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by: Destin Paucek
Destin Paucek
GPA 3.99

James Butterfield

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James Butterfield
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This 49 page Class Notes was uploaded by Destin Paucek on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSCI 3440 at Western Michigan University taught by James Butterfield in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see /class/216854/psci-3440-western-michigan-university in Political Science at Western Michigan University.

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Date Created: 09/30/15
Russia and Central Asian Politics February 10 Announcements 0 Extra credit opportunity onig t competition over the Arctic seabed o Fetzer 6 pm World Affairs Council of West Michigan Other Presentations Midterm Exam 0 quotBiography of a o llTrue Adventures 0 One week from Thursday Cause Cuba after in Afghanistanll o A study guide will be posted by the caStro o 7 pm Tuesday weekend 39 6 Pm TueSdaYI MaI39Ch 17 0 Bring a blue book or two February 17 January 30 Protests o Vladivostok Communist opposition 0 Moscow United Civic Front opposition Moscow United Civic Front quotMarch of the Dissidentsquot r W m Ecnquot 817A 3 quot 5Aquot mm TAKAS mmumwquot JL C7 HE HYKEH Arm Meanwhile on Manezh Square United Russia Rallies High approval ratings for MedvedevPutinUnited Russia Repression Or genuine popularity Putin39s strength opposition39s weakness Russnn ECONOMY smcz rm 0 man umou 45an cup m L m y m mu End oi Soviul Union mm nmnomlc cum i Yemiuyuu Nun em 2m ismaz a 9 vs 95 2 w wzaucv r2 0 m The Russian ew of the World The Russian View of the World 0 General mistrust repeated invasions from Genghis n invasions of 20 h C Cold War tensions with US and China quotDawn mama 39 i 0 N V W hilmsmmmssmm nsrlu nEnMA I mums sum WW mans gamma 2 ram m a aslcusmmssmm uxR AME wow 7 WAN mmIa sump m2 sznam The Russian View of the World 0 Russian interests can be guaranteed only from a position of strength no different than the Chinese or American v39ew o The world is Hobbesian the strong do what they will and the weak do what they can Thucydides Oct 2004 Poll over twothirds believe Russia has enemies that could attack it Historical association of periods of estic turmoil with attempts by foreign countries to take advantage of Russia39s weakness The Cold War 0 Never quothotquot directly 0 Conflict through quotproxiesquot and quotproxy warsquot 0 Competition over spheres of influence 0 Managed conflict 0 Nuclear doctrine Mutually Assured Destruction MAD Themes Russia and the quotnear abroadquot ie Russia39s relations with the former Soviet countries Russia as a strategic nuclear power Russia and the East Russia and the West EU and NATO US Russia as an energy exporter Russia as a player in the international community The quotNear Abroadquot 0 One issue Russians living in former Soviet countries Language lawcitizenshiphuman rights in Baltic countries d Vl V RUSSIa and Cen Sian Politics A 39 16 39 prIl f i 1 Sunset over the Caspian Sea Aktau Kazakhsian Announcements 0 Final Exam next Tuesday April 21 at 1015 0 Two hours 0 Bring a blue books 5 deduction without blue book 0 The study guide has been posted handouts page Today HIST MASS Today 0 The Politics of Identity 0 Whither Central Asia The Politics of Identity J Some Sources of Political Identity Denoting Identify Through Symbols State seals postal stamps money man Doiiucai Party Citizenship 0 Common themes tradition the ans Rehgm Ethnicitv poini of pride links to national identity even before a sense of nationhood existed Civic Group Regionalism esm em empresentsmeimiqea I e n wenhe auvishmqvzlleYsuvvaunded by 2vl2 ammmum wheztuvshamthe Miami m a Turkmen Postage Stamps ML emittigan wmamui gimming wagging quummx if wmumu 9i mi m m an 2 We WWW mm m imam mm M sun aim beingnawammmmgwingsacmmmi We We imam We whim We is m insaivlian Mimi m Nztianzl mmamzepiiimmki my m min widen m wblue e i in mmquot is mm minimise Uzb quotquot W quotquotquotEZT i Tajik Postage Imu Kyrgyz Postage Stamps Kazakh Postage Kyrgyz Currency L5 11396543 Kbleruajsewbi Kurmanjan V Datka oBorn to nomads oShe refused an arranged marriage ame mler of 913965493 391 khanate of Alai