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Adv Aerodynamics & Performance

by: Mr. Alize Bode

Adv Aerodynamics & Performance AVS 3060

Marketplace > Western Michigan University > Aviation Sciences > AVS 3060 > Adv Aerodynamics Performance
Mr. Alize Bode
GPA 3.86

Mervyn Elliott

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Mervyn Elliott
Class Notes
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This 33 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mr. Alize Bode on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AVS 3060 at Western Michigan University taught by Mervyn Elliott in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 89 views. For similar materials see /class/216907/avs-3060-western-michigan-university in Aviation Sciences at Western Michigan University.

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Date Created: 09/30/15
CHAPTER 1 1 Lift and Drag forces on an airplane are scalars and are resultants of the Aerodynamic Force vectors and are resultants of the Aerodynamic Force scalars and are components of the Aerodynamic Force 39 pm wpxqi nz39 ii39 ofil i hq In nqhmim w it fun g 2 Lift on an airplane ads parallel to the flight path opposite to the weight perpendicular to the horizontal 3 Which of the following are aquot vector quantities Velocity time displacement Force displacement volume Velocity mass force 4 An airplane is flying to the south at 200 knots and encounters a 20 knot wind from the north The groundspeed of the airplane will be 180 knots with no drift 200 knots with a drift to the east 200 knots with a drift to the west 5 An airplane is making a constant airspeed level turn Its velocity is increasing is decreasing remains the same 6 Which dimension ofthe drawing is the moment arm 7 An airplane is making its takeoff run It is In equilibrium Accelerating according to Newton39s third law ifi uli i H About to crash because F ma 8 The term quotworkquot means A body moves as a result of balanced forces A frictionless body moves at constant velocity A force is exerted upon a body E lbwti j W M Hamiii a i M Hi iiuii isii riw him 9 How much horsepower does a 10000 pound thrustjet engine produce 10000 HP 3077 HP Zero HP quotH39Hiii uci i39iif J izvi39ppxmiv 10 How much greater will the stopping force be with the brakes applied for 10 slip as with the brakes locked 100 slip see Figure 18 75 Twice Need to know the weight CHAPTER 2 1 An increase in static air pressure affects air density by decreasing the density does not affect the density 2 A decrease in temperature affects the air density by decreasing the density does not affect the density ll39l mt a g ixll ve ilumzll w 3 Pressure ratio is pressure measured in the same units ambient pressure in millibars divided by 2992 ambient pressure in pounds per square inch divided by 2116 sea level standard pressure in inches of mercury divided by 2992 4 Density ratio a sigma is E Crn ll fll ii p is measured in slugs per cubic foot equal to the ambient density divided by sea level standard pressure none of the above 5 Bernoulli39s equation for subsonic ow states if the velocity of an airstream within a tube is increased the static pressure of the air increases if the area of a tube decreases the static pressure of the air increases if the velocity of an airstream within a tube increases the static pressure of the air decreases but the sum of the static pressure and the velocity remains constant 6 Dynamic pressure of an airstream is directly proportional to the square of the velocity directly proportional to the air density neither a nor b above 7 In this book we use the formula for dynamic pressure q aV2295 rather than the more conventional formula q 12pV2 because V in our formula is measured in knots density ratio is easier to handle mathematically than the actual density slugs per cubic foot neither a nor b above 8 The corrections that must be made to Indicated Airspeed IAS to obtain Calibrated Airspeed CAS are position error and compressibility error lli if il U meml quotTil Dr instrument error and density error position error and density error 9 The correction that must be made to CAS to obtain Equivalent Airspeed EAS is called compressibility error which can be ignored at high altitude can be ignored at high airspeed can be either a positive or a negative value 10 The correction from EAS to True Airspeed T A5 is dependent upon temperature ratio alone pressure ratio alone none of the above CHAPTER 3 1 Number 3 on the above sketch shows the chord line the maximum camber the thickness the Magi 2 Number 4 on the above sketch shows the chord line the thickness liliu i39i39lziz l m mm m the mean camber line 3 Number 5 on the above sketch shows the maximum camber the mean camber line the upper surface curvature 4 The Magnus effect explains why a bowling ball curves a pitched baseball curves a golf ball slices 5 Which of the below will develop positive lift A symmetrical airfoil at zero AOA A nonrotating cylinder in a wind tunnel 6 Which of the below will not produce a pitching moment A symmetrical airfoil at a positive AOA A cambered