Peoples Of The World
Peoples Of The World ANTH 1200
Popular in Course
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilie Beahan DVM on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1200 at Western Michigan University taught by Jonathan Hill in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see /class/216898/anth-1200-western-michigan-university in anthropology, evolution, sphr at Western Michigan University.
Reviews for Peoples Of The World
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 09/30/15
Taboo race and other matters March 22 Extra Credit I Evolution of Revolution Live from Teheran Thursday 327 1004 Moore Hall I Human Rights Awareness Week This week I Pow Wow April 1 2 Taboo I Natural I Learned Taboos I Prohibition supernaturally punished if violated I Prominent form of social control in many societies both state and prestate I Raise question of what s natural and what s social e religious Castes and Taboos I Marriage I Eating I Physical proximity I Defilement or Pollution Caste and Race I Both seen as immutable descent rules I Both regarded as violable through ritual transgressions I Both based on equal parts ideological and economic exploitation I Both reinforced overtime through taboos Practical Example Japan I Homogenous I Pure Japanese Nise vs Sensi I I Japanese v Koreans White male privilege I Your ability to move through the world and be unaware of who you are I Are you marked or unmarked I Patterned Mostly invisible Ritualized Linguistic I Tell a joke I Tell a story Who is markedunmarked Practical Example Latin America i I NegroNegrito Dark skin Guatemala Mexico I Chino hair texture Mexico I Hindu religious category Mexico I There are no black people here Puerto Rico Cuba Examples from Movies TV I Crash driving while black I Black White coffee shop HINT your assignment this week I I Want to impress your TA I Consider describing a ritual that shows your awareness of I White privilege Class privilege Hunger Banquet 500 years of Global History I I Partl Lesson Points I How people have been connected for 500 years through different means 7 Colonialism 7 Capitalisthrld System Glubal Production Nothing new about globalization nothing new about people in contact ontact subordinated groups to one another What we will look at is the nature of changes over 600 years ago before the Age of Exploration AD 1392 an i I I IAn I Europe NOT the center I Not even the largest cities I Not the most technologically advanced bl IIIL Ottoman Empire I I About to be defeated by Turk named Timur I Resumed power in 1453 with conquest ofConstantinople I Reigned for 300 years dominated Near East blocked Europe s access to Orient and de ected European expansion westward l Africa I Lots of overland longdistance trading i I Including trade in human beings I Some large kingdoms I And subsurface mining i l I I i I Under ethnic Han dominion I Partly solidified through massive water infrastructure which required centralized bureaucratic control and governance South America I Inca in 1400just beginning imperial expansron I Hierchically organized in the godlike Inca ynasty carrier of state religion I Aristocracy comprised of dynasty s relatives I Local rulers submitted to Inca rule I Local men of rank headed endogamous patrilineal descent groups I Paid tribute with labor on public works in agriculture and military service Mesoamerica I Greater political fragmentation I Teotihuacan great city in central valley of Mexico 150000200000 at height I First century AD hegemony over large area to Guatemala I Agriculture dependent on massive drainage and irrigation system I Fell around 700 AD unclear why I Aztecs in 1400 minor mercenaries I But by 1521 the year they fell had built a city on a lake of nearly 300000 people European Expansion El I I Agricultural pace slowed I Plagues I Delicate balance of power shifted with increased demands by military tribute takers I Resistance and rebellions I Feudal Crisis S oluti on I New frontiers possible because of sciencetechnology I Move beyond boundaries I Portugal CastilleAragon United Provinces France England Ii Iberian Peninsula Reconquista I Reestablishment of Christian over Muslim Moorish rule in Spain Portugal I Between 718 and 1492 I Portugal consolidated in 1249 I Linked to Crusades I Linguistic and Cultural residues all over Europe and Latin America What they found I Death and Wealth I Because of death wealth was possible i Il hlII 39 hII Atlantic Islands and Sugar Atlan c Islands European conquest of New World began with Old hIug hIIlquot hmquot What Columbus carried Population Decimation I Sugar Cane second voyage I Germs Smallpox I Typhus I Americas in 1492 112000000 I I By 1619 95 dead Diptheria Measles What is colonialism Homework Slide C olonialism me wlhpedla the free eheyelupeda Cnlnnialism is a system in whieh a state alarms suveregrty uver temtury aud penple uutslde its uwu huuhdanes uneh tu militate eeuhurrue durrurauuh uver theirresuurees lahur and alien rrarkets The termalsu refers tu a set ufbehefs used tu legumate urprurhutethis system ewenally the hellerthat the mures urthe euluruzer are s enu tu thuse urthe euluruzed I I httpenwikipediaorgwikiColonialism Adidates ur edluruallsm have alsu