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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Cristopher Deckow on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 3500 at Western Michigan University taught by Chansheng He in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see /class/216838/geog-3500-western-michigan-university in Geography at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Key Con cepts Waste Management lemma hazameus wastes and Municipal sulidwastes Problems 0 Concepts II waste Management preeess Recyclable Wastes Enupmsepmnm5mm Cumpu ihg o Nonrecyclable Wastes The Resource CDHSENaIIEIfi ahe RecoveryActquBTE 2 NunrRecyclable Waste treatment methods 21 Landfill Walandfillvs Iiried drytumb laridfill Landfills 22 iheiheraterri ash and pattern ash 2a heergreuheihieeh is Inc39nerators gjpgggnpgiehsive EnvlrurimeritalRESpDnSECDmpEnSatIDnarid LianiimAeteriaan Emwrifield arid bmwrifield dEvEIEImerit Underground Injection Wells oamxmmn Netih mybackyam NIMEV Sy df mE Expemhg hazarueus wastes werseas ReVIew Questions Concepts Hazardous waste and municipal solid wastes How much do each of us produce Hazardous W35t953 SUbStanceS that everyday adversely affect a wide array of Treatment of recyciabie wastes organisms causing death or illness if Treatment of nonrecyclable wastes improperly Stored transported Issues of landfills incinerators and d39sposed Of or handled underground injection wells 0 Municipal solid wastes mainly consist Superfund Act and Resource of papers 375 and yard wastes Conservation and Recovery Act 161 with food metal plastic and wood making up the rest Statistics on Waste Production 0 US produces about 200 to 250 For every ton of postconsumer waste there is 20 mllllon memo tons 0f hazardous tons of pre consumerwaste created along the waste each year almost 1 ton per way in the manufacturing process In the US 39 About 117 billion tons of nonhazardous wastes cap39ta are generated each year in the US and most of that is generated by industry in raw materials The US 395 the N01 waSte prOducer extraction processing and manufacturing in the world In 1990 the US Ofthe 12 billion tons of wastes 65 billion tons are produced from manufacturing 17 from prOduced approx39mately 175 m39ll39on mining 14 from oilgas 10 from agriculture 018 metric tons of municipa soid waste from municipal solid waste and 013 other This means that less than 2 percent is actually The amount is increasmg at 24 municipal solid waste percent per year 12i5i2nn7 5 insmm l1le WWW tufts eduLu sceeyrlesYTSSIBLS liLm 11022006 accesset Municipal Solid Waste Generation 4 5 l l l 15 E E 1 i a E 25 3 2 7 7 E 15 o a 1 7 g a s mu mo 1 990 1252007 hmwawlu sediLtu sxecvclesUSstntshm 11022006 accessed rm u um um um hummiqu m mull lam mum incmu 1252007 115mwwwtu sedutu srecvclesUSstntshtm 11022006 accesse Characterization of US NonHazardous Wcsie Other l Mining 16 Munulucluring Agricunuml 599i 9 300 MSW 200 A 4i A ex u a 397 O Q b o o 0 o 6 o o 0 0 lb 9 I 3 9 I 0 x 2 c o 0 06 0amp2 3ij 08999 08gt a0 Wm anmosmm V 0 Q q 311 e e 00 The Changing Nature of Trash kg Annual Per Capita Waste Generation lbs u Composition of domestic waste in the Problems Expensive to dispose Waste of natural resources land minerals water etc Environmental pollution 1252007 12 United States by percent of total weight E 40 Paper39 Waste Management 3 The Changing 2 Nature of Trash Reduction durable smaller 395 330 more efficient and use less 522570 3 Yard 17 r Reuse and Recycle paper 5315 quot33 Me 3 N clothes boxes plastics etc 351 Ea e in 5 lzaznm la 2 0 The Changing Nature of Trash US per Capita Garbage Output 1960 1980 1995 and 2000 Proiection ri Pounds Per Day 1960 1930 1995 2000 per and paperboard ass Metals Plastics Rubber and leather extiles Total waste Recycle involves a conversion process End point separation materials separated at the collection site Source separation materials separated at the source Waste collection Waste remanufacturing and procurement Composting decomposition of organic wastes through oxidation process to produce humus material lzaznm we Solid Waste Management and Disposal Public Source Recycled material Organic wastes for compost a ypwnruvq i r up Source separation in the kitchen the first step