airfoil that is developing zero lift A cambered airfoil that is at a positive AOA A symmetrical airfoil at zero AOA 7 The aerodynamic center AC is located at 50 C subsonically and 25 supersonically 25 C at all speeds 50 C at all speeds Li llLib njiriiaiiiy wtfi quotflirt U premium irai h 8 For a cambered airfoil the center of pressure CP moves to the rear of the wing at low AOA moves backward as AOA increases moves forward as AOA increases 9 Which of these statements is false For a cambered airfoil the AC is where all changes in lift effectively take place W 11 m w the AC is located near 25 C subsonically the pitching moment at the AC is constant with change of ADA at constant airspeed 10 For a symmetrical airfoil the center of pressure moves forward as AOA increases stays at the same place as AOA increases has no pitching moment about CHAPTER 4 1 As thickness of an airfoil is increased the stall AOA is less c remains the same 2 As camber of an airfoil is increased its C L at any AOA is less remains the same is turbulent near the leading edge is more apt to stall if it is turbulent none of the above 4 Air in the boundary layer changes from laminar to turbulent at low Reynolds numbers separates from the wing when its velocity is maximum none of the above 5 Two things an airfoil designer can change to increase Cummo are thickness and wing area chord length and aspect ratio camber and wing span thickness and camber 6 High values of Reynolds number will more likely occur near the leading edge of an airfoil indicate laminar flow occur at lower airspeeds 7 Adverse pressure gradient on an airfoil is found from the point of maximum thickness to the trailing edge nearthe stagnation point at the leading edge fromthe point of minimum pressure to the trailing edge w uw r r cumin a 2mm C 8 At low velocity stall the air ow stops speeds up movestoward the wing tips 9 Air ow separation can be delayed by malting the wing surface rough using vortex generators directing high pressure air to the top of the wing or flap through slots 10 Show which type of high CL device camber changer energy adder or combination each of the below is blowing air BLC over a flap mm i ui fixed slot m slotted leading edge flap mm itn CHAPTER 5 1 The coef cient of drag can be de ned as the ratio of lift forces to drag forces ameasure of the efficiency of the airplane the ratio of drag forces to lift forces iii no iy i llll39i lic pm Julius 2 Laminar ow airfoils have less drag than conventional airfoils in the high CL region inthe high AOA region inthe landing phase of flight 3 Laminar ow airfoils have less drag than conventional airfoils because the adverse pressure gradient starts farther back on the airfoil the airfoil is thinner more of the airflow is laminar 4 LiftDrag ratio is a measure of the aircraft39s efficiency a maximum when the drag is a minimum numerically equal to the glide ratio 5 An airplane ying at C L mAx will have more parasite drag than induced drag equal amounts of parasite and induced drag not enough information given to determine 6 Induced drag is more important to low aspect ratio airplanes than to high aspect ratio airplanes reduced when the airplane enters quotground effectquot reduced if the airplane has winglets 7 Induced drag results from the lift vector being tilted to the rear This is caused by the tip vortices cause downwash behind the wing the relative wind behind the wing is pushed downwards the local relative wind at the AC is depressed 8 An airplane with a heavy load when lightly loaded can glide farther than can not glide as far as 9 If an airplane has a symmetrical wing which has an angle of incidence of 0 during takeoff all the drag is profile drag wave drag induced drag 10 A low tailed airplane with static ports beneath the wing leaves quotground effectquot after takeoff It will have increased drag nose up pitch lowered IAS decreased drag nose down pitch lowered IAS decreased drag nose up pitch higher IAS CHAPTER 6 1 The formula TA QV2V1 shows you can get more thrust from a jet engine by using water injection you can get more thrust from a jet engine by decreasing the exhaust pipe area neither of the above 2 Q in TA QV2V1 is the mass ow slugs per sec The mass flow depends on the cross sectional area of the turbojet engine inlet the engine inlet velocity the density of the air at the same point 3 The formula 11 2V1 shows that decreasing the exhaust pipe area will V2V increase the propulsive efficiency increase the thrust of the engine decrease the thrust of it 4 Specific fuel consumption of a turbine engine at 35000 feet altitude compared to S L is more c the same 5 The thrust available from a jet engine at 35000 feet altitude compared to that at SL is more c the same 6 Fuel flow for a jet at 100 percent rpm at altitude compared to SL is more c the same 7 A pilot is flying his airplane at the speed for best range under no wind conditions A tailwind is encountered To get best range now the pilot must speed up by an amount less than the wind speed slow down by an amount equal to the wind speed slow down by an amount less than the wind speed 