Nonwestern World SOC 3040
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Date Created: 09/30/15
SOC 304 BASIC CONCEPTS PART II VI Social Strati cation H Why are race and ethnicity important social facts 1 is a fact oflife in every nation there are no using one s own culture to judge others based on the beliefthat your culture is superior often guide people s actions the 1 Why is there a trend of increasing con ict between racial and ethnic groups 1 Nations include groups that were once considered to the First World 3 Global economy moves huge ows of across national boundaries How many races are there in the world How many races are represented in this room How do we classify people into different races J a category of people who perceive themselves and are perceived by others as distinctive on the basis of certain biologically inherited traits 1 J2 thousands of years of migration and intermarriage have 3 instead race is a based on shared social de nitions perceptions and beliefs 4 in our society these de nitions are mainly based on but other societies use characteristics of K people who perceive themselves and are perceived by others as sharing distinctive cultural traits such as language religion family customs and food preferences 1 used to describe 2 Example L people singled out for unequal treatment and who regard themselves as objects of collective discrimination 1 based on 2 NOT based on 3 groups can be minorities eg blacks in South Africa under apartheid M Patterns of Interaction Between Racial and Ethnic Groups 1 systematic annihilation or attempted annihilation ofa people based on their presumed race or ethnicity a Example the M2 group a Example moving involuntary movement of a minority M2b Combination of genocide and population transfer a policy of population elimination including forcible expulsion and genocide c Example ofEthnic Cleansing with previously intermixed and intermarried Serbs Croats and Muslims being separated forcibly into different regions M3 the policy of economically exploiting minority groups by using social institutions to deny them access to full bene ts of citizenship a Example with blacks forced to work for whites in mines and on farms M3b enforced separation of racial or ethnic groups under internal colonialism c Example had separate schools restrooms and water fountains until the 1950s and 1960s M4 the process by which a minority is absorbed into the mainstream a view that Americans of various background would blend into an ethnic stew b Examples i English Irish German Scandinavian descendants have all been melted into US culture and society M4bii Native Americans forced to attend boarding schools and not allowed to learn their own languages M5 a pattern of intergroup relations in which society permits or encourages ethnic variation also called multiculturalism 1 Example Coexistence of VII Social Change and Urbanization A the alteration of culture and societies over time B Social Change and Technology 1 tools and the skills or procedures necessary to make and use tools 2 Technology and Culture the type of technology a group has sets the framework for its 3 nonmaterial culture lags behind changes in material culture a Why have a nine month school year C the process by which an increasing proportion ofa population lives in cities 1 a place in which a large number of people are permanently based and do not produce their own food a in 1900 only ofthe world s population lived in a city b by 1990 lived in a city C2 urbanization since the Industrial Revolution in a the 1800s eg London New York Chicago b during the 20th century39 eg Rio de Janeiro Mexico City VIII Global Strati cation A the integrated economic and political system linking the nations of the world 1 a relatively stable pattern of unequal among nations has developed since the 1500s B aka The First World The West The North Industrialized Nations 1 of North America Western Europe Japan Australia and New Zealand 2 economies market competition based on industrial production and increasingly on services 3 most nations economically politically and militarily aka The Third World The South the Nonwestern World 1 nations of Latin America Africa and Asia 2 most have a formerly colonies of core nations 3 economies mainly based on but is growing because of availability of cheap labor 4 rapidly growing D nations midway between the core and periphery in terms of economic and political power D1 First Type of Semiperipheral Nation a increasing production particularly b based on World c South Korea Taiwan Indonesia Thailand Brazil Argentina South Africa D2 Second Type The World formerly nations a former b pulled out ofthe decades c economies formerly based on state ownership of means of production amp state planning of production amp distribution D2d large industrial economies but many industries are technologically outdated e making a transition toward capitalism but economies are still a mixture of capitalism and socialism f strong political opposition to this transition and its social costs unemployment loss of free medical care etc E Globalization the extensive interconnections among nations due to the expansion of capitalism 1 Where were your clothes made 0 China 0 Taiwan 0 Mexico of products to the First for a few 2 globalization also