part of y 1376 relented when Russia annexed Alai Russian rule Alykul Osmonov Kyrgyz poet 19151950 Toktogul Satilganov oOomposer and poet 1861 1933 oEariy music praised during Soviet erod 3 I h Now it is thought to b u clan manipulate Kazakh E Cu rrency f E Kurmangazy g Sagyrbaev g 3 Poet and Composer 182371886 wnnm mm Emu uNOte rock art reverse side Tajik Currency U musm orummum1quot MH Saiyid Air Hamadam 123171334 author and poet Hmmm Iwonder who is on Turkmen currency Poets Com pose rs Medieval heroes Sports figures Hmmm Think again Turkmen Currency No that39s who was on Turkmen currency Niyazov is gone NEW Ahmed Samar Seljuk Sultan 111871153 ivil i stor gutha u i W m A quot Chanyu Central MM 7quot 00 A co nqueror 209 I 4 to 17 BCE Hmquot 39lvlll lll7l w as Amir Timur Museum Layers of PostSoviet Central Asian Identity nic ilsonian nationstate o Clan 0 Islam Cu urally Yet political secularism 0 Emerging sta es Geopolitically important Politically independent When Identities Clash o Clan vs ethnicity Tajikistan o Secular state vs religious revivalism Uzbekistan Note on Clans o Akbarzadeh claims that Tajik clans are based more on region and less kinshi 0 Most scholars disa ree Y kinship quotboundariesquot are porous Kinship networks gion eption QurganTeppe o Divided political loyalties Whither Central Asia Convergence Divergence Democratizau39on Islamiciza on Central Asia Con nuty7 The Future Predictions Factors that can lead to change are usually foolhardy 1 Large lnoome disparity relative 115m deprivation strends and mndencies ecomparative conmxt Income Disparities Factors that can lead to change Large inoome disparity relau39ve deprivation eKazakhslaan and Turkmenistan prospects for spreading oilnatural gas wealth or increasing income inequality N Factors that can lead to change Large income disparity relative deprivation Exclusionary policies disaffected groups class race ethnicity Inclusion and Exclusion 0 Kazakhstan 30 Russian population inclusionary policies 0 Uzbekistan 5 Ta ik 3 Krwz exclusionary policies 0 Tajikistan fragmented country perennial winners losers N w Factors that can lead to change Large income disparity relative deprivation Exclusionary policies disaffected groups class race ethnicity Weak institutions turmoil in leadership transition Leadership Transition and Institutions 0 Most potential for instability Sultanistic regimes Yet Turkmenistan survived Niyazov39s death clan politics 0 Dangers power struggle clan rivalry foreign meddling N 0 Factors that can lead to change Large income disparity relative deprivation Exclusionary policies disaffected groups class race ethnicity Weak institutions turmoil in leadership 39on trans Low capacity for reform Reform and Innovation 0 Katz bureaucraticrational vs patrimonialclientelistic regimes o All CA regimes are patrimonial appointments based on patronage sometimes through clan networks Factors that can lead to change 1 Large income disparity relative deprivation Exclusionary policies disaffected groups class race ethnicity Weak institutions turmoil in leadership transition N w Low capacity for reform Contagion snowball effect 01 Factors that can lead to change 1 Large income disparity relative deprivation Exclusionary policies disaffected grou s 39 ity m class race ethnic Weak institutions turmoil in leadership transi ion Low capacity for reform Contagion snowball effect 6 Foreign meddlingintervention w y39Ih The Great Game 19th Century W m mum A New Great Game 0 Actors Russia China the US Iran Turke a t Centra As an countries are hardly weak victimlike Factors that may mitigate against revolution Strong political institutions including succession mechanism 0 Economic grow h 0 External threat real or imagined Russia and Central Asian Politics January 20 Announcements Quizzes will be returned later today Thursday39s quiz Remington chs 4 7 and readings from last Tuesday Note this is a longer quiz about 25 questions instead of the usual ten or so Assignment plagiarism tutorial see web site Deadline Saturday midnight Announcements Student group RSO Society for Central Asian Studies Sarah Cook Last Time Regime Collapse Why Four explanations We left off with the ethnic explanation An Ethnic Explanation Breakdown of the Internal Empire The