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Psych 7 Week 1 Lecture

by: Debbie Chen

Psych 7 Week 1 Lecture 7

Debbie Chen

Intro to Experimental Psych

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Intro to Experimental Psych
Class Notes
psych 7
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Debbie Chen on Thursday October 9, 2014. The Class Notes belongs to 7 at University of California Santa Barbara taught by PROTZKO in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 79 views.


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Date Created: 10/09/14
Psych 7 Week 1 Introduction Goal to learn how research is conducted o Primacy of Affect 0 Cognitive Approach to Child Abuse Prevention Polygon test people preferred the one they saw even if they don t remember seeing it remembering is not necessary for recognition Child Abuse if people come up with other ways to explain the child s crying than self blame or childblame they are less likely to be physically abusive Beer Belly does beer actually cause fat Lecture before reading Exam 1 amp 2 30 each Final 40 cumulative from mistakes in Exam 1amp2 50 50 60 MC 1o 7 2014 Pennies Flip coin Last person standing had a power bar for breakfast Does eating a power bar make you an expert coin ipper Not scienti c evidence because of the way the experiment was conducted o You found a subject of interest and reasoned backwards Giuliani Effect o After Rudy Giuliani was elected Mayor of NYC in 1995 murders decreased o He increased the police force cracked down on criminals I Did Giuliani actually clean up the city I The crime of USA decreased not just NYC I Murders signi cantly decreased from 1990 2oo3four years before Giuliani became mayor Ashley amp Daniel freshman o Ashley comes from a good home Graduated in top 5 of her HS class I Spends her RFSa in her room relaxing and watching movies I Scores 99 on her rst midterm I Why Closer to materials o Daniel comes from a good home graduated top 5 of his HS class I Spends her RFSa in his room relaxing and watching movies I Scores 99 on his rst midterm I Why Less stressed o Point very easy to weave a story that makes sense Research Methods All of these rely on the same method of research o Find someone of interest o Reason backwards o Terrible way of research Belief bias OOOOOO 0 All living things need water Roses need water Therefore rose are living things Or All tigers have four legs My table has four legs Therefore my table is a tiger Just because it makes sense doesn t make it valid The tale of Ignaz Semmelweiss O O Childbed Fever illness that affected childrenmothers more likely to develop if in hospital rather than a midwife Suggested washing his hands after working with a corpse and before delivering a baby Moral just because it doesn t make sense doesn t make it invalid Assumptions of Scienti c Research 0 O O 0 There is a world out there not a dream The world is knowable we can nd out what is real The world is ultimately understandable There are reliable methods for gaining this knowledge and understanding Research methods o We need research methods because our minds are fallible and biased I Belief bias Semmelweiss making sense of things I We ignore forget 0 Dreams that didn t come true 0 Times we were in the fastest line I Authority amp Con dence 0 If we say something with more con dence 0 If someone looks professional ie labcoat Scienti c Thinking o Science is o 1 Empirical based on observations I Science based on observations vs authority 0 Galileo thinks that the earth spins around the sun 0 Cardinals people in power said to treat it as theory not fact bc they were in power I Prohibition against arguing from authority in science alters the nature of expertise I An expert is not someone who has the correct answers only someone who knows the evidence very well and thus can make a persuasive argument I Any consumer of research still needs to evaluate the evidence being presented 2 Objective observations and conclusions are clearly de ned in ways that allow others to get the same results I Example therapeutic touch sensing and smoothing out patients invisible energy elds to promote healings I Over 1oo universities have therapeutic touch instruction in nursing schools I 1998 AMA decided to test I 21 TT practitioners tested for whether could sense which of their hands have a human hand placed above it I Correct in 44 of trials no better than chance I TT are groundless and professional use is unjusti ed 3 Systematic observations that are organized in such a way that allows casual inferences I Systematic evidence for therapeutic effectiveness 0 Say you work for a clinic that treats anxiety disorders in children 0 Most of the kids seem to get better over time 0 Is this good enough evidence that the therapy is working Is it any different than the evidence for bloodletting 0 What is the evidence that therapies help patients autism depression learning disabilities etc o Randomized experiments strongest evidence but not always done 0 Question of proper research design is crucial to evolution of whether therapy works 0 RCT randomized controlled trial best if you can get this I Intuition as evidence 0 Intuition can be wrong 0 Our perceptual and reasoning mechanisms may not always be accurate 0 Lost in a mall study false memories I False story from your parents I 6 weeks later do you remember which memory was false I Some people don t always pick the lost mall I Sometimes more vivid than real memories 0 Even when intuition is correct it is not scienti c evidence 0 Usually subjective I Different people can see the same thing in different ways 0 Usually unsystematic I Based on