Environment And Culture
Environment And Culture ENVS 3600
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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joey Harber MD on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ENVS 3600 at Western Michigan University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/216915/envs-3600-western-michigan-university in Environmental Studies at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Outline for Monday 10 22 2007 Joe Orchanian Announcements There was a special guest today who will be speaking next week Class will not be meeting on Wednesday Oct 24 Instead of class all are encouraged to attend the dedication of the Brown eld site that will soon become a sustainable business park The dedication is at 2PM This is a high pro le event located at the Cork street brown eld EXtra credit will be offered in return for a 500 word writeup which must include questions posed and answered by the writer Assignments QUIZ For Wednesday RSVP for the Cork Street event by calling Sheba Green at 2693494440 More information about the event can be found at this website httpwww 39 39 quot orgportalgovernmem nhnevent7id4262 For Monday 10292007 be sure to have read Risk and Culture pages 49 126 For Wednesday 10312007 read M pages 126 the end On Monday 10292007 Lee Kirk the city attorney will be giving a lecture about the various legalities of environmental issues 1 Where does the Kalamazoo River superfund site stretch between What two cities A Saugatuck and Morrow Lake near Galesburg 2 What are PCBs polychlorinated biphenyls Do they occur naturally No How do they degrade They do not degrade 3 What are the main problems with PCBs Bioaccumulation Affect environmental health Affect human health 4 What are the major effects of PCBs Low reproduction Neurological problems Cancer V39 How did the PCBs originally get into the river Paper mills and the process of recycling carbonless copy paper Risk and Culture 1 Main Argument The risks that we choose to focus on are chosen to enforce a social or political agenda in a particular culture There are many risks and people all worry about different risks so there is an arena for controversy PCBs have become the risk that we have chosen to define our river An objective risk is anything with immediate negative consequences It does not matter if a risk is objectively or subjectively risky There will never be a consensus about what is risky The conceptualization of risk is constantly changing 2 What is pollution Pollution is any kind of corruption which includes pollution of the mind Technica1 pollution is interference Primitives are always looking for someone to blame for death Just as they see death as unnatural we see pollution as equally unnatural Pollution can be described as the process of taking anything that does not belong in nature and putting it into nature Pollution is a moral issue Monsanto may say GMOs are a good thing Many would say that they are a bad thing Therefore there is a moral argument 3 What is the relationship between politics and risk Risk perception depends on the power structure in place within a culture Politics can be defined as social stratification and the distribution of power People are told what is risky by those who hold power Dave Parnell Oct 31 Notes Kalamazoo Water Shed Cleanup Kalamazoo water shed river area empties into Lake Michigan 50 kilograms of PCBs going into Lake Michigan from Kalamazoo river this factor is under debate Kalamazoo river water shed council 0 Determined to see PCB cleanup O Represent the community 0 Serves as an umbrella organization for smaller community groups Where is the superfund site 0 In Kalamazoo and Allegan counties 80 miles long PCBs bioaccumulate thus cause problems for organisms high on the food chain Superfund process 0 Listing discover where the problem is 0 Time critical removal action and or O Remedial investigation Characterizes the real problems EX Arepeople 39 ther quot are quot into basements Risk assessments human and ecological How clean is clean Acceptable risk levels How clean is clean Feasibility study What can we potentially do with the site Proposed plan public input is a modifying factor Record of decision key document Remedial design and implementation Implement final report Monitor the site No longer a quotsuper fundquot full of dollars 0 EPA has to seek financing from responsible parties throughout the process Work on the river is currently taking place at the Plainwell dam and has the highest ppm concentrations of PCB Sheet piles O are used to cut off ground water that ows from