in a strong recycling program Compo vegetable scraps and other organic materials into useful garden mulch v sting is a good way to convert yard waste Composting cavev keeps heat in arts water Cress cuttings and straw allow air in Warm an uses omen mam pens Em ln hiackcvumbl 1 comes Walls have small gaps keep heat ll i AIR lnsdethe hean memrgamms my snow aquot men breakdownthe urgamc materials which generate heat 1252EIEI7 ht wwwtu scdutuftsrcc clesUSsrnrstn 11022006 access il A Brief Histom of Recycling 500 BC The world39s rst municipal dump formed in Athens Greece Waste had to be disposed of minimum a mile away from the city 1388 English Parliament bars waste dispersal in public waterways and ditches 1690 In Philadelphia the Rittenhouse Mill recycles the rst paper using bers from wastepaper and rags 1842A report is made linking disease to dirty conditions and sanilation becomes a major issue 18850n Governors Island in New York the rst garbage incinerator was built in the us aste reduction plants are created to compress organic waste but are soon closed because of ic emissions 1898New York opens the rst of cial recycling plant in the US where it sorls trash 1900 Pi geriesquot were created and garbage was fed to pigs However this led o an outbreak ofvesicular exant ema and the pigs had to be killed ngwwwLuaudutu srecvclestSsrarshvm 11012006 accessed 1 252007 A Brief Histom of Recycling continued 1914 There were 300 incinerators in the US 1920 s Landfills were established in swamps filling them and creating more usable land 1948 Fresh Kills landfill is opened on Staten Island New York It becomes the world s largest city dump Along with the Great Wall of China it is the only manmade thing visible from space 1954 Olympia Washington is the first place to offer a deposit on aluminum cans 1965The first federal solid waste management laws are enacted 1252EIEI7 A Brief Histom of Recycling continued 1968 The US aluminum industry begins recycling 1970 The EPA creates the rst Earth Day and the Resource Recovery Act is enacted 1974 The rst citywide curbside recycling starts in University City Missouri for newspapers 19 6 The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act is created which focuses on recycling 1980 The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act Superfund was passed 1984 Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments ssed 1986 Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act pas Rhode Island isthe rst state to pass mandatory recycling laws for cans glass newspapers and plastic 1252EIEI7 A Brief Histom of Recycling continued 1988 Ocean Dumping Ban passed The Plastic Bottle Institute develops a material identification code system for plastic bottle manufacturers 1 6 1990 McDonalds stops using Styrofoam packaging due to protests CocaCola and Pepsi announce they will use recycled PET bottles made of about 25 recycled plastic resin 1991The federal recycling order is signed 1992UN Earth Summit promotes sustainable development nwmm htt wwwm scdutu srccvclcsUSstatletm 11022006 accessed The Resource Conservation and Recovery RCRA Act of 1976 The US recycling ratio is about 14 but 6080 is possible Japan the Netherlands Mexico South Korea Germany and many other countries have a much higher recycle ratio 1215mm 25 Japan s citizen participation in recycling The Netherlands s source separation law Oregon s Recycling Opportunity Act requiring all cities with over 4000 people to start a curbside recycling program lZSZUUT 25 1970 supply 1993 price 2 0 a D a u 39 n w h n a I u m 3 o 2 39a 2 u gt o w I Supply and Demand Prices for Two Grades of Scrap Paper 1992 1995 CardbOard 70 Newspaper Moigt01 COG Dollarston O I Recycled ncinerated Landfilled Percent Japan United States Percentages of municipal solid waste recycled incinerated and land lled in Japan and the United States in 1995 Plislids 4 a o rum r 1101quotwmmmm Himl 0 m5 m thu s edutu srecyclesUSstatshim 11022006 accessed an my mum mm mm mu mo nu 1m 1095 m1 mo 2105 H mm Meiquot quot Smut mm11mm mumus 11 mm mm mm mm m m m my 011m 1 m mm a mannar 3 lzsmlm 32 11022006 accessed TrendsIn WasteGeneration Recovery ampDispasal 9 Rmdm Rams CHEM Mamnals ma quot 21115 26 E 15 so 621 13 7 1 011 5 quot 4quot g m glammm 4quot E