governability thesis Both the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union were ungovernable Too many ethnic groups who sought nationalist solutions ie independence to problems In times of stress quotwe would be better off governing ourselvesquot See ethn c map of the Caucasus This map is on the Web Site on me Maps Sum What Went Wrong o The economic explanation inefficiency extensive vs intensive de elopment o The social explanation brEkdown o the social contract 0 The political explanation closed system 0 The ethnic explanation challengs to govemability Major Points So Far Communism a sig t o build a system based on social justice Powerful centralized sta e Multiculturalism but not nationalism Major Points So Far o The failure of communism multiple causes including much centralization Inefficiency Broken basic goods contract Ethnic dissatisfaction Moving on to o The agenda of tra quot n nsItIo o The pitfalls and challenges of transition Democratic Transition Politically what does it take to change a Commu ist state into a democracy First Constitutional Change 0 Communist Party outlawed and abolished in fall 991 successor Oommunist parties continue to exist 0 Reform of the executive a strong presidency o Meaningful legislature federalism nificant attemp t How has Russia organized its political structures since 1991 Political Structure 0 Dual executive president and prime minister 0 Strong presidential system with the powers of the president increasing as time goes on Examples of Increased Presidential Power 0 Provincial leaders are no longer elected but appointed 0 Many of the key broadcast and print media are under indirect control of the Kremlin o The quotpower ministriesquot defense security internal affairs and foreign affairs report directly to the president 0 Large presidential staff that duplicates some ministries quotDelegativequot Democracy 0 Remington cites O39Donnell when democratically elected presidents rule as if autocrats between elections Political Structure 0 Dual executive president and prime minister a Strong presidential system with the powers of the president increasing as time goes on o Federalism real but with power slowly moving back to the center Russian Federalism o 83 subdivisions quotsubjectsquot 0 Most are provinces obasts sometimes called quotregionsquot 0 21 are quotrepublicsquot with a distinct ethnic identity 0 Tendencies toward separatism in the 19905 Most egregious case Chechnya Recent Trends in Federalism 0 Increasing strength of the center Provincial governors are now appointed by the president The removal of governors from the Federation Counci The creation of seven quotfederal districtsquot as watchdogs Political Structure Dual executive president and prime minister Strong presidential system with the powers of the president increasing as time goes on Federalism real but with power slowly moving back to the center Legislature more meaningful by far than the Soviet legislature but weak in comparison to the presidency Russia and Central Asian Politics January 22 Announcements 0 Assignment plagiarism tutorial see web site Deadline Saturday midnight o TuEday39s quiz the second geography quiz OTE If you have downloaded the table or read the instmctions about the quiz start over some changs were made this rning Last Time 0 What dos it take to make the political transition form communism to 0 First constitutional change o Last slide 9 Political Structure 0 Dual executive president and prime minister 0 Strong presidential system 39 e powers of the president increasing as time gos on o Federalism real but with power slowly moving back to the center 0 Legislature more meaningful by far th n the Soviet legislature but weak in comparison to the presidency How has the political structure 0 Through deliberative drafting Through conflict 1993 Parliament followed by constitution in Dec 1993 0 Through incremental change in both formal and informal rules conflict with quotYelfsinquot Structural Tensions o The dual executive o Executivelegislative relations 0 F eralism centralizati n vs sphers of power for provinces and specially republics Continuing Democratic Transition Politically what does it take to change a Communist state into a democracy Second negotiating the challenges