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International Aviation

by: Mr. Alize Bode

International Aviation AVS 4280

Mr. Alize Bode
GPA 3.86

Willem Homan

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Willem Homan
Class Notes
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Alize Bode on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AVS 4280 at Western Michigan University taught by Willem Homan in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 201 views. For similar materials see /class/216905/avs-4280-western-michigan-university in Aviation Sciences at Western Michigan University.

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Date Created: 09/30/15
TEST 2 SPRING 2011 INTERNATIONAL AVIATION AVS4280 STUDY GUIDE chapters 6 11 p A V De ne Fleet Planning a Airlines must make the decision of what types of planes to buy based off of capacity range size payload etc Another piece of information used is the payload ight curve A 39 39 fuel engine 39 39 etc affect the curve 2 What constitutes Route Planning a Route selection is both strategic and tactical in which the airline must have a vision for what market it wants to serve being intemational domestic longhaul or even shorthaul b Expected pro tability decide most route evaluations for airlines In which route pro tability estimates required demand and revenue forecasts What is the difference between top down and bottom up fleet planning a top Aiown MACRO Based on aggregate demand and cost spreadsheets which are used to evaluate nancial impacts of aircraft options on a de ned region or route un er consideration b Bottom up micro based on a much more detailed evaluation of speci c route characteristics and aircraft requirements which can ultimately include individual aircraft tail assignments and operating route statistics by ight and tail numbers 4 Commercial aircraft types are de ned by the aircraft s range and size a Explained above Figure 61 seating capacity versus range a Measured by the payloadrange curve De ne load limiting an aircraft Figure 62 a Depending on the range an airline wants to achieve they can use the payloadrange curve to determine what the maximum weight can be in order to achieve the desired range 7 What is a rolling hub a depeaking of an airline hub also known as a 39rolling airline hub39 is a concept of airline logistics that smooth s out hub aircraft movements such that peaks and valleys in aircraft movements are removed Consistent traffic throughout the day may increase connection times for passengers but airlines are better able to manage their gate and human resources because it does not have to schedule resources for an onslaught of traf c within a short interval What are the peak schedule periods for airlines a Summer and peak times are 08000900 amp 17001800 43 V 9 V What is the impact on xed or variable cost when aircraft are grounded a Fixed costs increase when an aircraft is sitting and not ying 10 Why is it important to schedule aircraft during off period times a To maintain frequency share and position aircraft for peak ights 11 How would you de ne spill in the context of airline management a There is more demand than plane capacity 12 What constitutes de banking when scheduling aircraft a has a more even distribution of departures and arrivals to better utilize ground recourses crew and aircrafts 13 How do airline managers de ne a ground arc a representation of time the aircraft is on the ground 14 What does FAM stands for in airline management a Basic Fleet Assignment Model FAM aircraft ight leg assignments formalized and represented as a mathematical optimization problem 15 20 Identify the different aviation regulatory agencies National amp International 0 FAA o ICAO foreign regulation principles 0 Code of Federal Regulations 0 JAA 0 Railway labor act 21 How much time does the typical airline training program require 46 weeks for initial training for part 121 air carrier pilots 22 What involves incremental schedule design 0 Incremental Schedule Design optimizing schedule and eeting decisions while allowing only limited changes to a given often current schedule 0 23 Identify three ways crews can be compensated within the traditional US airlines 24 What do operations recovery and robustness focus on 0 Operations recovery and robustness creating models to optimize results from these processes I Recovery planning creating responses to disruptions caused by crew illness mechanical failures and adverse weather conditions I Robustness planning schedules that are more resilient to disruptions 25 How would you define integrated schedule planning 0 Integrated schedule planning integrating schedule design eet assignment maintenance routing and crewscheduling subproblems and including revenue management and pricing into schedule planning models 26 28 What regulations apply to commercial operations in the USA 0 Regulations require aircraft to have maintenance checks performed as often as every 35 days and not all airports have proper maintenance facilities 29 How often are airline pilots required to have a ight physical 6 12 months 30 40 Review the different acronyms presented on page 250 251 Last 2 pages 41 42 What is the difference between an ILS CATl and CAT3 landing CAT 1 landing the highest amount of caution necessary can land in visability as low as 12 a mile and a celing as low as 200 feet above the ground CAT 111 there is zerozero conditions to land The plane can land if it has proper technology to y the approach 43 Define and explain the concept of ETOPS ETOPS Extended range twin engine operations exA 180 ETOPS requires a plain ying over terrain where it is not suitable to land or not possible alter their ight so they can make an emergency landing if necessary In this case the pilot would have to stay within an alternate airport by no more than 3 hours 44 45 What are SIDS and STARS and why do airlines use them SIDS Standard instrument departure gives speci c instructions for planes taking off like STARS STARS standard terminal arrival route gives speci c ight levels speed requirements etc to help the plane land safely and efficiently 46 Why are ACARS useful for airline operations ACARS Aircraft Communication and Reporting system utilizes avery high frequency VHF data link to facilitate company speci c communications between aircraft and AOCC This satis es the requirement that heir aircraft are continuously able to be contacted by dispatch during the entire ight This helps track usage of the engines and tracks various data about time s the plane was on the ground and in the air for optimal maintenance tracking 47 What are the two major sources of disruption for airlines Airline resource shortages and airport