8 To obtain maximum range a jet airplane must be flown at a speed less than that for LDmAx a speed equal to that for LD 9 Maximum rate of climb for a jet airplane occurs at a speed less than that for 1MmAx a speed equal to that for LDmAx 10 Maximum climb angle for a jet aircraft occurs at a speed less than that for LDmAx c a speed greater than that for LDmAx CHAPTER 7 1 If the weight of a jet airplane is increased the parasite drag increases more than induced drag induced drag decreases more than parasite drag both parasite and induced drag increase by the same amount 2 If the weight of a jet airplane is reduced as fuel is burned the T R curve moves down and to the right moves up and to the right moves up and to the left 3 If a jet airplane is in the gear down configuration the increase in 13ng l mmquot Hp 37 il mg i 0 induced drag is more than that of the parasite drag c both types of drag are the same 4 If it is impossible to raise the landing gear of a jet airplane to obtain best range the airspeed must be from that for the clean configuration increased c not changed 5 From Figure 74 nd the glide ratio LDmAx for the airplane in the full flaps and gear down con guration 1205 54 50 6 The minimum drag for a jet airplane does not vary with altitude False 7 Figure 75 shows an increase in specific range with altitude because TR decreases while fuel flow decreases TR remains the same while fuel flow decreases C TR remains the same while TA decreases 8 Ajet airplane is ying to obtain maximum speci c range As fuel is burned the pilot must reduce throttle but maintain the same airspeed maintain throttle setting and let the plane accelerate maintain throttle and reduce airspeed 9 A lightly loaded airplane will be able to glide farther but at a lower airspeed than when it was heavily loaded True 10 Which of the following words should never be used in the discussion ofjet aircraft Power Horsepower Power curve CHAPTER 8 1 In the formula PR TRV325 PR is power required in ft lbsec c resultant power thrustdrag 2 Power is force x velocitytime worktime force x distancetime 3 Power required to overcome induced drag varies inversely with V2 inversely with V3 directly with V 4 Power required to overcome parasite drag varies directly with V2 directly with V inversely with V2 5 Maximum rate of climb for a propeller airplane occurs at LDmAx at PRA athmmo 6 The lowest point on the PR curve is LDmAx True 7 Propeller aircraft are more efficient than jet aircraft because they don39t go so fast they use gasoline instead ofJP fuel V1 is less so propulsive efficiency is greater 8 Turboprop aircraft are classi ed as power producers because nearly all of the engine output goes to the propeller the engine is a turbine engine the fuel flow is proportional to the power produced 9 Helicopters have another power requirement over xed wing propeller airplanes It is called induced power required parasite power required total power required 10 Propeller aircraft get the highest angle of climb at LD True CHAPTER 9 lightly loaded propeller airplane will be able to glide than when it is heavily loaded farther less far 2 To obtain maximum glide distance a heavily loaded airplane must be flown at a higher airspeed than if it is lightly loaded False 3 For maximum range at high altitude a propeller driven aircraft must be own at true airspeed than at sea level less more c the same 4 Referring to Figure 93 the speci c range for a propeller airplane is at altitude as at sea level less more 5 The pilot of a propeller airplane is flying at the speed for best range under no wind conditions A head wind is encountered To obtain best range he now must speed up by the amount of the wind speed slow down by the amount of the wind speed slow down by more than the wind speed 6 As a propeller airplane burns up fuel to y for maximum range the airspeed must remain the same be allowed to speed up 7 The turboprop aircraft has its lowest specific fuel consumption at about 21000 feet altitude because the turbine engine wants to fly at high altitudes the propeller has higher efficiency at lower altitudes i h l i 1 wmijgl39nl39i it iiiairwaun i 8 The Power required curves for an increase in altitude show that the PR remains the same as altitude increases c PR increases but the velocity does not 9 A propeller aircraft in the dirty condition shows that the P R moves up and to the left over the clean configuration This is because the increase in the induced PR is more at low speed c they both increase by the same amount 10 The increase in the PR curves for a weight increase is greater at low speeds than at high speeds because the increase in parasitePR is greatest c profile PR is greatest CHAPTER 11 1 The main difference between the C L a curves for straight winged aircraft are The swept wing aircraft has a lower value of CL00 The straight wing aircraft does not fly at as high an AOA for CLmm The swept wing aircraft does not have an abrupt loss of lift at CL 2 Low speed stall will start at the wing39s trailing edge where ClCL is a minimum at the root for a swept wing at the wing tip for a straight