of the transition process itself 0 Huntington notes three potential da hey ngers What are t The Danger of Populism o Pandering to fear anger bias and prejudice populist I 0 Russian populism today antiWest antiSemitic anticapitalist racist beliefs about Caucasians 0 Easy to appeal for votes based on 39magery The Danger of Violence 0 Countries in transition are more likely to to war than stable democracies o Separatism appears to be a common ten ency among newly democratizing multinational countries 0 Populism can fuel this tendency The Danger of IIImmoral Behavior39 0 After rule by totalitarian impulses the population39s tendency is to quotlet loosequot suit antisocial behavior decline in public moralit 0 Weak institutions undermine public safety 0 Rsult a rapid increase in crime both individual and organized All three dangers may have the effect of undermining democracy Returning to what does it take to change a Communist state into a democracy First constitutional change Second negotiating the challenges of the transition process itself Third changes in political behavior Political Participation and Political Culture Remington chs 4 amp 5 Political Pa rticipation Remington direct and indirect means of participation Direct voting writing letters mobilizing demonstrations etc Indirect participation in civil society groups and organizations Forms of political participation 9 Russian presidential electons 2004 1996 protest in Red Square against unpaid wages Striking miners block a railway in Siberia 1998 Protestors against social benefits cuts 2007 A Protests in Vladivostok against impolt car duties 122008 Political Participation in the Soviet Era o Preperestroika mobilized or channeled by Selfinitiating participation was quotdiscouragedquot o Perestroika grassroots mobilization poitica parties Social Capital Examples of Voluntary Associations 0 Social capital def networks social 0 Trade unions fabric P rticnipation in quotVDIUMBW 0 NGOs nongovernmental associations assoc39at39ons o CBOs communitbased organizations 0 Churches mosques synagogues and other religious groups 0 Philanthropic groups and charities Social Capital in the Soviet Era If one was green 0 Through organized channels 0 One could join the Foundation for the sometimes political but controlled Protection of Wildlife 0 Informal mutual support network s f an officially sanctioned group family and friends usually apolitical 0 One could not protest the opening of a power plant or demonstrate against a factory polluting lakes an streams c n m m How did the quotcontrolledquot channels work gt Ironically The perestroika era environmental movement grew out of such official organizations as the Foundation for the Protection of Wildlife Why The state had inadvertently created social capital Soviet Dissent A very small number of dissidents not a movement Some of the most visible 9 1977 Andrei Sakharov Human Sakharov was one of the founders of the Helsinki Watch Group Rights 1990 Alexandr Solzhenitsyn Russian nationalism and spiritual renewal Books The Gulag Archipelago First Circle and One Day in the Life of Ivan Denisovich Roy Medvedev Socialist renewal Book Let History Judge was a condemnation of Stalin39s betrayal of communism He urged a return to quotgenuinequot values of socialism lFEAR NI EVILl lTRlUMPHOVEREPMICESTATEl A t I na 0 ii lNATANMS Sharansky Religious tolerance Vladimir Bukovsky lllyLilL I sll Uissenl ur 39 W The Socialist Legalityquot movement Trivia where are they now Sakharov was elected to the legislature m the htst competitive elections He died one year Solzhenitsyn moved back to Moscow m the 90s His book First Circle Was turned into a minirseries earlier this decade He died last August Medvedev is still alive and is al i intellectual m Moscow Sharansky emigrated to lsrael Where he is a politician and occasional cabinet member Bukovsky attempted to furl tot President last year Social Capital Today 0 Low levels of voluntary association mbership 40 compared to 70 n in the US Participation in civic groups and t e voluntary associations constitutes indirect participation in Looking Ahead to I Y 39 the Mid Term about half belong to carryover trade pom cs39 unions from the viet era 0 Remington people are psychologically engaged but disengaged