produces cultural leveling eg popularity of quotBaywatchquot 3 US companies compete with companies from all over the world invest in other countries amp sell products in other countries F One Result of Globalization Movement of Core Jobs to the Periphery and Semiperiohery 1 North American Free Trade Agreement a US Canada and Mexico allow free trade and investment between all three nations b low wages in Mexico give US and Canadian f1rms an incentive to to relocate factories to Mexico G Video The Global Assembly Line 1 Maguiladoras low wage factories doing simple labor intensive work 2 Working and living conditions 3 Role ofwomen as workers in Special Economic Zones types ofjobs and why employers prefer to hire women Low tax rates Duty free 4 Role oftechnological change in allowing this movement ofjobs to the periphery H Relations Between the Core and the Periphery and Semiperiphery The Colonial Heritage 1 Imperialisma nation s attempt to create an empire through pursuit of unlimited geographical eXpansion 2 core nations sought sought raw materials for industrial products by conquering the periphery and semiperiphery H3 Colonization the process in which one nation takes over another nation usually to eXploit its labor and natural resources 4 Conquering and colonizing other nations allowed the core nations to become the most developed nations in the world I The End of Colonialism 1 After World War 11 most peripheral and semiperipheral nations became independent 2 However m nations remain the wealthiest and most powerful and peripheral nations remain poor 3 How does this happen 14 Neocolonialism the economic and political dominance of peripheral and semiperipheral nations by the core through control over capital technologies and the markets and prices for products 5 One mechanism of neocolonialism is Transnational Corporations companies based in the core that operate in many countries around the world 16 Other Mechanisms ofNeocolonialism a World Bank bank funded mainly by core nations to promote development and improved quality oflife in poor nations many loans used to pay m TNC s to build dams factories and other large projects that often prove to be moneylosers b International Monetary Fund m agency funded by core nations to loan money to bankrupt poor nations governments in return for adopting policies that favor TNC investment and foreign trade and reducing subsidies to the oor 16c General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade GATT World Trade Organization WTO international treaties and agencies to administer them that have gradually eXpanded foreign trade and TNC investment around the world since the 1950s i reduce governments ability to regulate and taX TNC s including allowing TNCs to close factories in the core and open new factories in peripheral nations with lower wages and little environmental protection 16 d Multilateral Agreement on Investment w proposed treaty that would eliminate virtually all gov t regulation of TNC investment anywhere in the world39 sparked worldwide protests against TNC economic and political power e Nongovernmental SGO s citizens groups formed to promote environmental protection human rights democracy and other goals many oppose IlVTF WB TNC economic and political power 17 So why do peripheral and semiperipheral nations put up with this situation a because these investments by transnational corporations foreign trade and loans are the most important sources of decent iobs in these nations b few alternatives are available because of these international agreements and the IX SocietyNature Relationships Where does food come from A Inseparability of Humans from Ecosystems B Natural Characteristics Shape and Constrain Human Societies l processes shape terrain soil minerals and other resource availability 2 shapes agriculture housing clothing etc B3 Characteristics of plants and animals shape human life eg domesticated plants and animals trees for timber etc C Natural Resources Distributed in a Socially Random Pattern l societies eXhaust the closest resources first then must import them from greater distances from more remote regions e g deforestation in Europe and Japan creates need for timber from the Amazon C2 The need to get access to resources for industrial production from distant regions presents a huge technological economic and political challenge for the core 3 Imperialism and now neocolonialism are core strategies to solve this fundamental naturesociety problem of resource access 4 Latin American and the Amazon were early targets of European imperialism to acquire resources and thereby gain wealth and power D Video The Amazon and its Resources 1 What are the natural characteristics of the Amazon 2 How is the Amazon different from temperate regions like the US 3 How would the characteristics of the Amazon affect human use Latin America and Brazil I Colonialism Independence and the Development of Underdevelopment II The Brazilian Economy III Brazilian Politics IV Race in Brazil V Urbanization in Brazil VI Gender and Family in Brazil VII Religion in Brazil VIII Brazil and Globalization Colonialism Independence and the Development of Underdevelopment A The division of Latin America 1 Portugal conquered Brazil 2 Spain conquered most of Latin America Venezuela Colombia