mm 26 2 sn vaevv 2 39 mamum f gt J I MW39H mm 5quot a a Paper Hum Yrs Pam Elan 6hr quot Elfm17LTt Batteries CanSTrlrvlngs 11 my son M11 Containers um um mu mo us zoom nas mama Paperboaidk i 39L c Divnk Baum m m Cans 39Alnmv m 11an 1 Swul cwm g a u 1 mmquot in ms w in 1 u s nun mm 1 s m Myriam u WWW mm wwwtu s edutu srecvclesUSstatshim 11022006 accesses mama 1mg wwwLu sedum zscvdrsUSstatsh 11022006 accessem 005 Waste Managem t P c ces 196 Darcem of General IV 196D 19m 1991 g i r Wisu r a a RecycledCampusted 6496 arm 3 7 6 315 1521 39 u k V 11 m 44 115 L1 A 4 59mg cha ng an a law in the 0 v x955 091mg 0 m wmmm DC mm 3D mwy n 21m and 32 emery in 21705 Nomi ammuan RucevIV m undulyKampalaquot Dun11h rm mm Total ulna15 z Amtuh mmbuead Amountdiszayded m landfill mm www tu s edutu srecvclesUSstats mm 11022006 accessed 12mm 35 1 911 1995 21mm 21212150 55 11135 1 Standardizing product containers Reducing or eliminating subsidies Technology pollutant containment and removal Economics incentives and fines Natural resources taxes Institutional education and regulations mama as NonRecyclable Waste treatment Land l Landfill leachate to groundwater Also expensive Postpone inevitable groundwater pollution Multiple uses building stores and parks on it Landfill siting and monitory programs for groundwater protection 1215mm 37 EPA requires land ll postclosure care including monitoring for 30 years California requires the postclosure care for as long as the waste poses a threat Wet land ll vs Lined dry tomb landfill needing long term monitoring and care lzaznm A Modern Landllll awqu umm Wall lzaznm h wwwtu sedutu srecvclcsUSsratletm 1 1022006 accessed In a sanitary landfill trash and garbage are crushed and covered each day to prevent accumulation of vermin and spread of disease A Modern WellDesi Howamodernlandfillwor lt 39 srecove T Methane system monitorin Water table Leachate removal standpipes Topso il cover cilay cap Testing Plastic liner well l i i Bedrockili A secure landfill for toxic waste What we do with our trash lncinerated 3 Land Energy recovery 6 Recycled 11 Land lls 30 Municipal Solid Waste Management in the United States 1960 to 2000 Recovery for recycling Recovery for composting 1960 65 70 75 80 85 90 95 2000 Reducing the Number of Landfills Incinerator burn the unseparated trash and utilize the heat for heating and power generation Toxic gases dioxin and heavy metals and acidic substances hydrochloric acid fly ash and bottom ash jZSZUW o5 A HighTemperature s d b lncmeration cf at 035 tack ups 0 Solid waste dropped in 9 Sludge waste in plastic barrels Waste 35h particulates and wastewater to be trea ed 0 Liquid waste piped in or disposed of in landfill Underground Injection Wells injection of toxic wastes into deeper aquifer eg Pfizer s injections wells are up to 1 mile deep HISZEN ox A diagram of a municipal quotmassburnquot garbage incinerator Stack Cleaning system Electrostatic Bag precipitalor house Combustion FEEde chamber hopper V iAsh storage areai Ban Trash from Canada Landfills in Crawford Genesee Huron Macomb Monroe Washtenaw and Way Counties receive trash from Canada The amount of Canadian trash shipping to Michigan increases after the city of Toronto closed its municipal landfill on Jan1 US Senate Debbie Stabenow is proposing a bill to ban Canadian trash to Michigan 1252EIEI7 an However the USCanada agreement allows the shipping of Canadian trash to the US since 1986 Only the US Congress has authority to regulate trash shipments between states and nations The North American Free Trade Agreement NAFTA sets limits on restrictions of commerce between the US Canada and Mexico Kalamazoo Gazette June 15 2003 marznm 51 Dumping Toxic Waste in Italy Factories in northern Italy produce industrial wastes including toxic sludge and as By law such wastes must be identi ed and treated before disposal Criminal gangs create shell companies that win waste hauling and disposal contracts by underbidding legitimate competitors by as much as 90 percentquot They then send trucks to haul the wastes to warehouses where false documents are issued that the cargo is not dangerous They then dump the wastes in pits caves or bodies of water Some sludge is delivered to sites approved for nondangerous wastes some are