in terms o particip ation Study Tips 0 Periodically often determine and review major poin 0 Today focus on analytical concepfs and frameworks How do they help us understand politics in the FSU Example 0 Huntington quotDemocracy for the Long Haulll three dangers in the transition to democracy Sample exam question what are they and in what ways are they relevant to Russia39s transition Answer found in Remington text and in class Example 0 Remington quotes de Tocqueville quotThe most dangerous time for a bad government is when it starts to reform itselfquot In what way does this help us understand perestroika Example 0 Remington cites O39Donnell quotdelegative democracyll How did this term apply to post transition Russia Tip 0 Note when we come across such concepts and frameworks 0 Imagine essay questions that might stem from them 0 Think in terms of detailed responses nothing less than 15 minutes even 30 Russia and Central Asian Politics January 15 Announcements Extra credit opportunity 39 y omorrow 2 a m 3301 FRD 2 m Don39t forget signup sheet Announcements 0 Next TuEday39s Quiz Leaders and Leadership Periods oTaken from a table on the handouts a e 0 Quiz grades from Tuesday 113 have been posted on Blackboard Announcements 0 Looking ahead first writing assignment due Sat Jan 31 Last Time 0 Soviet history Today 0 What went wron 7 o The transition building anew What was the nature of Soviet unism Last time Political centralization party closed system Economic featurs state ownership planning price controls basic goods quotcontractquot What was the nature of Soviet Communism o Culturally Simultaneous multiculturalism and dominance of Russian language and culture Multiculturalism acceptable but not n 39 nalism Religion officially did not exist Investmenfs in arts and sport What was the nature of Soviet Communism o Internationally Expansionism oTerritorially oquotSpheres of influencequot Opposition to quotimperialismquot quotPartnersquot with the US in the Cold r and proxy wars What did Gorbachev try to do 0 Political reform first glasnost then partial democratization Multicandidate not multiparty elections in 1989 and 1990 0 Economic reform perestroika But it amounted to only tinkering Alexis de Tocqueville quotThe most dangerous time for a bad government is when it starts to reform itselfquot Quoted in Remington p 98 Why is this so o Glasnost allowed dissatisfaction both individual and ethnic to be voiced at 39 hat the economy 39 e m 3 m a 0 Competitive elections in 1989 and 1990 mobilized dissatisfaction and dissent into organized parties and movemenls August 1991 Ooup attempt failed In three days Yelfsin President of Russia emerged stronger Soviet Union mm stands on a tank w m others Protesting the 1991 mun attempt Barricades at the White House Toppling of the statue of Dzerzhinsky founder of Soviet secret police Celebration Final Lowering of the Soviet Flag 122591 The Soviet Union ceased to exist at midnight Dec 31 1991 Why Did It Fail An Economic Explanation Simplistic Explanations IneffICIency We did it o The Soviets were godless communists who were morally bankrupt quotPeople want freedomquot 0 The Soviet system was designed for extensive not intensive development 0 An increasingly modern economy demanded efficiency not a torpid bureaucracy However complex events have complex and multiple causes Two Notable Failures o Inability to jump into o Inability to produce sufficient consumer goods ueuinq for shoes in the JQEDS A Social Explanation A Broken Social Contract 0 Remington the social contract The state guaranteed the provision of basic goods The population accepted state authority Poor quality housing stock deficits of key food products uneven quality of health care and more undermined the social contract A Political Explanation A Closed Political System 0 Absence of freedom of expression undermined people39s ability to criticize the regime including providing constructive critICIsm o No feedback mechanism ignorance at the top of real situation An Ethnic Explanation Breakdown of the Internal Empire 0 The governability thesis Both the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union were ungovernable Too many ethnic groups who sought nationalist solutions ie independence to problems See ethnic