Nonwestern World SOC 3040
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Giovanna Casper on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOC 3040 at Western Michigan University taught by Paul Ciccantell in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see /class/216814/soc-3040-western-michigan-university in Sociology at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Soc 304 Basic Concepts LECTURE NOTES PART I I Introduction II What is Sociology III Society and Culture IV Socialization V Social Institutions VI Social Strati cation VII Social Change and Urbanization VIII Global Strati cation IX SocietyNature Relationships I Introduction A The Syllabus 1 Questions B The Course Pack Iwill announce in class when it is ready C Goal for Today Introduce the eld of sociology and the basic concepts we will be using this semester II What is Sociology A the scienti c study of society and human behavior 1 Key insight Human behavior is shaped by the to which we belong and within these groups B the group memberships that people have because of their location in history and society 1 our social location shapes our B2 What are your most important concerns as college students and young adults in the US today 3 What were your grandparents most important concerns in 1950 B4 Other Examples C the patterns of behavior that characterize a social group 1 the 2 the majority of the world s population lives in has transformed our everyday lives D Research Methods 1 the application of systematic methods to obtain knowledge and the knowledge obtained by those methods a scienti c methods are used to study both the D2 Goals of Science a something happens b beyond individual cases to c 3 Sociology using to eXplain human behavior eld research surveys interviews archival research 111 Society and Culture A people who share a culture and a territory B the language beliefs values norms behaviors and material objects passed from one generation to another 1 the material objects that distinguish a group of people such as their art buildings weapons utensils machines hairstyles clothing and jewelry B2 a group s ways of including its beliefs values and other assumptions about the world and its common patterns of behavior including language and other forms of interaction C The Role of Culture in Social Life 1 Provides a see a line of people at a university of ce 2 Provides a 3 Provides a 4 Provides a line What do you do when you What do you think of people who cut in D disorientation that people experience when they come in contact with a fundamentally different culture and can no longer depend on their takenforgranted assumptions about life 1 What would you do if you were waiting to board a plane in Brazil and no one waited their turn in line E the use of one s own culture as a yardstick for judging the ways of other individuals or societies generally leading to a negative evaluation of their values norms and behaviors understanding a people from the framework of its own culture 1 in the US 2 What should the legal system do G something to which people attach meaning and then use to communicate a system of symbols that can be combined in an infinite number of ways to represent objects and communicate abstract thought 1 primary means of 2 pass on H3 provides a 4 provides a 5 allows shared 6 allows 7 eXpands beyond immediate facetoface groups I language creates ways of thinking and perceiving shaping how people see the world formerly known as Eskimos have because it is important for them to be able to distinguish between various types for survival 2 we have only a few terms mainly related to J 93 4 K cultural standards by which people de ne What is valuable or undesirable 2 L the expectations or rules of behavior that guide people s behavior 1 everyday habits and conventions that people obey Without any thought a type of norms that are not strictly enforced L 2 norms that are strictly enforced because they ar thought to be essential to core values often formalized as 3 a norm so strong that it brings revulsion ifit is violated M Values Change Over 1 N Values and Norms are 1 O Twenty Core 20 P Value Contradictions 1 all societies have values that contradict one another a Material Comfort vs Humanitarianism b Equality vs Racism and Group Superiority 2 serious con icts often result from value contradictions eg the abortion debate and individual rights versus religiosity Q Cultural Diffusion the spread of cultural characteristics from one group to another 1 Use of English around the world in business science and technology R Cultural Leveling the process by which cultures become similar to one another as unique and often valuable characteristics are eliminated and homogenized 1 today western industrial culture is imported and diffused into other nations through increased global interconnections 2 Baywatch the world s most popular tv show IV Socialization A Socialization the process by which people 1 learn the characteristics of groups and culture 2 learn what to quottake for grantedquot stand in line cars Star quot 3 are incorporated into groups 4 develop our individual sense of smle B Agents of Socialization people or groups that affect our selfconcept attitudes or other orientations toward life Bl The family rst and forever a nature of parents work Melvin Kohn in crosscultural comparison b working class and middle class parents with repetitive closely supervised jobs teach conformi c middle and upper class with more freedom and control teach