sold to farmers as fertilizer thus polluting soils some dumped in national parks in southern Italy some loaded onto a boat and sunk or shipped to poor or developing countries BusinessWeek Jan27 2003 marznm 53 Hazardous Waste Management The Love Canal Niagara Falls story The Comprehensive Environmental Response Compensation and Liability Act of 1980 Superfund Act The EPA estimates about 39000 hazardous waste sites in the country The US General Accounting Office estimates about 100000 to 300000 sites plus 17000 toxic sites on military bases in the country 1252EIEI7 a httplwwwepagovsuperfundsitesrods ndexht httgwumcleanu9levelcom imam Independence Grove Forest Preserve Superfund Success A lmnnm imam Love Canal Story Priorto 1978 homes and schools built around land that had once served as a dumping ground for a byproducts were buried in the canal dump site Kalamazoo iz azette Aug11 2003 m gency evacuate 800 families and offered cash for their homes The US EPA barred from moving the toxic waste installed containment systems to keep waste from leaking out Today parts ofthe area including the canal itself a grassy eld are separated from nearby houses by an unmarked chainlink fence The 300 highest risk homes were demolished a few years ago while others were rehabilitated and resold Newsweek Aug4 2003 imam 25 years later people who moved into the rebuilt homes which were sold for 50000 apiece were well informed about the area s history A park was built next to the containment site The company that dumped the waste in the 1940s and 50s Occidental Chemical Corp formerly Hooker Chemical and Plastics Corp is still a major local employer It has paid over 233 million to cover cleanup costs and medical expenses for victims of the contamination and still pays for 24hour monitoring of the site Kalamazoo Gazette Aug11 2003 izaiznm m Buffalo New York Story In the Hickory Woods neighborhood of Buffalo New York residents moved in as part of a city revitalization plan buyers got 20000 subsidies in the 1990s But soon toxic wastes from a former steelmaking plant were found in the soil iziaiznm 62 Tests show high levels of toxins such as arsenic lead and polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons in the neighborhood Scientists have never made connections between contaminants and health problems But residents are concerned about their health problems such as cancer and developmental problems Over 70 homeowners have filed lawsuits against the old steel companies the city of Buffalo and its urban renewal agency Source Love Canal s Long Shadow Newsweek Aug4 2003 maiznm 63 Regulating Hazardous Materials Pollution All other ind stries 7 Producers of hazardous wastes in the Unlted States Pollution Prevention Hierarchy Pollution prevention Some of the hazardous waste sites on the EPA priority cleanup list The Life Cycle of Toxic Substances 7 Release into environment umans 1 Research and development 3 Transportation 3 Storage Household waste disposal guide Kitchen amp bathroom Garage amp workshop Garden amp household explred medlclne I motor oil 1 pesticides a cosmetics I gasollne dlesel E herbicides a nail polish remover l 39 E39 0quot lenlllzer wllh a weed klller auto oanerles 39 rm wave lotlon m quot antllreeze 3quot ax wlndshleld washer to Lig z ll ell39m 39 v brake fluld 5 ratgopher poison a window cleaner 4 transmission lluld glue with solvean oven cleaner a palm am my mmbans e Insect poison up lacaker emmy solvenmeaner 39 spray a palm thinner containers dry rubbing alcohol rt varnish app lanees iurnlture a halrspray other a rust remover g oven cleaner g aerosols mm grow I caulking epoxy berglass I Dispose or dried solids in household trash 39y m Flush with plenty ot water In drain ortoilet s2 Save and bring to a hazardous waste collection site is Recycle Hazardous waste law enforcement 350000 335555 109606 113491 White Mity High Lo Chemical Releases Toluene Review Questions Hazardous waste and municipal solid wastes How much do each of us produce everyday Treatment of recyclable wastes Treatment of nonrecyclable wastes Issues of landfills incinerators and underground injection wells Superfund Act and Resource Conservation and Recovery Act lZlSlZEIEW 73
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