map of the Caucasus Russia and Central Asian Politics February 12 1930 construction Soviet quothero projectquot Fell on hard times in 905 Now fully privatized Largest steel plant in Russia half of domestic market Shares in some overseas steel companies WWW mmk rueng Announcements Mid Term exam is one week from today Essay questions A study guide will be posted this weekend Bring a blue book 5 grade deduction if you do not have one Extra Credit Opportunity World Affairs Council of West Michigan quotBiography of a Cause Cuba after Castroquot Tusday Febmary 17 at 6pm Fetzer Center Bring your WMU ID Vladimir Zhirinovsky Liberal Democrats 1993 Alaska must be returned rumors of lease not sale Returning to Themes Russia and the quotI39IEF abroadquot ie Russia39s relations with the former Soviet countries Russia and the West a EU and NATO US Russia as a strategic nuclear power Russia and the East Russia as an energy exporter Russia as a player in the international community The quotNear Abroadquot 0 One issue Russians living in former Soviet cou ntris Language lawcitizenshiphuman rights in Baltic countries Power Politics in the quotNear Abroadquot 0 Influence and interference Moldovan and Georgian breakaway regions Moldova Transdniestr Georgia Abkhazia Adzharia South Ossetia o Exerting influence in the world pipeline politics export of Central Asian and Caucasian gas and oil through Russia Russian Politics in the quotNear Abroadquot Goal to establish it as an uncontested sphere of influence More to come NATO expansion Ukrainian Gas the Georgian War Nuclear Weapons 0 At the time of the transition nukes were ased in Russia Ukraine Belarus and Kaza hstan 0 One nuclear power became four Belarus Kazakhstan Russia Ukraine ICBMs 54 104 1064 176 Warheads 54 1040 4278 1828 Nukes Today 0 Kazakhstan transferred all its nuclear weapons to Russia in 1995 0 Ukraine and Belarus completed their transfers in 1996 0 Onl Russia is a nuclear ower toda lRussia US Operational 4237 5914 Warheadsquot Combined ICBMs SLBMs and bomberlaunched http WWW state govtvcirlsprsrl93594 htrn o Decommissioning of almost AccomPIIShments 5000 nuclear warheads in the former Soviet nIon were inactive Elimination of nuclear weapons from three former Soviet Repu ics 0 Strengthening of the security of nuclear weapons and materials at more than 100 sites T urchase more than sixty tons of highly enriched uranium that could have been used by terrorists or outlaw states to build nuclear Russia and the East 0 China 125 billion and growing 0 Russia 150 million and shrinking Some Russian nationalists see China as the longterm threat tot e Russian nation not the US 0 Trade and export opportunities Especially oil and gas Russia and the East 0 Strategic concerns particularly as China39s energyraw material needs grow 0 Japan and South Korea lar e investors in Siberia and the Far East immmiii 39 3133 nyl 4 Shanghai Cooperation Organization wwwsectscoorg 0 China Russia and Central Asia 0 Annual meetings regular and ongoing contacts in between 0 Regional quottalk shopquot Russia and the West 0 Russia39s attitudes and foreign policy toward the West are affected by the West39s attitudes and foreign policy toward Ru55ia and Vice versa Why should the t care about Russia and the postSoviet countries Selfinterest o Moral responsibility prevent reversal victors in war promote peace now must help stabilize region the losers minimize chance of increase chance for war in world poverty open markets leVelS for Western goods access to energy exports What precisely should we care about and What leverage do we have over Russia Integration a nd Assistance 0 NATO 0 EU 0 OSCE 0 Foreign Direct Investment Aid EBRD USAID ACIS NATO Expansion NATO a military alliance defined during the Cold War 0 What is its role today Regional peacekeeper Regional policeman Protection from reversion to the status quo ante say rebirth of Russian imperialism and superpower rivalry Partnership for Peace created in Goals 0 Increasing transparency in national defense planning and military budgeting Ensuring democratic control of national armed forces an 0 Developing over the longer term Partner country forces that are better able to operate with those of NATO members Members 0 Albania 0 Latvia 0 Armenia 0 Lithuania 