Ecuador Peru Bolivia Paraguay Chile Argentina Uruguay plus Central America and Mexico 3 British French and Dutch divided Guiana and Caribbean Islands B The Colonial Era 1500Early 1800s 1 Imperial powers exported raw materials and ag products from Latin American colonies 2 Indigenous peoples used for labor initially but most died quickly in mines and on plantations 3 imported slaves for labor B4 most land owned by large landowners who were granted land by European Kings plantations haciendas latifundia no small farmers like the US Midwest 5 concentrated land ownership and slavery produced highly strati ed and unequl societies with a small very wealthy and the vast majority very poor C Independence during the 1800s 1 Spanish colonies rebelled against Spain in 1810s and 1820s and won independence 2 Brazil became independent in 1825 3 new nations modeled laws after France and the US and sought to become developed like the core nations 4 Elites blocked political participation by the rest of society and the military often seized direct control and installed dictators C5 Great Britain the most powerful core nation in the 1800s and early 1900s replaced Spain as the major investor in Latin America just as was the case in the rubber industry 6 Despite independence Latin American nations were unable to become wealthy like the core nations why D The Development of Underdevelopment 1 Colonial legacy of concentration of land extreme inequality exporting raw materials and agricultural products to the core and blocked political participation made economic development dif cult 2 development economic progress measured either by economic growth or in social terms of the overall wellbeing of the population D3 Key problem with following the core s model of development the core was never underdeveloped only undeveloped making this model not useful for other areas 4 Underdevelopment a process of exploitation of a periphery by a core nation that benefits the core nation s economic growth but leaves the periphery with a legacy of inequality lost resources political instability and environmental degradation that makes future development very difficult to achieve D5 underdevelopment of the periphery is part of and essential to the development of the core as capitalist economies in the core expanded to incorporate the rest of the world as peripheries E MetropolisSatellite Coreperiphery Relationships 1 Elites in the cities of the periphery extract profits from perpiphery just as core nations extract profits from the periphery E2 Satellites develop economically and industrially when their ties to the core are weakest eg World War I and the Great Depression of the 1930s in Brazil and Argentina 3 however when ties are restored previous development is choked off or redirected to bene t the core 4 the most underdeveloped regions are those with the closest historical ties to the core but whose industries went bust eg rubber in the Amazon sugar in Northeastern Brazil F Latin America Today 1 Colonial legacy of extreme inequality political instability exporting to the core and underdevelopment has been maintained 2 efforts to promote development focus on attracting foreign investment and forming regional agreements 3 some economic growth is occurring but most people remain poor 4 Brazil as representative of current conditions The Brazilian Economy A The Colonial Economy 1 Brazil divided into 15 captaincies 2 large plantations used coerced mainly slavery to produce sugar and other exports 3 Large landowers had most government responsibilities making them the most powerful political force and making the state weak 4 Industrializatoin forbidden by Portuguese 5 relied on products like sugar brazilwood and oil for lighting for exports and jobs A6 landowners used patronclient relations to control the population clients gives labor and loyalty to the patron in exchange for protection land and water used in Sertao Northeast and other parts of Brazil B PostIndependence Economy 18251910 1 Sugar industry continued in Northeast but much lower pro ts 2 Rubber Boom in the Amazon B3 Coffee Boom in southern Brazil Brazil became the world s largest exporter of coffee a ending of slavery in 1888 led to promotion of immigration from Italy Japan and later Germany to grow coffee 4 rst small scale industries developed to serve the Brazilian mkt textiles household goods etc C ImportSubstitution Industrialization during World Wars and Great Depression 1 weakened ties to core reduced markets for exports and gave incentive to Brazilian businesses and the Brazilian government to build factories to supply the local market 2 jobs in factories in cities began drawing millions of rural people to cities 3 Video Brazil New World in the Tropics a major historical periods and raw materials exports b the Brazilian racial system c the role of the Amazon d the construction of Brasilia the national capital e living conditions for different sectors of the population D Return to Development 1970Present 1 military government promoted industrialization producing consumer like cars and airplanes and the machinery and other inputs used in factories 2 like iron ore bauxite and other minerals in the Amazon to mine process and export raw materials to the core 3 used to pay for development efforts 4 military