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Nonwestern World

by: Giovanna Casper

Nonwestern World SOC 3040

Giovanna Casper
GPA 3.71

Paul Ciccantell

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Paul Ciccantell
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Giovanna Casper on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 3040 at Western Michigan University taught by Paul Ciccantell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see /class/216814/soc-3040-western-michigan-university in Sociology at Western Michigan University.

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Date Created: 09/30/15
Soc 304 The Amazon Natural Characteristics amp Precolonial and Colonial History Natural Characteristics ll Precolonial and Colonial History Ill The Rubber Boom and Bust IV The Brazilian Military Government in the Amazon V The Amazon Today Natural Characteristics A Geology 1 separation of South America from Australia and more recently Africa lead to similar flora and fauna contact with only over the last 57 million years 2 Amazon Basin 6 million square kilometers half of about equal to the 3 Relatively A4 basin cut by 0200 meters elevation across region but cut by creating steep between rivers and plateaus A5 Soils a very high rate of b most soils have a high degree of clay with limited ability to leaving c soils are very fertile d most soils can support but large areas of land needed make transport costs uneconomic B Climate of the Rainforest year round but some seasonal 1 temperatures and high humidity 2 high levels of variation 3 capture large amounts of 4 cycle evapotranspiration 5 creation of back into the atmosphere via networks 20 of the world s fresh water enters the Atlantic from the Amazon C Vegetation 1 high plant 2 concentration of nutrients in the 3 rapid rate of 200 400 tonsha in an essentially closed system 4 6580 of in the top 30 cm of soil 06 5 large number of given area ofone species in a rapid plant growth with of cleared areas because of species diversity and intense competition for light C7 no distinct individual species have 8 year round warmth allows proliferate makes stored foods decompose rapidly and farms and tree plantations very vulnerable to of plant growth and reproduction but not the overall forest that attack plants to D Animals 1 large number of 2 only a small part oftotal 3 often live in the 4 partition resources so there is little direct 5 often high degrees of on one another but few large animals tight interdependence of species ll Precolonial and Colonial History A Indigenous Peoples before European Arrival 1 Most lived in that relied on relied on farming of sedimentenriched and hunting animals available along riverbanks including peccary capybara monkey deer tapir birds and especially fish 2 estimated the early 1500s of68 million A3 large scale often with several villages of several thousand residents each linked under a common chief with armies numbering in the thousands 4 political control maintained by control over allowing control overthe movement of people up and down the rivers the main type of transport this pattern would be replicated during the B European Conquest 1 most of Amazon conquered by Brazil 2 some upriver areas conquered by and Peru 3 gradual process during the 1500s and 1600s because ofdif cult and erce resistance by prior to European arrival in Empire these areas now now part of Ecuador Colombia B4 during 1500s and 1600s primary goals of conquest were a search for b conversion of indigenous groups to c protecting land from Spanish French Dutch German and British B5 Concern to protect the Amazon from a theme in region s history recent decades have seen the Brazilian government seek to conquer this frontier as its Manifest Destiny to exploit its resources 6 Political control maintained by taking over population centers as missions and forts to control the movement of people and goods on the rivers 7 only made by the Portuguese from their Amazon empire because of dif cult natural conditions C Effects of Conquest on Indigenous Groups Dramatic including 1 causes include common cold whooping cough in uenza 2 In one century early 1500s to early 1600s the indigenous population declined by D Economic Exploitation mid1700s to late 1800s 1 Marquis de Pombal new pro ts from the Amazon 2 comes into conflict with the protect indigenous groups from exploitation D3 Pombal expelled the to 4 increased exploitation of in gathering and processing forest products for export and on sugar plantations in Northeast Brazil further decimated indigenous groups and forced survivors to move upriver to measles launches effort to increase who sought to and made lndian labor available 5 Pombal established the long term pattern for the Amazon s relationship with the extracting for export to the core in Europe US amp Japan E Effects of Conquest on the Environment 1 high European demand for 2 oil extraction for export led to extinction of river mammals as well as the sharp decline of river feet long 150 pounds 3 this reduced the available to indigenous populations further reducing their size and removed key parts of river populations 3 E4 another result of reduction and relocation of indigenous populations was the loss oftheir for utilizing the region s resources 5 a second result ofthe decimation of indigenous populations was that the region lacked the needed in the late 1800s to exploit the region s rubber resources forcing the importation of large numbers of into the region Ill The Rubber Boom and Bust A Origins of the Rubber Boom 1 in the core ofrubber in 1839 to a Charles Goodyear and stabilize rubber for use in