0 Austria 0 Macedonia 0 Azerbaijan 0 Moldova 0 Belarus 0 Poland 0 Bulgaria 0 Romania 0 Czech Republic W 0 Estonia 0 Slovakia 0 Finland 0 Slovenia 0 Georgia 0 Sweden 0 Hungary 0 Swiuerland 0 Ireland 0 Turkmenistan 0 Kazakhstan Ukraine 0 Kyrgyzstan 0 Uzbekistan PfP Enha ncements 1997 o A framework for NATO led operations eg IFOR and KFOR peacekeeping operations in Bosnia and Kosovo More cooperation in planning review and field operations Cooperation with Russia Bosnian Peacekeeping 1996 The Czech army trains to be artof a pint NATO force as t seeks m bring rs equipment up to NATO srandards Areas of Discussion 0 Air defense 0 Medical services 0 Civil emergency 0 Military planning infrastructure 0 Crisis 0 Nonproliferation management Peacekeeping 0 Defense planning and budgeting 0 Language training New Members 0 1999 Poland Czech Republic and Hungary 0 2004 Estonia Latvia Lithuania Bulgaria Slovakia Slovenia and Romania Controversial o Enlargement in Eastern Europe Enlargement on the territory of the former Soviet Union Baltic States already Ukraine perhaps in the nottoonear future Georgia European Union Enlargement From the EU itself Enlargement is one of the most important n Union as it it is a unique historic task to further the integration of the continent by peaceful means extending a zone of Stability and prospentv to new members Ten New Members May 2005 o Lith uania Malta Benefits 0 A single set of trade rules 0 A single tariff system A single set of administrative procedures 0 Eventually a single currency a single customs unio a single visa regime currently the Shengen agreement covers si countris in Wstern Europe Criteria established in 1993 Membership requires that the candidate count 39 0 has achieved stability of institutions guaranteeing democracy the rule of law human rights a nd protection of minori o the existence of a functioning market economy as well as the capacity to cope th competitive pressure and o has the o ership including adhere nce to the aims of po ItIcal econom onetary union Sum 0 Do NATO and EU enlargement pose a hreat or an opportunity n ssian believe that enlargement is directed at containing and limiting Russian influence Russia and the US 0 Early posttransition years extensive for ign aid especially for privatization and defense conversion cooperation over nuclear arms removal of arms from other republics odecommissioning expensive osafeguarding nuclear secrets and US Foreign Aid to Russia Signi cant Targets for Funding 0 Privatization 0 Defense conversion n 1992 1993 new 1995 was 1997 199a 1999 2mm 2mm 2mm Interpretation 0 Did defense conversion 0 Did privatization help Russia substantially refocus its provide a foundation for a vibrant economy on civilian production market economy in the future therebYPmmOtlng long39tel39m or gut Russia39s industrial production economic QI39OWth create takeover targets for Western or weaken Russia39s capacity to defend companies and open markets for itself Western goods Pins and Badges A 4 uses for Stain Boris Vladimirsky 2006 Photo Opportunity near Red Square Announcements Announcements 0 Reminder if you cannot make class for o No reading for Thursday catchup a good reason to get an excused day but there will be a quiz absence we must hear from you before class starts 0 First writing assignment due this Saturday midnight Jan 31 I have updated the links and instructions Note all instructions Polls Last Week Last Time 0 Putin 83 approval Sept 88 o Medvedev 75 approval Sept 83 o The political transition 0 The country is going in the right Constitutional change direCtlom Transition pitfalls sePti 61 Behavioral changes Jan 43 oPolitical participation oCivil society 0 Now political culture political 0 Why the September peak PostGeorgian war Crisis hit West not Russia yet socialization parties interest groups Political Culture Russian Political Culture 0 General orientations about politics in a o Remington argues that Russian political given soc39ety culture is shaped by four traditions 9 p 123 quotdistribution of people39s values beliefs and feelings about politicsll 0 Culture is not deterministic but shapes wor views 0 Culture is not a constant but it usually changes slowly Geography climate and size w we w e Egg as ewe 3 1 39n k Patrimonial