contaminated soils into the streams O Prevents erosion of contaminated stream banks EPA has 7 operable units sites 0 Operable unit 1 is the Allied quotlandfillquot It is the largest source of contaminants leaking into the river Interim action In 1999 we removed sediments from Bryant Millpond resulting in reduced fish contaminant levels the removed sediments were added to existing contaminated materials at an upland part ofthe site 39 Follow up work added to the sheet pile quotsolutionquot seeping O 0 000000 O O O Dams O O O 0 Dave Parnell Oct 31 Notes Kalamazoo Water Shed Cleanup DO IT RIGHT THE FIRST TIME Neighborhood groups began to be NIMBYs not in my backyard actionists PCBs stick to particles and have dif culty migrating through ground water Currently the Allied Land ll is in the remedial process of design people want it completely clean for low impact use like a park Operable unit 2 Willow Blvd and ASite land lls Approved for gt50ppm concentration because of its clay bed OU 3 King highway landfill No engineered bottom liner But no record of any leaking OU4 12th street land ll Considered one of the more complex sites because of its intricate oodplain OU 5 The most neglected because of its dif culties OU6 We decided just to cap the land ll OU 7 Plainwell mill Under responsibility of the 3rd party PRP Took 17 years for the Plainwell Dam to begin to be dealt with The quoteasyquot part of the river is costing 30 million dollars for removal including reservoir and river banks Considered a time critical site Most PCBs have settled behind dams because they trap the sediment The dams on the Kalamazoo river are partially demolished unsafe and serve no useful purpose except holding PCB Management agencies anglers paddlers and others want dams out restoring a free owing river has multiple bene ts People of Allegan don t want to get rid of their dam which enables them to keep their lake water front Most PCBs are in the lake Allegan Course Notes 9172007 Sherry Selby I Kinship How do you relate I Key Terms Consanguine Those related through birth blood relation Affine Those related through marriage Kinship Set of normative rules that guides our relationships with consanguine and affine Easton 2004 Fictive Kinship Relation such as a Godparent A person who is adopted or brought into the family by choice rather than birth Etic Analytic Emic Eternal makes sense to only those involved Think about your own family Who do you constitute as your family 0 Those you only see a blood relationship with 0 Those related through marriage 0 Those people who are adopted in or like family Cultures think about kinship differently Remember that culture is learned and not hard wired genetic It is patterned and unconscious it shape behaviors and perceptions and what we think of as natural Culture is not Static Unchanging Firmly bounded o What are the boundaries between Mexican Canadian and American Agreed upon by all practitioners for example 0 Abortion or when life begins 0 Politics 0 Death penalty 0 However there is some agreement on what we agree to disagree over Examples on how Culture changes MampM Example Blasts onto the scene with a musical form that was really separate and he made it an urban art assessable to many people Rap used to be Misogynous Racist Homophobic Now white guys and girls rap gay men and women rap Mattel has made rap dolls for children Rap has become an icon of urban culture Culture is Super individual 0 Shakespeare o The English language gave to him more than what he gave to it Without the existence of an art form poetry and prose Shakespeare couldn t play with it 0 Superorganic 0 Beyond biology Learned 0 Typical American Family Idealized The Brady Bunch 1970s 0 Can Bobby marry Cindy 0 Everyone behaves like they are blood related or consanguine however they are not 0 Provides a good example of how the typical American family behaves or at least is perceived to behave Kinship is Basic principle of social organization What happens when the system goes array 0 Jane young girl who was cut off from all social contact resulting from severe neglect and abuse by parents She didn t gain the knowledge of the concept of a mother or father or how one typically behaves in a family 0 The French kid who was raised by wolves If you do not grow up in a social context it s hard to actualize your human potential Primarily social not biologic Kmshlp 15 Dererrnrnes wne Vuu eve Teaenes wne Vuu eve anu wne Vuu dnn t YD Wplcallv eve Yuur parenrs rnere rnan Vnur reaeners Dererrnrnes many rrnus er seera relaunns nnuenees wne Vuu suppurrbern nnanmallv anu erneuenany