intuition instead of being causally inferred 0 If you tossed a fair coin 20 times in a row there is a 25 chance of getting heads 5 times in a row 0 That coin is on re o Hypothetical announcer a t the NCAA coins tossing championships 0 Just because there is a streak doesn t mean it has anything to do with the subject 0 Manwho Fallacy The use of a single instinct to discredit an entire scienti c nding Intelligence can t be mostly genetic my parents never even went to college Of course GMOs are bad for you my friend developed Leukemia OOO Not scienti c evidence 1o 92014 Variables and Introduction to Correlation 0 Independent Variable what you think is causing a change in your dependent variable 0 Dependent Variable 0 Conceptual DV the theoretical construct hypothesized to vary as a function of the independent variable I Eg aggression varies as a 1nction of frustration 0 Operational DV the concrete observable procedures in which one assess the conceptual DV I Eg amount of hot sauce put on taco related to aggression I Some sort of score that you can use to differentiate people 0 Coffee IV vs Studying Habits DV 0 Example Does gender IV in uence intelligence DV 0 Can t in uence gender so that is quasiexperimental Dependent Variable DV 0 Measurement Methods 0 Selfreport measures interviews questionnaires I Interviews 0 They ask you questions I Daily Diaries 0 Multiple entries to measure changes over time I Experience Sampling Methods Have to answer questions at a certain amount of time every time you meet somebody brand new answer these questions In the moment data I Questionnaires Open ended writing vs close ended scales 0 Open ended hard to do analysis can t do too many but great data Measurement Scales close ended o Nominal scales a categorical Cal variable no numerical or quantitative properties M F zip code 0 Ordinal Scale a rank order of the levels of a variable favorite baseball teams 0 Semantic Differential Scales assess the connotative subjective meaning of things there is equal spacing between each level Ugly 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 Beauti il o Likert Scales a scale where numbers are associated with different responses to a series of statements for participants to indicate the extent of their disagreement or agreement strongly agree 1 2 3 4 5 strongly agree I Assume its continuous unless they speci cally state that its discreet I Advantages Cheap and easy to use Certain directness to them A lot of questions in a short time Ask questions that are solely there to help untangle confounds later 0 IQ Gender ask about income extra variables that might be affecting Subtle changes in participants feelings Anonymous help 1l for sensitive info I Disadvantages Treated casually Participants may try to make themselves look good Participants may not be honest with themselves Participants may act based on expectancies or reactance Measure is what participants say about themselves may be different than behavior is biking to class exercise Participants can tell you are assessing them I The choices on a frequency scale can in uence which answers are chosen If you give small increments vs large increments I Order of question because you are primingactivating sex life rst then life 310 life then sex life 710 I Context of a question Lincoln Pres Trustworthiness vs Nixon o Behavioral measures direct and indirect I Direct behavioral measures provide participants an opportunity to perform a behavior and see whether they do it how long they do it or how many times they do it 0 Love on the Bridge Study Button 8 Aron 1972 o BridgeArousal small vs big bridge 0 Experimenters were women they stopped men 0 More men on bridge called the women 0 Misplaced arousal 0 Direct measure did they call back I Indirect behavioral measures measure some proxy for behavior of interest 0 Liking how close people sit near each other 0 How much eye contact 0 Direct measure physical traces nose prints I Advantages 0 Can often measure behavior without participants awareness of what is being measure or measurement taking place 0 Behavior is more engrossing than lling out questionnaires could get truer responses I Disadvantages 0 Harder to implement from researcher s perspective than self report need RAs certain equipment or environment 0 Sometimes it is not possible to measure behavior of interest ex lots of reasons why heart rate might be increased 0 Behavioral measures usually obtained individually 0 Hard to measure multiple things in one study 0 These all slow down data collection Correlations relationships between variables 0 Positive linear relationship r 9 0 Negative linear relationship r 9 0 No relationship r o 0 Curvilinear relationship ex U shaped Correlation does not mean causation Confounding VariableCovariate SV 0 3rd variable that could be responsible for variance in the DV 0 Much applied research presented in the media is correlational and thus potentially suffers from confounding variable problems 0 Eg students that gets better grades when parents monitor hw Is drinking good for you 0 Found that people who drink wine dies later 0 Or maybe people who are healthier drink more wine 0 Confounding variables would be really important Limitations of Correlational Research 0 The number of potential confounding variables is in principle in nite o Cannot statistically control for an in nite number of variables o Often cannot control for variables perfectly eg when controlling for education do all bachelor s degrees indicate identical education 0 Need to evaluate strength of evidence and likelihood of alternative explanations on a case by case basis


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