were killed by day 1 The Tank/End of Battle • British unveiled new weapon in September • Not effective, but used as shock contact • Battle continued until November 18, called off because of mud (like cement) • 1.1M casualties • British: 400,000 (125,000 killed) Poetry to look at • Dulce Et Decorum Est • The Troops Wartime Experiences: The Home Front Facets of total war 1. Sample gov. posters addressed to civilians a. Marianne appeared on a French war bond poster (TQ) b. Posters suggested people be active in the war c. Other themes: conserve resources d. Keep up the morale with civilians e. Posters relevant for recruiting women 2. Women’s war work a. Women were needed in munitions factories b. Women would get TNT poisoning c. Explosions in factory plants caused deaths d. By the end of the war, women earned 3x the wages a woman would have earned in a factory before war (TQ) e. Introduce new welfare measures in factories i. Cafeterias which led to improvement in diet of working-women ii. Nurseries 3. The Food Situation in Germany a. Civilians had the hardest in food situations in Germany b. Allies set up navel blockade against Austria and Germany in summer 1914- fall 1919 i. Effect their ability to trade c. Food rationing with bread. About 5 lbs. of “war bread” a week. Mid 1916, down to 2 lbs. a week i. Other rationed foods: meat, sugar, fats, potatoes *****Consuming 1,000 calories a day Weather Conditions • ½ of potato crop was destroyed in 1916 • Turned to turnips (said to be animal’s food); “turnip winter" in 1916-1917 Consumption of meats • Alternative meats: squirrels, weasels, martens, dog, cat, fox, mole, jay, crow, mice, an rats Vanishing foods = Ersatz ( substitute foods) • “The German inventive spirit” o War bread with sawdust o Butter = cornstarch + soda water o Ash = pepper o Sausage was made with offal or dog meat with turnip o Coffee = turnip or bark Results • People had to search for food in garbage • Serious health issues • By the end, ¾ million of German citizens died from food shortages