capacity shortages 48 What are AOCCs and what is their function in irregular operations Airline Operation Control Centers to delegate resources in times of delays or cancellations to allow operations to run smoothly 49 Define on time performance in the context of airline operations 50 Identify the type of workers are employed at AOCCs Airline Operation Control Centers employs dispatchers to help control ight operation ef ciency and robustness 51 What is the difference between aircraft swapping and aircraft recovery Recovery replacing aircraft revising routes ferrying and diverting are also options Swapping an aircraft is assigned later in the chain to make up for a delayed ight they must make sure the crew assigned can y the other plane and must have the same amount of seats on the ight 52 How does the Railway Labor Act t into airline labor relations It governs labor relations in the airline industry 53 What is the function of the NMB National Mediation Board mediate disputes between airlines and unions 54 How do we de ne a twotier wage system 55 What is an ESOP Employee Stock Ownership Plans 56 Do the majority of the US airlines have unions Yes around 7000 belong to unions 57 Are EU air carriers more or less unionized than US carriers Generally about the same 58 Identify the two main carriers in Ireland and determine their level of unionization Aer Lingus highly unionized Ryanair union avoidance and employee control 59 How does the author describe airline labor relations in Asia Good high wages bene ts job security career paths and training 60 How does the author describe airline labor relations in Australia Highly unionized pore relations in the 90 s 61 How does the author describe airline labor relations in the UK More in uence than US Unions more in uence on government as well airlines accommodate but do not partner wunions 62 What are boundary spanning roles in the context of HRM An employee group whos primary task in coordination 63 How is con ict resolution conducted at the airlines Reducing dependence on common resources loosening up schedules or introducing buffers reducing pressures for consensus 646 5 Identify the four key measurements of airline performance Service Quality late arrivals lost bags customer complaints and pilot safety deviations ac productivity measured as block hours per aircraft day labor productivity measured as outputs operating margins 66 What airline was the rst to install double doors in their aircraft after 911 United 67 How much money has been spent on security precautions since 911 in the USA 6 Billion 6870 Identify the different methods currently in use to prevent explosive devices from entering a commercial aircraft X rays metal detectors baggage checks 71 What question is answered by using the Qstatistic in airline safety Suppose that a person chose a ight completely at random from among the set ofinterest what is the probability that he would not survive the ight 7274 De ne the different categories of security procedures Cabin and cockpit Baggage com partm ent External Threats 75 Approximately how much of a ticket price is used for security measures per passenger 10 76 De ne costbenefit analysis and risk management in the context of airline management Technique used to help organizations decide weather to adopt of continue a particular policy or procedure Above 1 its good to use Fixed budget for responding to a threat and that the aim is to id those expenditures to yield greatest bang for the buck 7780 Review the section on security threats external to the aircraft pp 331332 Bombs individuals wanting access to ac and airport surface to air missiles etc 81 Does matching the bags really work in airline security 82 What are the hub impacts on route mapping pp 167168 It is easier to justify a network to smaller spoke cities Bring passengers to one city to put them on a ight to a common destination 83 Why do airlines reposition crews 84 How common are airline labor strikes in the USA Not very common there are many stages a Union must go through once the contract expires in order to strike There are many meetings with negotiators 85 What is the purpose of a Minimum Equipment List in the context of Airline Flight Operations Provides the pilots of an aircraft with a list ofthe minimum equipment necessary to operate flight in specific 0 no go J J39 g on the 39 t that is working properly 86 Identify the different components of an ILS GPS based landing systems allow landings with ceilings as low as 200 ftagl and visibility as low as 12 mile 87 What is the purpose of an APU with regard to Airline Flight Operations Aux Power Unit keeps necessary components running when the aircrafts engines are not heat or ac for the passengers power to the aircraft 88 How is crew pairing optimization done at an airline level Create mini schedules generally 1 5 days pair crews based on those mini schedules The majority of airlines use bidding the most senior pilots get what they want first and the rest fall down the line 89 Identify airlines in the US market that have avoided union representation to maximize operations JetBlue 90 What are the duties of the TSA TSA s promise to the traveling public to provide top notch security and customer service in the performance of all duties 91 Identify the three categories associated with airline security procedures Measures to protect the passenger cabin and cockpit Measures to prevent explovions in the baggage compartment Measures to Prevent external threats to the aircraft 9295 Identify and de ne the four interrelated tasks of airline schedule development Crew Schedules maintenance routing Fleet Assignment Future airline schedule optimiz ation 96 Identify the counterpart of the FAA in the European Union JAA 97 Explain the recent trend of hub strengthening in airline planning Bigger and stronger hubs are being developed businessjets are allowing more spokes to come from the hubs 98 What are the operational advantages of using hub Allows airlines to serve low demand O D markets that cannot support non stop flights Greater departure frequency and more convenient schedules which can lead to higher market shares that translate in to increased revenue Requires fewer base locations for maintenance and crew Swapping aircraft due to delays cancellations or irregular operations is made easier Also for the response for changing demand for different flights which is known as Dem and Driven Dispatch 99 What are the incremental costs associated with hub operations 100 What is the average time of a 1urnaround at Southwest Airlines 35 Minutes quotwwmlmdmm The mm a mm mm 1 lb 439quot h I n ng gm Rtlrum cm Sunrillamc unmm 4 g zg i 1


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