BIO 123 Chapter 5 Notes
BIO 123 Chapter 5 Notes BIOL 123
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Logan on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 123 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Dorothy C. Scholl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Biology for Health Related Sciences and Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Chapter 5 Notes The Cell is the Basic Unit of Life 0 Cell Theory 0 Cell is the smallest unit of life nothing smaller less organized is considered to be alive 0 All living things are composed of 1 cells 0 Cells only come from preexisting cells 51 The Single Origin of Cells Explains Their Similarities 0 38 billion years ago first cells prokaryotic emerged from ocean hydrothermal vents o Abiogenesis original evolution of life from inorganic substances 0 Last Universal Common Ancestor LUCA first prokaryotes that are now traceable in all domains of life Last Eukaryotic Common Ancestor LECA shared by domains Eukarya and Archaea Common Features of all Cells 0 Plasma membrane phospholipid bilayer that separates inside of cell from outside environment 0 DNA amp RNA genetic code is the same for all living things 0 Redundancy of the genetic code multiple nucleotide combinations code for the same proteins 0 Same 20 amino acids protein monomers Ribosomes organelle that synthesizes protein 0 Cytoplasm water dissolved minerals Prokaryotic Cell Structure 0 Prokaryotic cell structures include see Image 1 0 Cell wall help maintain cell s structure 0 Nucleoid region where chromosomal DNA is found 0 Virulence factors make organisms more pathogenic Capsule layer of polysaccharides that protects cell Fimbriae velcrolike structures that help organism stick to surfaces Flagella propellerlike tails that help organism move Plasmid DNA bacteria only extra chromosomal pieces of DNA that code for genes often virulence factors that allow bacteria to become resistant to antibiotics Bacteria conjugation plasmid DNA transfer see Image 2 Prokaryotes are not necessarily primitive they are simple but are capable of carrying out all of life s processes and exhibit a greater diversity in metabolic processes 0 Photosynthesis 6 C02 6 H20 sunlight 9 C6H1206 6 02 carbon dioxide water energy 9 glucose oxygen gas Cyanobacteria released 02 into the atmosphere allowing the development of aerobic respiration and evolution of eukaryotes Bacteria are ubiquitous everywhere 0 There are more bacteria in a handful of dirt that the amount of all the people who have everHved o Bacteria outnumber your own cells 101 In small intestine help maintain pH for immune cells and keep number of unwanted bacteria down gt Check out this link httpwwwnprorgsectionsthesalt20150714422623067prozacinthe yogurtaislecangoodbacteriachillusout On skin bacteria have slight saltiness and acidity which is not optimal for most bacteria except for staphylococcus 0 Defensins help defend against bacteria fungi and many viruses 0 The bacteria within our bodies need to stay in the part of the boy that it is meant for you ll get sick if bacteria from one part of your body ends up somewhere else ll I39Vquot P r o L Plasmid i 7 Cytoplasm an ax A g l x 39 o o I 139 O k I Ribosome VJ s 1 on o l 0 I s i A J39 f V l Pila 0quot 39 I i 3 v Plasma membrane r I q 39 0 Cellwall WM Capsule F coll F coll 0 o F39 coll F coll 9 A B I C Flagellum Nucleoid DNA DrTVRao MD Image 1 Image 2 52 Endosymbiosis and the Evolution of Eukaryotes 1520 bya evolution of eukaryotes see Image 3 1 Evolution of photosynthesis 9 increase in atmospheric 02 9 bacteria evolve aerobic respiration process that uses 02 to break down organic molecules to create energy C6H1206 02 9 C02 H20 ATP glucose oxygen gas 9 carbon dioxide water energy 2 Development of endosymbiont aerobically respiring bacterium living inside of a larger eukaryotic cell 3 Endosymbiont evolves and becomes known as mitochondria Mitochondria see Image 4 0 Have own unique DNA supports endosymbiosis theory because the bacterium that became interdependent with the eukaryote would have had its own DNA separate from the eukaryote s This DNA might have been responsible for the evolution of the different sexes Mitochondrial DNA can be used to trace one s maternal lineage Zygote 23 chromosomes from mom 23 chromosomes from dad all of mom s organelles Early evolution studies that focused on mitochondrial DNA were flawed because they excluded the paternal side of evolution 2 Have own ribosomes 3 Have 2 membranes lnner membrane is folded into cristae which increase surface area 0 Within cristae ATP synthase particles enzymes that catalyze synthesis of ATP Matrix located inside of inner membrane Intermembrane space space between inter and outermembranes 4 Functionsimportance Generate the majority of ATP Center of numerous metabolic pathways center of cellular respiration Central to apoptosis programed cell death important in the case of cancer 5 Cells that use the most energy have the most mitochondria ie muscle cells have more mitochondria than cartilage cells 0 Chloroplasts o Evolved from a 2nOI round of endosymbiosis eukaryote engulfed a photosynthetic cyanobacteria see Image 3 9 evolved into the chloroplast o Thylakoid