Introduction to Psychology: Week Four
Introduction to Psychology: Week Four PSYX 100S - 04
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Miranda Seith on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYX 100S - 04 at University of Montana taught by Allison Kaoru Powell (P) in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Montana.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Introduction toPsycboIogy Week Four I Sensation andPaccption A Sensation Stimulation of sense organs 1 Begins with a detectable stimulus Perception selection organization and interpretation of sensory input C Stimulus any detectable input from the environment PsychoPhysics 1 Absolute Threshold Fechner a The minimum stimulus intensity that an organism can detect 1 Generally defined as when the stimulus is detected fifty percent of the time b Just Noticeable Difference the smallest difference in intensity that you can detect c Weber s Law size of the just noticeable difference is proportional to the size of initial stimulus 2 Signal Detection Theory the detection of stimuli evolves a Sensory processes and decision making processes b Depends on the amount of quotnoisequotin the system 3 lnattentional Blindness Without focusattention stimulus is not perceived a Priming effects the effects of one stimulus on a subsequent stimulus 1 Advertising 2 Radiologists 4 Subliminal Perception registering sensory input Without conscious awareness a Subliminal meaning quotbelow the threshold 5 Sensory Adaptation a gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation Traditional Five Senses Touch Taste Smell Vision Heanng Other Senses 901WN a Kinesthesis the position of the body b Vestibular equilibriumbalance 7 1 Specifically involving the cerebellum which is central to understanding our perception of equilibrium and balance c Thermoception heatcold d Nociception pain e lnteroception internal senses such as the sensations involved in the feelings of suffocation or gagging The Visual System a Stimulus light electromagnetic radiation that travels as a wave b Amplitude affects brightnesss c Wavelength affects how we perceive hues or colours d Purity affects saturation F The Anatomy of the Eye 1 O S TRPON 9 Cornea where light first enters Lens focuses light on the retina Pupil regulates the amount of light lris ring of muscle that contracts the pupil to allow more or less light Optic Nerve hole in the eye where fibers exit the eye to connect to the brain Retina absorbs light processes images and transmits them to the brain via the optic nerve Photoreceptor Cells layered throughout the retina a Rods process black and white low light vision b Cones color and daylight vision 1 The Fovea contains only cones high visual acuity Optic Chiasm the point at which the optic nerve fibers from each eye cross over to opposite sides of the brain Dorsal Stream the where pathway spatial location 10 Ventral Stream the what pathway identification 3 Apperceptive Agnosia inability to perceive and differentiate between objects 1 2 Prosopagnosia inability to perceive faces in their entirety Akinetopsia inability to perceive motion a All of these take place in the recipital lobe ll Theories of Colour Vision A Trich romatic Theory 1 There are three types of receptors hat are sensitive to red green and blue B Opponent Process Theory 1 Receptors make opposite responses to three pairs of colors a Redgreen b Yellowblue c Blackwhite C It takes both theories to explain color vision I Theories of Processing A Perceptual Set readiness to perceive a stimulus in a particular way 1 Ex you see a video of a duck then an abstract painting with both a duck and a rabbit s face in it your brain has conditioned itself to see a duck first B Feature Detection Theory detect specific elements and assemble them into more complex forms 1 Bottom up processing opposed to top down processing where one progresses from the whole to its elements rather than the elements to its whole C Phi Phenomenon l The illusion of movement created by presenting visual stimuli in rapid succession a Ex flipboollt D Depth Perception where objects are located in space i lnformed by binocular cues that depend on both visual processing in both eyes 2 Also by monocular cures based on one eye s perspective a Motion Parallax closer objects move faster b Pictorial depth cues evidence of distance Linear Perspective converging line lnterposition something in the way or in between to objects makes it appear closer Texture Gradients as things move farther away we are less able to identify details 901quot Height in a plane the higher up something is in a picture the further away we perceive it to be E Some sensations may not be typically integrated 1 Ex Sensory Processing Disorder a Synesthesia F Stimulus Sound 1 Vibrations of molecules passing through a medium such as air a Amplitude loudness b Wavelength pitch c Clarity timbre 2 Hertz Hz unit of frequency used to measure sound pitch a The mosquito is a tone of l 74kHz 3 Decibels dB used to measure amplitude or loudness a Loudness doubles every 6 iOdB b Anything over iZOdB is painful to humans 3 Structure of the Ear 1 External Ear vibration of air molecules a Pinna sound collecting cone funnels into the auditory canal Middle Ear vibrations of moveable bones ossicles hammer anvil stirrup nner Ear movement in fluid a Cochlea converts mechanical vibrations into waves in fluid and membrane and transduces them into neura impulese
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