rectangular wing 3 The quotRegion of Reversed Commandquot for a jet aircraft is also correctly known as the backside of the thrust required curve the backside of the power curve the backside of the drag curve 4 An aircraft should never be flown in the quotRegion of Reversed Commandquot True 5 Pulling back on the control stick or yoke will cause the airplane to climb if the plane is flying at low speed c any speed 6 A better way to climb which will work at any speed is to control the airspeed with the stick and add throttle to climb False 7 An airplane is making a final approach for a landing and encounters a horizontal wind shear Which of the below types of bursts is the most dangerous Headwind burst Crosswind burst 8 An airplane in ight encounters wing icing The greatest danger is that Weight is increased CD is increased 9 Wake turbulence can cause an airplane to be turned completely upside down To escape wake turbulence a pilot should avoid flying behind and below a large airplane taking off behind or landing behind a large airplane taking off or landing on a parallel runway that is downwind from one being used by large airplanes 10 Spin recovery consists of stopping spin rotation with rudder lowering AOA with forward stick applyingaiterons into spin CHAPTER 12 1 Takeoff velocity for a multiengined airplane is a function of stall speed minimum control speed low speed region where TA TR or PA PR 2 Takeoff distance is a function of ta keoff velocity acceleration l leg19h gi EllluC li xgwng 3 Takeoff distance is directly proportional to the acceleration inversely proportional to the velocity squared inversely proportional to the acceleration directly proportional to the velocity squared 4 As weight increases the takeoff distance increases because there is less thrust and thus less acceleration there is more mass and thus less acceleration the takeoff velocity is higher aliasLuly 1 lill 5mm oi 3 directly as WZWl inversely as the square of WZWl inversely as WZWl 6 Forjet aircraft takeoff distance at altitude is greater than at sea level because the thrust available is less the EAS for takeoff is greater the TAS for takeoff is higher 7 Which of the below aircraft will pay the greatest penalty in high altitude takeoffdistance one with a supercharged reciprocating engine one with a turbine engine one with an unsupercharged reciprocating engine 8 Takeoff acceleration through the air mass is not reduced by a headwind False 9 Takeoff with a tail wind requires that the takeoff groundspeed be by the amount of the tail wind decreased c not affected CHAPTER 13 1 An airplane is in trimmed flight and i1 velocity is constant It has no unbalanced forces acting on it It has no unbalanced moments acting on it It is in a state of equilibrium 2 An airplane is in a constant velocity engine out glide l1 altitude is decreasing It is not in a state of equilibrium True 3 At LDmAx an airplane will be at minimum glide angle be achieving maximum glide distance will have a glide ratio equal to the numerical value ofLDmAx 4 A steep low power approach is more dangerous for heavy airplanes than light airplanes because recovery from high rate of descent involves a great increase in power or thrust the aircraft will float down the runway and possibly overshoot the runway flaring the aircraft to decrease the rate of descent increases induced drag 5 A low angle high power or thrust approach may be used for propeller aircraft if a short field landing is required is dangerous for propeller aircraft if an engine fails should be avoided at any cost for jet airplanes as high induced drag results 7 As a general rule when the nose of a tricycle landing gear airplane can no longer be held off the runway it is time to start applying wheel brakes False 8 In applying wheel brakes it is not a good idea to apply full brake pressure because you might cause a blow out you get lower coefficients of friction when wheel slippage exceeds about 15 percent 9 In general if maximum wheel braking ofa tricycle landing gear airplane is desired the pilot should keep the stick full back even after the nose is on the runway Ill We False 10 Headwinds and tailwinds affect the landing distance by the same amount as they affect the takeoffdistance CHAPTER 14 1 In a constant altitude constant airspeed turn an aircraft is in a state of equilibrium True 2 The quotGquot forces on an airplane in a constant altitude turn depend on airspeed type of airplane jet or prop all of the above 3 An airplane performing an 8 point ro can stop in the 90 position because the wings are not supporting the weight the fuselage and vertical tail are supporting much of the weight the pilot pulls the nose above the horizontal thus some of the thrust helps support the weight 4 When an airplane is in a constant altitude bank the stall speed remains the same as in level flight increases as the square root of the quotGquots increases as the square root of lcos 4 5 What can we nd from the quotAerodynamic Limitquot line on a VG diagram it shows maximum quotGquots that can be pulled at any airspeed below the corner speed it shows stall speed