membrane part of the chloroplast that captures sunlight contains pigments 0 NOTE Plant cells have both mitochondria and chloroplasts mama r mm Mb 39 backtmm ysum 1 y I 39 a V 1 39 Cristae Matrix Inner h a 39 C n membrane I mm 5 p 39 I V fr39 Al quotI A 4quot quotyquot w i if I 4 t39 v H H T j Ty J in ammo 5 3555 1 39V quot 39 Ancestral aan coil cannotc ea Inquot 39 maloch c 39 39 9quot quot Photosme Wmmy I x 39 I 39 39 2 V4 i g a membrane y Endosymbo otn x V alum coll Mih chloroplasts Image 3 Image 4 53 The Cell Nucleus and the Endomembrane System 0 Endomembrane system organelles different membranes suspended in the cytoplasm that divide the cell into structuralfunctional compartments see Image 5 o Nucleus where DNA is stored Nuclear envelope phospholipid bilayer that surrounds the DNA determines what enters and exits nucleus Nucleolus where ribosomes are synthesized Chromatin DNA leaves cell nucleus through nuclear pores in nuclear envelope 0 During replication chromatin becomes condensed and spirals around histones to create chromosomes 0 Endoplasmic reticulum ER series of passageways connected to the nuclear envelope that are used to create process and transport organic molecules Rough ER has ribosomes attached to it 0 Ribosomes on ER vs freefloating ribosomes o On ER synthesize protein that is going to be secreted by the cell 0 Freefloating synthesize proteins that are going to be used by cell Smooth ER synthesizes lipids and breaks down toxins cells in the liver have more smooth ER 0 Golgi apparatus sorts modifies and packages proteins from rough ER Packaging wraps protein in vesicle which leaves and travels to the phospholipid bilayer of the cell membrane 0 Lysosomes vesicles bound by a phospholipid bilayer used to break down large organic molecules viruses damaged organelles and foreign cells Contain hydrolytic digestive enzymes 0 Peroxisome lysosome with enzymes that neutralize free radicals toxic forms of oxygen Macrophages immune cells that contain a lot of lysosomes Not typically found in plant cells 0 Centrioles become active during cell division produce spindle fibers 0 Vacuoles used to store water only found in plant cells see Image 6 gt Check out this video httpswwwyoutubecomwatchvcj8dDTHGJBY Rough endupldsnuiL reticulum Nude 39 4 llquot 7 I 393 huc39ozav wwelope Nuclear pen 2 5 Ribosomes Smooth cndnplasmuc rotrum39n Secretory 3939es cle quot lysosome Golgi npfmmtus plasma membrane Image 5 Image 6 54 The Cytoskeleton Cytoskeleton internal skeleton of the cell that helps organize and structure its activities 0 Made up of proteins some are contractile allowing the organism to move 0 3 components see Image 7 1 Microfilaments actin filaments contractile smallest components 0 Made up of actin which is involved in muscle movement 0 Cytoplasmic streaming when you look at a plant cell under a microscope it looks like everything inside the cell is randomly moving around but the organelles are actually following actin filaments Responsible for cytokinesis splitting of cytoplasm during cell division 2 Intermediate filaments keratin fibers strong permanent structures of cells 0 Found in hair nails and animal horns 3 Microtubules largest component tubular structured proteins 0 Composed of tubulin dimers 0 Form cilia and flagella Responsible for arranging chromosomes during cell division mitotic spindles quot 39PV 3 39 v 6 quot 7 A b s I l O Aquot 39u 1 i t z39 k v u 3 1 l v v o v l l 5 39 II I l a i K I I I O V C quot Intermediate filament Actin lilamem Image 7 55 Cell Communication and Cellular Responses 0 Because cells can communicate with one another eukaryotic cells can form multicellular organisms made up of cells that have the same DNA but different functions Cell Signaling Ligand chemical signal 3 phases 1 Reception ligand temporarily binds to a specific receptor protein on the plasma membrane 9 receptor molecule changes shape sending message to cell 2 Transduction transmission of signal into the cell receptor brings signal molecule into the cell Signal can be amplifiedmodified in some other way through chemical reactions during transmission 3 Cellular response lncludes signal to release a hormone start to divide etc Most common signal is for the synthesis of a protein Steps for protein synthesis 1 Transcription mRNA copies DNA sequence for protein synthesis 2 mRNA leaves nucleus through nuclear pores and a Goes to ribosome on rough ER if protein is going to be secreted OR b Goes to ribosome in cytoplasm if protein is going to be used by the cell 3 Translation ribosome translates the language of the genetic code to the language of amino acids 4 Synthesized protein travels to golgi apparatus where it is packaged and sent off to be secreted Picture Credits Image 1 httphyperphysicsphy astr gsu eduhbasebiologyprokarhtml Image 2 httpwwwslidesharenetdoctorraobacteriaIgeneticspptteaching Image 3 httpbiologyforums comindex php action gallerysa vie wid 1 8496 Image 4 httpwwwmovdatanetmitochondriainaplantcellhtml Image 5 httpsenwikipediaorgwikiEndomembranesystem Image 6 httpsldnx4 70 weebly comvacuoIeandgolgiapparatushtml Image 7 httpsonlinesciencepsuedubiol01 1sandbox 7239node7421
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