argued that euluruallst rule bene ts the euluruzed hy develuplhg the eeuhurrue and partial mhastrueture heees rurrhudermatiuh aud demqu Theypulhttu sueh rurmer edurues as slhgagure as Examples ufgustrculumal sueeess D endehey theunsts sueh as Andre Guhder Frank huwever have argued that euluruallsrh aetually lads tn the transfa39 ufvmlth rrurh the eduruzedtu the edluruzer ahdlhhlhlts sueeessrul eeuhurrue develuprheht Fustrculumallst mues sueh as Franz Fanun have argued sm that euluruall What Empires got What Colonists got I Skimmed Wealth I Land England Spain Portugal etc I Labor Spain Portugal I Entitlement to buy and sell people as I I property all I Centralized state power I Christians El I Mercantilism I Strictly regulated trade I Control of trade goods I Central state determines which goods available where I What primary goods produced where Why no olives in Mexico I Spain and Portugal prohibited I To favorprotect olives in the Iberian pennisula I Forms of commercial discrimination tied to caste discrimination I Peninsulares v Criollos llll Two Triangles First I Finished goods sold to Africa from Britain mostly guns I African slaves sold to New World I American tropical commodities sugar sold to mother country and neighbors Second emergent triangle I New England rum to Africa I African slaves to West Indies I Molasses to New England I ANTIMercantilist Quiz 14 TF Taboos are natural TF Taboos are immutable TF Europe had the most powerful and technologically advanced populations of the world in 1300 TF Europe had the largest population centers of the world in 1300 5 TF Spain was a Muslim country in 1300 9 P Gender etc Feb 22 Gender Terms i I Gender Roles Division of Labor I Gender Stereotypes I Gender Ideology I Gender Strati cation I Universal female subordination Under stateless societies I Prestige more o en than wealth differs I Women s subordination increases in direction relation to women s contribution to food production I Strati cation sharp contrast between i male and female ro es Stratification I Reduced Matrifocal Ex be I Increased Patrilinealvirilocal complex x anomami l 1 E Y Ex Etoro Increased stratification I Patrilineality I Virilocality I Warfare I Male supremacy I Extreme sex segregation I Low birth rates Etoro Em ic I Preg I Sem nouris ment I Semen is limited supply using saps men39s I vitality nancy produced by spirit implantation en supplements pregnancy with I Heterosexual intercourse discouraged I nnot make semen on their own it must be given b men I Boys therefore inseminated by older men Etoro Etic I Obligatorymale homosexuality I not a matter of preference but a social obligation I Associated with warfare I Intense population pressures in highland New Guinea I Correlated with competition for scarce resources I Population regulation feedback antinatalist h l 391 I I Why it s funny Gender Stereotypes d h l he Kellogg s Bar Guys 1998 quotan h 5 Sexes Sexual Dimorphism I Females I Males I Hermaph rodites I Male pseudohermaphrodites I Female psuedohermaphrodites How many genders I Gender is culturally constructed i I Therefore gender can be constructed in ways NOT linked to sex speci cally I More than two genders l How many genders are there in US society Hint which one is metrosexual Surii ggiles Quiz 7 TFA sharp Euntrastin gender ieiies eah head in gender stratifieatiuri The Eturu behevethatsemen is uniimiied Therefure they share it at Wiii With yuunger maies TF EticaHy Obhgatury maie humusexuahty is assuciated With resuurce Scarcity TF EticaHy Obhgatury maie humusexuahty is assuciated With fears thatwumeh sap men s stren h TF Brad Pitt is a meiresexuai D artment of Anthropology Welcomes Dr Noel Broadbent March 13 I Frnmlhe Smlhsnnlan lnslnullnn Wa m m AmhrnrmlngvAmlc 5mm Cemu Iallnnal wsmm m Natural Illsan I l I 1 t r 7 Identity and Cunflict in Nuthem Sweden AD 13911 7 1300quot ThursdayMareh 16 700 PM all RACE unmi minn may harm From the Bell Curve Who s more closely related I ITO the Bell Curve I RACE is as arbitrary as the divisions in a grading scale h I 11 I Stephen Jay Gould Race i Richard Leworttirt I is a sacraimiwi Much mere gerietic variation i Thereisnugeneticbasisfur Race i WITHIN races than between There is he gehetie ruuhdatiuh rurthe black rate them white race Dr any either race 0 There is huvvever raElSm WhlEh pruvides the iehs 39 94 A Of genetlc var39atlon es thruugh which race is 525m culturally sucially WITHIN races l Eluuridaries that racial Wurld VlEW creates are I AREHTRARY like serhahtie universality l 6 of genetic variation BETWEEN races hI l Historical Background Age of Exploration I In 1492 Columbus sailed the ocean lue I Religion determined the categories of beings encountered I Debates overwhether savages were human could be humanized could be ie Christianized Louisiana 19 h Century I The onedrop rule Mulattos Octoroons bl Ill Footnote Recon uestquot I Which alsojust so happened to be a historical period characterized by dividing the orl up on e asis of be ieffaith I Race is a term used interchangeably with otherterms to describe newly encountered people Had no speci c attachment to the things that we consider constitutive of race i skin co or I Age of Exploration follows on the heals of q