government held down despite very high inflation making even greater but providing more funds for 5 production for export to Japan in southern central and now Amazonian Brazil throws rural people out of work because of production D6 in 1981 reduced demand for Brazilian 7 the economy and was high 8 falling failed to provide enough money to repay the government 9 loans from to maintain payments on foreign debt required government to reduce to the poor 10 economy recovered and grew in the late 1990s because of efforts to fight openness to investment and formation of regional agreement Mercosur 11 Brazil has not from the global economic slowdown in the early 2000s or the current global recession because of its the only industrializing economy that has grown consistently in the 2000s 12 Brazilian government has used this wealth to 13 these efforts are only because of the severity of poverty in the country E in the Brazilian Economy 1 tremendous since colonial era 2 cycles in different raw materials industries that export to the core eg rubber coffee 3 on and to markets in the for Brazilian products quot Relative levels of development in Brazil and the us GNP per capita in US dollars 2008 Brazil 7350 155 of US 82nd out of 210 countries in the world US 47580 14th out of 210 countries World Average 8613 Gross National Product total value of all goods and services produced in the economy during the year Source World Bank wwwworldbankorg G Income Inequality in Brazil vs the us Gini Coef cient measures inequality of income distribution 11th highest in the world for Brazil 53rd highest in US out of 150 ranked Brazil top 10 have 448 of total income US top 10 have 299 bottom 20 have 54 Source World Bank wwwworldbankorg bottom 20 have 28 III Brazilian Politics A Historical Legacies 1 created powerful large who controlled politics locally and nationally after independence 2 relations required political loyalty of clients vote as the patron orders 3 first slavery then debt peonage 4 weak because of power of landowners A5 rather than reliance on the police and legal system a by 6 in the legal system a quotdar um jeitoquot to nd a way often via B The Evolution of the Brazilian Political System 1 control by large with little democracy from independence through 1945 2 19451964 democracy with growing power of to get government to increase via 151 from landowners to the working and middle classes in the cities B3 19641985 government to restore order by controlling democracy eliminating and redistributing to large landowners and business owners by holding wages below a opposition to government treatment of and the by large project development in the Amazon were the first areas of public dissent allowed by the military C 1985Present Return to Democracy 1 Given this history and the poverty of most Brazilians why don t the poor simply vote the elite out of power and make the government work to improve their lives a continued of elites b use of election of telegenic Collor with support of largest C1c continuation of system and lack of in democracy means voters use the before elections to secure from candidates the candidates who help people most then but resources for these bene ts come 2 of the government the commercial C3 former Cardoso his ideas were the basis of elected president after serving as nance minister who tamed in ation a cutting in ation did make many lower income Brazilians because their wages were 4 current president Luiz Ignacio da Silva Lula a former factory worker and union leader is the rst president in Brazil s history a repaid IMF with resource export wealth to eliminate IMF ability to restrict government spending on helping the b efforts underway to reduce poverty and hunger but limits ability of the government to redistribute wealth from IV Race in Brazil How is the Brazilian racial system different from the US system I amme 9 What are the similarities between the Brazilian and US racial systems 9 Vowewwromewew structural barriers that block access to scarce resources Urbanization in Brazil A Rapid urbanization since 1 main causes a and lack of in rural areas b mechanization of fewer rural jobs c created relatively wellpaying jobs in factories in cities d attraction of quot quot in the cities 2 poor are but are essential to the Brazilian A3 efforts to use the as a place for migrants to go rather than the cities B Quality of Life in Brazilian Cities 1 Recife the 4th worst in the world 2 cities unable to provide to keep up with rapid growth etc 3 industries did not create enough for all migrants B4 most migrants moved into favelas shantytown slums with poor infrastructure often started and growing through squatting on government and private land 5 many work in informal activity outside the legally regulated markets including crime and drugs but small businesses and casual employment 6 an increasing part of daily life B7 highly stressful way of life in favelas 8 8 Video Documentary from City of God a How do police drug dealers and slum dwellers describe their lives and motivations b What is the history of drug dealing and use in Rio c What effects did the military government have on the creation of organized crime d What roles do drug dealers play in the community e How would you describe living conditions in the favelas C