industrial products b Development of internal combustion engine and in late 19th and early 20th centuries 2 was the only source of natural rubber A3 The Result A New and More Extensive Incorporation ofthe Brazilian Amazon into the driven by technological and economic changes in the not by the internal characteristics of the Amazon a continuation of the colonial pattern B Characteristics ofthe Rubber Industry 1 Rubber trees to collect the rubber 2 to keep the tree healthy rubber can only be B3 dif culty of meant a provided the main means of moving people and supplies into the region and rubber out ofthe region b maintaining trails between rubbertrees required a lot of 4 of workers throughout the forest made supervision by the owners of rubber tree lands difficult B5 allowed rubber barons to control workers by controlling access via riverjunction trading posts continuing the pattern 6 rubber barons created a system of to strengthen their control over workers owners loaned money and supplies to workers and workers repaid with a if rubber collection or prices were to the owner and was not B7 some workers were able to was dif cult and very risky because was used against those who were caught 8 shortage of in the region resolved by large scale of poor agricultural workers from other parts of Brazil especially the Northeast Amazon population rose from 137000 nonindigenous people in 1820 to 323000 in 1870 and 1217000 in 1910 C The Height of the Rubber Boom 1 dispersion of labor debt peonage and transport systems allowed to maintain their control over local operations rather than as was already the case in to avoid pests requiring many workers the worker fell into debt these forms of control but it usually murder being quot by mining in the periphery 2 Shortage of local capital meant that loaned money to local landowners and merchants who reinvested pro ts in rubber 3 the regional economy C3 investment in extraction and transport facilities was typically meaning that trading posts ports boats etc could not be used for other purposes 4 this nature of investment made it difficult for companies to use these investments for it worthless after the bust 5 making continued to decline be assimilated or retreat to more remote areas of the Amazon C6 in the region increased by 800 between the mid1800s and 1910 the region became one of the in the world 7 although some profits were to British trading companies a very large part was retained by and by the Brazilian government and reinvested in the region C8 few local few inputs were supplied by local industries and no advanced industrial processing of rubber into tires and other products took place in the Amazon 9 One Common Criticism of the Rubber Boom Why were Amazonian capitalists and the Brazilian government so as to reinvest profits in this one natural resourcebased industry a this is a 70 years of boom is a especially for companies for whom 5 or 10 years is a very long time period for planning C9 b investing in rubber offered some of the available anywhere in the world from 1840 to 1910 c a bust was not it was due to the by the British who set up rubber plantations in where there were no natural pests d most important reason for bust was that the dependence only on natural rubber from Brazil limited this created a very strong incentive for companies and governments to find a D The Rubber Bust 1 British government in their pests 2 Rubber prices crashed in 1910s as and developed plantations where there were no natural jobs disappeared companies went bankrupt and the region became impoverished IV The Brazilian Military Government in the Amazon A The Amazon lgnored 19201964 1 Small scale 2 No national or international in Amazon 3 Brazilian national focused on 4 Capture of Southeast Asian by Japanese in World War II led to development of synthetic rubber and efforts to increase Amazon rubber production A5 Geopolitics Brazilian military fought with Allies in WW II and became strong Cold War anticommunist allies 6 When economic growth slowed in southern Brazil in the late 1950s and early 1960s political movements sought to create a social democratic system like in Western Europe 7 Brazilian military labeled these political movements as communists and the military seized power in 1964 and remained in control until 1985 B The Military Government s Plans for the Amazon 1 Resettle landless people from the rest of Brazil in the Amazon eliminating the need to take land away from large landowners 2 Export raw materials to the core to earn money for the nation 3 National security by populating the Amazon so it would not be lost C The Cattle Industry 1 Attractive because of national and international demand for beef loans available from World Bank and it appeared cheap and ecologically easy to do 2 Soil qualities proved to be inadequate for sustained pasture production pastures degraded by fth year after clearance 3 Brazilian government provided US 7305mil in subsidies between 1966 and 1983 4 Cattle sales do not cover operating costs without government subsidies C5 Loss to nation of ofthe national resources invested in the average ranch 6 Ranching responsible for of deforestation in the Amazon D Roadbuilding in the Amazon 1 Why build roads a rest of Brazil already dependent on roads b autotruck industm a large part of economy c river transport in Amazon seen as inefficient and primitive D1d roads were essential to Midweststvle aqricultural 39 39 f It to open the Amazon for settlement and move inputs in and take products out ofthe region D2 What are the problems with building roads in the Amazon a heavy rainfall leads to erosion and road washouts making maintenance