when quotGquots are being pulled it is impossible to fly to the left of this line because the airplane will stall there 6 Limit Load Factor LLF is also called quotMaximum Design Gquot False 7 If the weight of an airplane W2 is increased above the design gross weight W0 the limit load factor remains the same value increases by the weight ratio WZWl none of the above 8 If an airplane is ying in symmetrical flight at its maneuver speed it cannot be overstressed it can make the smallest turn radius it can make the highest rate of turn 9 The quotConstant Altitude Turn Performance Chartquot Figure 1410 can be used for only one particular model ofairplane does not show if the airplane is overstressed is good for any model airplane 10 When an airplane makes a level banked turn the airspeed will decrease unless throttle is added This is because Parasite drag is increased the most 39rj Haw c Profile drag is increased the most CHAPTER 15 1 The more stability an airplane has the easier it is to control True 2 Static stability of an airplane is the ability to return to its equilibrium position once it has been disturbed the long time reaction to a disturbance none of the above 3 Dynamic stability of an airplane is to a disturbance the immediate reaction the long time reaction oscillatory in nature 4 A damped oscillation is one that shows positive static stability shows positive dynamic stability shows neither a nor b above 5 A ball in a ower vase as compared to a ball in a soup bowl illustrates increased dynamic stability decreased dynamic stability 39 2mm lii w decreased static and dynamic stability 6 Weight and balance ofairplanes is important because the CG affects the stability and control if the CG is moved forward the static pitch stability is increased if the CG is too far forward the plane may not respond to elevator commands 7 The farther back the wings are located the more static pitch stability an airplane has False 8 Placing the jet engines at the rear of an airplane increases the static pitch stability decreases the static pitch stability increases the pitch control decreases the pitch control 9 The Phugoid oscillation is dangerous because pilot reaction can lead to PIO True 10 The most critical condition for pitch control is the elevators must be able to rotate the airplane for takeoff flare the airplane for landing overcome a forward CG location CHAPTER 16 1 For static directional stability if an airplane sideslips to the left the plane must keep its old heading c yaw to the right 2 The wings of an airplane contribute to static directional stability if they are forward of the CG if they are behind the CG 3 The fuselage is unstable in both static pitch and static yaw stability False 4 Engine nacelles with propellers orjet inlets behind the airplane39s CG are stable in both static pitch and static yaw stability False 5 The pilot of an airplane without powered controls can increase the stability of his airplane by resting hisher feet on the rudders even though the plane is trimmed holding the stick or yoke in the neutral position neither a or b above 6 Operating an airplane at a high AOA will result in a loss ofyaw stability False 7 Which of these vertical wing locations will require the most wing dihedral for static roll stability High wing Mid wing 8 Swept wings affect static roll stability more than straight wings by decreasing the stability c they do not change the stability at all 9 If the pilot ofa stable airplane applies right rudder the airplane will roll to the left and yaw to the left l l f m roll to the left and yaw to the right roll to the right and yaw to the left 10 0f the three types of coupled effects discussed which is the most dangerous spiral divergence c Dutch roll CHAPTER 17 1 The speed of sound is an important factor in high speed ight because Maur occurs at M 1 the pressure waves generated by the plane move at sonic speed shock waves form when local air velocities are supersonic e none of the above 2 The speed of sound depends on the air density pressure and temperature True 3 Critical Mach number Motif is the aircraft39s speed when it goes supersonic when shock waves form both b and c above e none of the above 4 After passing through a normal shock wave air ow is subsonic not changed in direction heated up increased in pressure and density 5 Air ow passing through an oblique shock wave remains supersonic but changes in direction False 6 Transonic ight problems may include force divergence increase in CD decrease in CL tuckunder buffet control surface buzz loss of control effectiveness i all of the above except a 7 Above about Mach 2 the straight wing aircraft has a lower drag than a 60 degree swept wing aircraft False 8 Mach wave angle changes with airspeed as follows it increases as airspeed increases c it remains the same with airspeed changes 9 All supersonic aircraft have circular arc or biconvex supersonic airfoils True m 10 Airflow passing through an expansion wave speeds up increases the energy of the airstream decreases the temperature of the air


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