Brasilia The National Capital 1 new city built in late 1950s to spur development in central Brazil 2 built in the shape of an airplane 3 Planned city predetermined sectors for government buildings hotels offices apartments houses stores etc C4 doubled government officials salaries to get them to leave old capital of Rio de Janeiro 5 plans did not include housing for construction workers who had to create their own favelas 6 UnBrazilian architecture and layout of city 7 almost all government officials traditionally left on Thursday and returned on Sunday 8 efforts to quotBrazilianizequot Brasilia cafes and bars put tables out to block streets to create a cosmopolitan atmosphere C9 large migrant on buses from interior leads to squatter favelas on the planned equivalent of the national mall VI Gender and the Family A Machismo 1 a real man is powerful fearless always ready to prove his manhood and dominant and sexually aggressive in relations with women 2 men essentially driven by their biological nature 3 gendered division of labor with men in the public sphere of paid labor and politics male promiscuity Marianismo motherhood as main role of women Reproductive labor in the household privatedomestic sphere not public Dependence on men women have moral authority over childlike men especially mothers over sons women s political activism based on being a good mother and taking care of the family 6 increasing rate of femaleheaded households C Socializing Children 1 homosexuality seen as caused by socialization not biology 2 in Brazil refers refers to the passive feminine partner in homosexual intercourse the aggressive masculine partner is not considered gay 3 Lesbianism is not viewed as negatively since lesbians can be good mothers C4 mothers do not want male children to be gay so they do not teach them to do tasks defined as women s work 5 this reproduces machismo promiscuity and abuse of women 6 important role of fictive kinship treating outsiders as family members a Godparents close relationship with godchildren and their parents especially sharing financial and other resources C6b agregados people who live with a family and who are treated as family members even though they are not related often used as an informal adoption system 7 close family ties and ctive kin in the Brazilian situation of scarce resources helps families economically D Women s Movements 1 another early source of resistance that was permitted by the military government D2 feminine movements organized by women to access the resources that they need to be good mothers usually made up of the poor who are seeking help with dif culties of daily life 9990 3 feminist movements directly challenging male dominance in the economy and politics mainly composed of middle and upper class women a 1988 constitution includes provisions for equal pay work and maternity leave D4 efforts to combat violence against women a OJ Simpson in Brazil and defense of honor b VII Religion in Brazil VIII A Historically a Catholic Country 1 Portuguese brought missionaries and the Catholic church hierarchy to Brazil 2 Catholic hierarchy tied to large landowners and the gov t 3 many elements of African religions and indigenous religions incorporated into Catholic practice as quotpopular Catholicismquot 4 chronic shortage of priests left Catholics with little official control over beliefs and practices B Rise of Other Religions 1 Spiritism a variety of religious practices that share belief in supernatural spirits who communicate with humans through the temporary possession of devotees a Spiritism based in large part on African religions brought by slaves but of cially outlawed b had to survive in disguise c has incorporated indigenous and other beliefs B2 Protestantism and especially Pentecostal groups the fastest growing religions in Brazil a popular among urban poor because they provide a new family for isolated urban residents and offer power via efforts to provide new resources C Liberation Theology in Catholicism 1 goal of providing a quotpreferential option for the poorquot rather than the hierarchy s traditional support for the elite and the gov t C2 implemented through ecclesiastical base communities CEBs that sought to improve the quality of life of the poor 3 opposed by the church hierarchy in most instances 4 declined in the 1990s because of democratization collapse of communism in the Second World papal opposition and replacement of progressive bishops with conservatives Brazil and Globalization A How is globalization affecting Brazil 1 Historically links the world economy have extracted resources from brazil to benefit other areas 2 Openness to investment has led to increased foreign investment in Brazil mining mineral processing and cars 3 Export of pro ts to core TNCs 4 Decision making done by core TNCs not Brazilian rms and gov t A5 globalization of culture cultural leveling and Robin Hood Ghost Avon 6 Brazil as a huge market for core TNCs 7 Strengthened ties to other south American nations via Mercosul a common market linking Brazil Argentina Paraguay and Uruguay a Mercosul has led to the increased investment in Brazil and increased Brazilian exports B What should the Brazilian government do to improve the lives of the poor
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