Introduction To Tourism
Introduction To Tourism GEOG 3100
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Dr. Cristopher Deckow
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Dr. Cristopher Deckow on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 3100 at Western Michigan University taught by Li Yang in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see /class/216843/geog-3100-western-michigan-university in Geography at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Tourism 1 Kevin Medrala Summary of Tourism and the Environment In the modern world mass tourism is deemed to be in uenced by productled industries and subordinating environmental issues The coastline of Southern Europe has been experiencing adverse impacts on their natural ecosystems and an increase in local resistance against tourists This is considered as a direct result in the poor management of the sustainable development scheme in Europe This includes entrepreneurs that poorly utilize the natural ecosystems with lack of preserving it and the weak laws passed by conservative environmental and social administrators to preserve the natural environment It has also been said that most forms of tourism are environmentally damaging regardless Sustainable development is now a huge issue as opposed to the 1980s when only a few sociologists took notice Studies have been linked to nd the reasons as to how development negatively impacts the ecosystems and the economy There is a higher priority to nd out how tourism impacts the environment in the present day Studies show that although local environmental activists support tourism activities it is entirely ecosystem disruptive There is a signi cant amount of protests over the years against various forms of governmental activities in the past The protest cases are considered to be a good indicator of environmental activism cases against those in power Most of these cases usually include protests against events that include harming a sector of the environment Greece in the late 1970s for example rallied against the destruction of ecosystems on Dragonera Island that would contribute to negative aesthetic impacts and serious damages to the ora and fauna along Greece s coastline The early 1990s in Portugal was the site of local and governmental con ict against the environmental degradation of a forest area as the government tried to clear a large amount of land to support a large accommodation project Tourism 1 Kevin Medrala A lot of projects from the mid 70s and mid 90s catered to tourism development in Spain Greece and Portugal but not towards environmental preservation The projects created devastating environmental and social impacts such as sand extraction tra ic congestion sewage problems noise pollution and the shortage of natural freshwater reserves Most of the environmental protests take place in urban regions where troubled areas are becoming overlooked by the government As the government looked to develop only the tourism industry this contributed to more persistence from the locals to cope with the increase in tourists Leftwing orientated politics is considered to be more supportive of the local community in ensuring more economic and social development That includes organizations such as WWF Greenpeace and any other national and regional organizations that participate in nonviolent protests Table 3 shows the amount of EcoOffences in Southern Europe The most telling statistic may be that 6 of tourism development concluded in positive impacts for the environment while about 94 of the activities caused a large variety of negative impacts to the coastal and forestry regions in Southern Europe Table 4 shows the resolutions that are being proposed to ensure more preservation in the environment The more established resolutions include preservation of a wildlife area implementation of regulatory rules proper regionurban planning environmental impact assessment studies and the increase in production activities Help is usually requested from the local government bodies or the regional courts to support these proposals The article highlights the importance of research on the impacts that tourism related activities have on the local wildlife and ecosystems Protests in the 70s and 80s proved to be successful in pushing more agencies to support environmental preservation in the coastal regions Tourism 1 Kevin Medrala Summary ofEcotourism in Bhutan The Royal Government of Bhutan has been taking measures to protect their culture and considers preserving their natural resources a high priority 725 of the country is of forest cover while 395 of it is declared as a protected area system From the con ict of humans and wildlife that are threatening the well being of local residents and their occupations younger residents are moving out of the agricultural region to urban areas leaving in their wake a less vibrant agriculture sector in Bhutan s economy Ecotourism is then deemed as a great strategy to promote rural development in Bhutan The reality is that Bhutan have been experiencing a decline in nature tourists over the last decade The protected forest areas in Bhutan are reasoned as an attractive destination for foreign tourists However there is a lack of hotel accommodations and facilities to support a larger ecotourism industry in Bhutan So far the main tour packages are restricted to roadside activities as opposed to fully utilizing Bhutan s forestry region This is an issue as the tour packages do not support the financial needs of the rural community The Gross National Happiness GNH has been focusing their development in Bhutan s tourism industry However as Bhutan s tourism development is mainly focused on the principles of sustainability ecological stability and cultural acceptability rural communities must align their objectives with that of the GNH to ensure progress A number of other organizations have also been trying to support the interests of the rural population as they look towards shortening the amount of rural poverty in Bhutan Efforts have been made to use the Phobjikha Valley and the trails in NabjiKorphu to empower the rural population financially Despite the efforts however ecotourism is still seemingly nonexistent in Bhutan Tourism 1 Kevin Medrala Some scholars believe that Bhutan s ecotourism foundation is under the realm of sustainability This means that their fundamentals are against the prospects of mass tourism and the possibility of only attracting upperclass tourists who would only care to explore the Buddhist culture That is true with the statistics of the increase in tourism in Bhutan since 1996 the gures show that the increasing amount of tourists arrive for the cultural experience as opposed to Bhutan s ecotourism hence supporting many others scholars that believe that Bhutan is shifting towards sustainable ecotourism Their methods are to raise their prices to limit upper class tourists while also trying to accommodate for more visitors who are interested in trekking A study shows that nature tourists tend to spend more time visiting Bhutan than that of culture tourists Bhutan s insistence of introducing a at rate for the cost of accommodations and travel for tourists may help limit the amount of culture tourists that enter the country but becomes a limiting factor for nature tourists Nature tourists would usually stay for longer periods in Bhutan as it takes time for them to trek to a certain forest destination Another issue is that 60 of those trekkers are over 50 years old which suggests that Bhutan may need to cater towards younger tourists to promote popularity in their ecotourism decline over the last decade Solutions to aid Bhutan s current decline in attracting nature tourists include developing more infrastructure to increase the access to various forest destinations as well as opening more restaurants to cater for tourists There is also a call for the GNH and Bhutan s government to reshape their pricing policy as well as the reintroduction of the twotiered tariff system which can attract younger tourists These procedures must take place if Bhutan were ever to develop their rural economy and to attract more foreign tourists