ENLIGHTENMENT 18Lh19Lh Centuries I Darwin 1859 replaces Bible Koran as the referent for the nomenclature of difference and again ranking of human beings mbrace Evolution and Natural 39 m gin to see direct descendents of Apes I Modi cation of preEnlightenment belief in Great Chain of Being39 I w E m 2 5 Q m H 3 m n m E m u hllIJI hllIee I Anthropology and RACE l Franz EualeEEelBAZ l SecularGerman Jevv l Emigratedtu us in 1884 I introduced idea er E WE ult to replace race and explain human Germ an Antisemitism I A form of racism I Desire to see Jews as racially biologically genetically different I Search for de nitive or indexing characteristics I Leading to rationalization for exclusion discrimination I Against acculturation or the pass ythat individuals can outgrow their upbringing parenting origins hIII America 18905 I Plessy v Ferguson 1896 Separate but equal I Not set aside until Brown v Board 1954 I Most immigrants considered as members of distinct races upon arriva in US I Eg Irish were not white I Race reasonably malleable not yet solidified into immutable characteristics Not yet reduced to Black and White I 1905 visiting Pygmy installed in Bronx Zoo Boas and the nativists anti immigrationists I Eugenics Charles Darwin s cousin Francis Galton I 1924 immigration law I skull test in congressional hearings I America must be kept American llll America 19505 I Brown v Board I Thurgood Marshall I Segregationists decry the Boas cult in the arguments I And that ghosts of Boas served as 10m justice Practice Create your own race I What are your criteria I What do you do about fuzzy data I Do you need to graph it I Real world test how do you tell a black person from a white person Why not height I Which height would be Tall I Which height would be short I What do you do with all the people in between Quiz 11 I TF Races are genetically different I TF All cultures recognize blacks and whites as separate races I TF Plessy v Ferguson was about a train wreck I TF The doctrine of separate but equal ended with Brown v Board I TF Race is an emic construct Who Do You Love Feb 15 Marriage h I AI Sunetyquentxal AsianStudAes Presents twu lms quotAl39ghanimn Expum ugme Taliban evulunun This shun but cumpellmg repurL lmed by the first an a er Amenca s annr termnst airrsmkes m 1998 takes a rsthand luuk meresuus andthe implicahuns er eseeiaurrg tensmns between Afghanistan and its e ghburs gquot quot Kandaharquot A drarua that lnnks uuhuukiugiy at hardship arunug wnmen ruiue victims and quotthat in recent war tum Afghanimn Thursday February 15 mm P M um M No Extra Reading this week In honor of Valentine s The Refrigerator hIlIJ hI Ie Marriage And Who do you Marry hl Inju hIu Changes in US Family Household 197D 1995 MamedWdSADWn Marr1Edk1d525 31persenheusehe1e 2 a persenheusehem IZEI n5urmure 1u5ermere 51ng1e peep1e17 51ng1e peep1e quot 5B m111am111esfema1e 122 m111am111esfema1e 12 m1 fammes ma1e 32 mearth 1 u 44 fammes nu km 51fam111es nu km under 18 athume under 18 athume Kinship of Two People who have children together I Is SOCIAL I NOT biological I FATHER is a social invention I MOTHER is the only REAL parent ROMAN DISTINCTIONS I Genitor those who made child I Patermater those with social role of raising child Napoleonic Code I Husband is the Father ofthe child l I Case Study 1 The Nayars Paying for a spouse I Bride service I Bride price I Bride wealth I Dowry NAYARS I Who lived there Old ladies their daughters their daughter s children And SOME old men BROTHERS of adult women Women never leave the place of birth Looks nothing like US family Effectively a fatherless society Ind bl Their marriages I Rituals that allowed beginning of sexual reproductive career I Husbands were of higherranking caste a warrior group Nayar males were warriors I Nayar women had sex with Nayar AND Nambudiri men I Nayar men did not abandon biological ie etic offspring Instead they cared for 2 h I IL d Plural Marriages Polygamy I Polyandry I Polygyny I Serial Monogamy Ind hlII CrossCultural Rules for Marriage I Kathleen Gough I Marriage is a relationship established between a woman and one or more persons which provides that a child born to the woman under circumstances not prohibited by rules of the relationship is accorded full birthstats rights common to normal members of his or her society or social stratum 196868 Case Study 2 Nambudiri I Patrilineal primogentior Only eldest son could inherit property which became worthless if subdivided Younger sons married out of caste to obtain wealth In effect younger sons simply dropped out of lineages Surplus daughters Married to trees Persons I Dahomey Women marry women paying bride price Female husbandquot Impregnates her I Kwakiutl Chiefs marry their sons to statusseeking men Chiefs lacking heirs marry body parts of other Functions of Maniage Edmund Leach 1968 Incest Taboo I En dogamy I Exogamy l F I ICanlmarrymycousin hI IJ hlllJ Quiz 4 I TF The most important male gure for a Nayar child is hisher father I TF Nayarwomen sometimes marry trees I TF Dahomey women sometimes marrytrees I TF The Kwakiutl live on the western coast of Florida I TF Polyandry refers to multiple wives I Fun facts about the hist01y of l I American maniage AGmemur amav WW M mm LW