creativity and questioning B2Religion concepts of right and wrong and other values provides a sense of meaning and moral guidance 3Day Care early socialization outside the family 4Schools a manifest function teach skills b follow the rules B5Peer Groups the power of having to quot t inquot a based on common intrests that are important at this stage b provide normative guidelines especially for relations with the opposite seX c everpresent threat of expulsion conform or else B6Sports J Banner a learn values eg competition and teamwork b provide role models 7Mass Media a violence on tv 18000 murders by age 18 8 The Work place how things really work around here and our identities in the US V Social Institutions A Social Initiations the organized usual or standard ways by which society meets its basic needs lEducational System teaches skills and values 2 The Family regulates reproduction and socializes children 3 The Legal System maintains social order A4Politics establish a hierarchy of power and authority 5 Economics Produce and distribute goods and services 6 Science master the environment 7 Mass Media disseminate information mold public opinion report events 8 Religion provide meaning VI Social Strati cation A Social Strati cation the division of nations or people according to relative power property and prestige B Social Class a large group of people who rank close to each other in wealth power and prestige 1Wealth property and income 2 Power the ability to get your way in spite ofthe desires of other people 3 Prestige respect or regard given to occupations and accomplishments C Why is social class an important social fact 1 it in uences every aspect ofindividuals lives asocialization parents jobs and how they socialize their children b funding for education wealthy vs poor school districts Clc Infant mortality a infants born in poor inner city neighborhoods in the US are 50 more likely to die during the f1rstvear of life than are other children b the inner city US rate is similar to that of Rio de Janeiro and other third world cities Cld Friendships and Relationships i tend to be formed with people from similar social class backgrounds even in a setting with people from a range of class backgrounds like a university ii quotFriends in Low Placesquot iii What images describe the different social classes to which the people in the song belong Friends in Low Places Garth Brooks Written by Dewayne Blackwell and Bud Lee Blame it all on my roots I showed up in boots And ruined your black tie affair The last one to know The last one to show I was the last one You thought you d see there And I saw the surprise And the fear in his eyes When I took his glass of champagne And I toasted you Said honey we may be through But you ll never hear me complain Cause I ve got friends in low places Where the whiskey drowns And the beer chases my blues away And I ll be okay I m not big on social graces Think I ll slip on down to the oasis Oh I ve got friends in low places Well I guess I was wrong Ijust don t belong But then I ve been there before Everything s all right I ll just say good night And I ll show myself to the door Hey I didn t mean To cause a big scene Just give me an hour and then Well I ll be as high as that ivory tower That you re livin in Cldiii What images describe the different social classes that people belong to D How do sociologists measure social class 1 What class do you belong to 09 D2 Subjective Method a what class they belong to b Why do most Americans respond that they are members of the middle even if they are much wealthier or poorer than the average household income of 50303 c American value of equality should be equal even ifwe are not d makes this method invalid for research D3 Objective Method the researcher ranks people according to wealth power and prestige using information on income education and occupation E The US Class Structure 1 Capitalist Class 500000 1 elite university39 investors heirs top CEOs 2 Upper Middle Class 90000 14 college graduate degree39 professionals and upper managers 3 Lower Middle Class 40000 30 high school or college39 semiprofessionals lower managers foremen E4 Working Class 30000 30 high school39 factory workers clerical retail 5 Working Poor 18000 22 some high school39 laborers service workers lowpaid salespeople 6 Underclass 10000 3 some high school39 unemployed part time workers on welfare F Gender 1 What are the differences between males and females 2 S biological characteristics that distinguish females and males most are linked to reproduction 3 social characteristics that a society considers proper for its males and females F4 changing ideals of quot emale beautvquot in US society a How does our culture de ne what a beautiful woman is like b a past de nition overweight c Twiggy and waifs what would the average woman have to look like this F5 anoreXia and bulimia a 50 ofUS women are on a M b girls as young as 3 years old report quotto be on a dietquot c 10 of all US women and 20 of female college students have eating disorders F6 steroid use male quotreverse anorexiaquot a one million US males mainly adolescents 7 Why do Americans do these damaging things to ourselves a G Why is gender an important social fact 1 in nearly every culture there are 2 in nearly every culture traits de ned as 3 we learn these G4 The Result is a System of men s and women s unequal access to power prestige and property on the basis of their gender
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