nnuenees wne Vuu marry anu wne Vnur aneesrers are Kmshlp mazxams Malnlmeal descent we at unmmeal ueeenr raeeu rnreugn a srngxe une er aneesr s rnar renews rne female A a 1m a avauaexe err anrmo a omavedu mm mm 2mm Key features Heau er hnusehnld s a wernan Onlv rna1e rexarwes rnar earry wergnr are rne enes wne are bland related en rne rnerners srue Mesr sxgnmeanr me gure s rne rnerners meher Ne eeneepr er a granurarner raumneu descent FDHUWS rne rna1e 61010 Key features Oppuslte er malnhneal In actual female M uakane Makuahine Makuahine Makuakane Makuakane Makuahine Kaikllz Kaikll Kaikllz Kaikll Kaikllz Egg Kaikll Kaikllz Kaikll Kaikllz Kaikll 39anz ane 39anz ane 39anz ane 39anz ane 39anz ane Kaiki Kaike Kaiki Kailgg kane mahini kane mahmlkane mahml Available msLhawaHan htm Key features The system 40 ofthe worm popmatron uses Least descrrptrve merges many peop e mto afew km terms Eskimo Kinship UNCI F quotAUNT MOTHFR FATHFR UNm F AUNT a COUSIN cousIN stj tk 390 SHOT w CUUSIN COUSIN NIFCF DAUGHFH SON NVECE NEPHEW NU HEW Available httDwwwumanitobacafacutieslartslanthropoloqvtutorkinter msZtermsyshtmlHawaiian Key Features System we use Bilinieal Uses 7 kin terms Place a strong emphasis on the nuclear family Eskimo were a band population hunters and gatherers they had to move around due to seasonal changes in order to find food and water Ideally suited to reconstitute itself for future generations Differences between American and Eskimo We don t remember our ancestors even at the greatgrandfather level unlike the Eskimo We move around to pursue work I Sudanese 16 Sep Kin terms Very descriptive Diagram available at the above link I Etic vs Emic Eticoutside A perspective that is scientific in nature Emicinside A perspective that is analytical in nature The native peoples interpretation of an event See httpzpersonalwebsoakandedukitchensz150dpikehtm For more information l 1 1907 Ricky Ostrowski Guest speaker Marc Hatton A WMU graduate Major Field Hydrology Minor Sociology said it helps with public relations He worked as an Environmental Consultant from 93 00 for V3 environmental consulting company Stopped working there when they switched their focus engineering Brown elds sites with known or perceived contamination that are deemed eligible by Remediation parties Must be a facility where contamination exists leaky storage tanks PCB s exc Not able to function under its intended purpose If blighted bad condition and is a public nuisance Brownfield dogma all superfunds are Brownfields not all Brownfields are superfund Sarah disagrees Brown eld s are usually designated by the state and are remediate by any numbers of partners City State Fedral investors companies landowners exc Michigan has unique policy Causation liability where one does not assume remediation if not found liable for contamination Offers incentive to build on degraded property Rules changed in 94 with BEA liability protection Risk based approach Considers exposure pathways Puts classi cations on sites which have different incentives and attentions Industrial Brown eld probably would have lesser urgency and remediation than one intended for a green space so it has greater incentives such as taX breaks and grants Offers further incentive if buyer of Brown eld area wants LEED certi cation Helps plan and implement redevelopment plan City has interest in rebuilding degradated areas Brownfields so they can gain more jobs collect more taxes make city more desirable attract business and overall improve the quality of the city Can be considered sustainable development Kalamazoos Brownfield has been very successful in the ten years that Marc Hatton worked for the city Brown eld programs have leveraged approximately one hundred and fty million dollars and created 12000 jobs Won the Phoenix award that s given for exemplary Brownfield remediation when it created and industrial launderer from a former paper company site Other projects include Mackenzie s Bread bakery Worked so well company is expanding Gazette buildings expansion Rave movie theatre City invested 27 million dollars Park trade building Current project is Davis creek Business Park which has yet to be sold Lecture Notes 9 2407 J R Clark Quiz 1 What do the Azande go to a witchdoctor for What do the Azande go to the poison oracle for a Witchdoctor quick answers general ailments sicknesses battle witchcraft i Witchdoctors are similar to today s psychics 1 Confirm sickness provide support Witchdoctors are trained specialists b Main use of witchdoctor is to prove that you have been bewitched c Poison oracle is more speci c used for con rmation