traditions a country is the quotdomainquot of its leadership Tsar Ivan IV Ivan the Terrible 154771584 Orthodoxy communal harmony sense of mission the quotThird Romequot Statedirected modernization Stalinrera poster lauding industrializat on Chimney smoke the breath OfSOvlet Russia The CW on Russian Political Culture 0 Authoritarian 0 Traditional 0 Hihl influenced b Communist education and indoctrination But what do surveys show 0 High level of support for Political liberty Individual rights Rights of opposition and dissent Media independence Competitive elections Yet despite such beliefs and values Russians are often more passive in f ce of challenges to civil liberties than their counterparts in the W Political Engagement 0 Russians are politically engaged during elections 0 Between elections they generally r 39 aware of current events and trends but are likely to disengage politically that is not participate successive generations acquire their Political Socialization o The means by which people in a society acquire their values and beliefs 0 There are multiple agents of socializatio e la 7Adult polltlcal cation values Agents of Socialization PostCommunist Socialization Soviet day 0 Familis and friends continue to play a 7Famlly Family cmcial role because of ingrained 7 School 7 School distrust of the state outh groups a Friends 0 Civic education has replaced Marxism 7 M 7 lVledla Leninism in schools 0 Media nominally independent but key edia gly under the m are iI39ICFESiI39I influence of the state What is quotcivic educationquot in Russia today 0 1990s democratic governance and values 0 Today increasingly about Russia39s history and traditions including strong state Parties and Interest Groups can Interest Groups in the Soviet Union 0 Did interest groups exist 0 Yes but largely as interests within the state Intense competition amon bureaucratic agencies and ministries Organized interest groups outside the state that were not controlled by the state were largely non existent Interest Groups Today 0 A proliferation of interests since the transition Interests are divided along Class The urban rural Ethnicity lelde Ideology The center Economic sector periphery lelde Gender Many more divisions From the Text 0 Note how the interests that the text examines in detail operate The degree to which they cooperate and try to work with the state vs The degree to which they oppose state policy and work outside normal state channels Party Formation Late perestroika early post transition democrats reds and browns Solidification of communist party as main opposition Ongoing weakness of liberal quotrightistquot parties pro civil liberties and free enterprise Persistent voice from nationalist parties 0 No real centrist parties Main Parties and their Bases of Support 0 Communists pensioners and disaffected workers 0 Liberal Democrats neither liberal nor democrat nationalists the alienated o Rodina similar to Lib Dems o Yabloko and Union of Right Forces small businesswomen libertarians 0 United Russia managers the political class Putin supporters The Party System 0 Not stabilized quotstalledquot in Russia 0 Only three parties have continually contested postcommunist elections Others come and go 0 Three times the administration has created a quotparty of powerquot A party that represents the interests of and regularly supports the president in power The current quotparty of powerquot United Russia the quotBearquot 643 Being quotpoliticalquot vs quotabove politicsquot 0 Both Yeltsin and Putin quotA president shouldn39t be politicalquot Translation they wish to remain non artisan Putin political parties in Russia are too weak to orm governments hence the need for strong presidential rule 0 But now Medvedev and Putin belong to United Russia KOMMYHMCTMHECKAH nAPTM In POCCMHCKOH OEAEPALIMM Communist Party of the Russian Federation KPRF 116 Party leader and l prsidential 7 candidate Gennadii Zyuganov What accounts for the continuing popularity of the successor Communist Party 116 in Duma 0 Reaction to tumult upturned lives 0 Pensioners workers in large state enterprises 0 People offended by ostentatious wealth The Liberal Democratic y 1n Vladimir Zhirinovsky New Year greetings


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