very costly and timeconsuming and requiring a large amount of labor D2b thousands of rivers and streams and seasonal flooding require many bridges raising construction costs c large size of region and lack of existing roads require construction of a very extensive network of roads d rapid vegetation raises maintenance costs to keep roads clear e existing population along rivers increasing the need for bridges f road construction disrupts natural water ows doing well government and firms in southern Brazil E The Timber Industry 1 rapid expansion of logging and sawmills 2 mainly production for export rst mahogany more recently pulp 3 logging very difficult because trees in demand are widely scattered making selective cutting expensive and clear cutting extremely wasteful and destructive E4 Tree Plantation Attempts a Henry Ford and rubber b Daniel Ludwig American shipping magnate in 1967 with 3 million acres for a fastgrowing East Indian tree 0 What went wrong i pests transport dif culties high costs of production high labor requirements F What are the Environmental Impacts of deforestation 1 Carbon release complete clearing of the Amazon would release 1135 gigatons of carbon into the atmosphere however this is a relatively small impact since fossil fuel use releases 5 gigatons of carbon per year F2 loss ofplant and animal species in cleared areas 3 disruption of local regional and global hydrologic cycles 4 Soil degradation via erosion 5 destruction of other ofthe forest eg rubbertapping and gathering Brazil nuts V The Amazon Today A Mining 1 Milt Gov t encouraged mining and this policy continues today 2 The Amazon one ofthe few mineral rich frontiers left to supply core industries 3 Military government hoped to create growth for processing raw materials bringing in foreign TNCs and Brazilian companies to follow the model ofthe m industm in Pittsburgh creating new industrial cities in the Amazon A4 Resources mined in the Amazon iron ore world s largest mine bauxite world s second largest mine gold manganese tin and copper 5 Very dif cult to nd minerals transport dif culties huge area forest covering land surface heavy rains and large streams TNCs had to use techniques developed in Canada to prospect icecovered areas to penetrate forest cover 6 Loans from World Bank and from US and European banks and TNCs to develop mines hydroelectric dams and factories A7 Mining projects create thousands of jobs drawing in a large transient that moves on to the next big project 8 Gold mining a small scale gold miners began invading Indian lands more than 20 years ago b most labor is panning for gold in rivers or digging for small gold lodes on land A8c employs tens ofthousands of poor people making it politically popular d most signi cant environmental and human health threat in the region indiscriminate use of mercum to separate gold from dross elevated levels found in indigenous peoples in some areas of heavy gold mining B Hydroelectricity 1 Provides power for large mines and processing plants 2 Has forced the relocation of thousands of indigenous peoples and other area residents 3 Dozens of large dams still planned for the region threatening to displace tens of thousands of people and alter the region s environment and ecosystems C Indigenous Peoples 1 successfully opposed building a huge dam in the early 1990s a took a gold mining town hostage in 1985 and forced government to recognize their lands and pay royalties from gold mining to them then used wealth to resist dam building 2 Road building and agricultural colonization have led to even more assimilation and extinction C3 More than onethird of indigenous lands have had exploration permits led on them by mining companies 4 Planned dams would take away 100000 more hectares ofindigenous lands 5 Many residents ofthe Amazon consider indigenous peoples quotan obstacle to developmentquot 6 Brazilian Constitution of1988 required government to de ne give title to and defend indigenous groups land C7 many indigenous lands protected as quotnational forestsquot that are then legally or illegally exploited by loggers and miners 8 in 1995 all demarcation suspended only 39 ofland eligible for demarcation had been titled to indigenous peoples 9 land already demarcated can be disputed by others claiming rights to the land including loggers and miners C10 Policy still being debated but changes due to interest in development by military gold miners loggers farmers and state governments in further access to land these groups have blocked demarcation and tried to get access to lands 11 Con icting roles of the Brazilian government protect indigenous peoples protect Brazilian borders promote development promote andor carry out prospecting mining dam building logging ranching and farming D The Amazon as a frontier 1 One View it impossible for the Amazon to develop like the US frontier did because of a high transport costs b lack of services forthe middle class c environmental constraints d high rate of mobility means people remain part of the informal economy and frequently move from one line ofwork and location to another never starting permanent towns like in the US D 2 Another View the frontier will collapse because roads cannot be maintained and many migrants leave the Amazon and return home 3 An Alternative View small scale Uses rather than Large Projects a Extract Reserves land owned by the government that is used by caboclos and settlers for extraction at sustainable rates 4 Pessimistic View natural resource wealth and core develogment mean that TNCs will eventually develop the Amazon s resources


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