of witchcraft etc 2 What is an etic outsider explanation for there being less fakery involved with the poison oracle than with the witchdoctor a Witchdoctors are biased they may have personal issues to settle may accuse someone of witchcraft out of vengeance b Witchdoctors are motivated by gain they obtain money and materials from the Azande there is incentive for them to nd witches c Less faking with oracle because it focuses on future events con rms witchcraft accusations names witches 3 Give an emic insider explanation for the same a Impossible to fake the oracle the oracle is outside human in uence b When the witchdoctor is proven wrong the Azande believe that he has been bewitches or using bad magics i Doesn t matter what witchdoctor says they will use the oracle to get the real answer 4 To the Azande is death natural or unnatural Explain Include page s a Either answer ok as long as you can logically support it using info from the text i Natural Misfortune causes death misfortune is caused by witchcraft witchcraft is considered a natural part of the Azande s existence therefore death is natural Unnatural All death is murder murder is not natural 5 What is an oracle a Used to answer questions that the questioner cannot answer b The oracle is not a person it is a technique c The oracle appears inside the bird the vessel and gives answers to the questioner d Oracle has agency but no concrete living form e Never see an oracle but go through speci c steps to call it s authority f The oracle is like a soul it is non material Access to oracles Men with property are the main group with access to the poison oracle because they are able to afford the chickens societal rules prevent women from accessing the oracle Three principle characters in the seance 0 Owner has the poison Lecture Notes 9 2407 JR Clark I All men own poison men collect it and store it women cannot touch it or come near it or it will become inactive I Ownership of good poison can increase social status bad poison can spoil the ceremony and decrease social status 0 Operator executes the ceremony I Usually a young boy aged 12 16 I Abstains from sexual intercourse eating certain foods and smoking hemp I Child selected because the are more pure have not had sex yet 0 Questioner has the chickens I Anyone who has a chicken many people have chickens Young chickens are used because they are more pure or unpolluted o Chickens are only kept for the seances they are hardly ever eaten 0 They don t eat the eggs because they want them to hatch to have more chickens 0 Not many mature birds because of the number of seances performed 0 Similar to dogs and cars in our society they are an indication of status but they are a drain on our resources Scienti c methpd The Azande do test their ideasbeliefs but the tests just con rm what they already believe Experiments are used to retest something that has already been completed you expect to get a certain result or something very similar 0 Follow the steps of the experiment and if it doesn t work you assume that you did something wrong I When you do this you are thinking like the Azande by following someone else s mandate I You are expected to think like the Azande just do what you are told 0 When you form your own hypothesis or questions you are going beyond thinking like an Azande Steps in scienti c method 0 Identify problem 0 Hypothesis 0 Observation 0 Conduct experiment 0 Retest 0 Draw conclusions These steps are drilled into us by school and society it is supposed to be intuitive Put into practice 0 Problem no standard for how strong or weak the poison is I No independent observation of amount of poison being used but still believe that the oracle exists 0 Try to prove to the Azande that you can in uence the outcome of the survival death of chicken by using different amounts of poison Lecture Notes 9 2407 JR Clark I Measure poison amounts assuming it is all equally potent and weigh chickens 0 You will not be able to convince the Azande of anything because they don t see the problem the don t believe there is anything wrong with the strength of the poison I Maybe some of them have gured it out and are using that knowledge to in uence the oracle The Azande live in world of uncertainty and want to use oracle to create more certainty in their lives Homework While reading the last section of the book think about the following statements 0 The Azande are rational the Azande are not rational o The Azande are logical the Azande are not logical 0 Environmental hazards would not matter to the Azande
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