General Psychology PSY 1000
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lance Jones on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1000 at Western Michigan University taught by Christina Sheerin in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/216927/psy-1000-western-michigan-university in Psychlogy at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
1 Be able to define social norms amp social roles Social Normsare rulesthat regulate life including explicit laws amp implicit culture IE how we dress behavior in public placesthe norm Social Rolesare socialpositionsthat are governed by a set of norms for proper behavior ie mother police officer 2 What is an attribution What is disposition Be able to distinguish between situational 8 dispositional attributions Attributionis a process of assigning causes to behavior Dispositionis a process of enduring characteristics such as personalitytraits attitudes and intelligenceinternal attributions attribution or what is going on around them 3 Fundamental Attribution Error Tendency to overestimatethe impact of dispositional influenceson other people sbehaviors For Example We may assume incorrectly that a boss in a failing company who fired several of his loyal employees to save money is an asshole when he was in fact under enormous pressure to rescue his company 4 What is deindividualation 8 what effect does it have on people s behavior The tendency of people to engage in uncharacteristicbehaviorwhen they are stripped of their usual identities Effects When people don t know our identity wearing a mask we are more likely to do things we wouldn39t normally do as ourselves 5 In regards to Milgram s obedience study be able to describe the Be able to describe the urgiix quotquotHT i h lizl ij39y li h39 l ii hir llili will m mm we immmg and my 39 39 studv The teacher read the learner a list of words amp asked the learner to complete the pair with the pair word Pairs an electric shock with the wrong answer amp for each wrong answer the shock went up in strength The learner was an actor who received a quotshockquot for each wrong answer a prerecorded scream was sounded supposed mild heart condition Milgrem himself was actually shocked m l 00 0 What is diffusion of responsibility In general as the size of a crowd increases what happens to the probability of an individual receiving help Diffusion of responsibility is the reduction of feelings of personal responsibilityin the presence of others Generally as the amount of people increases the likelihood of someone receiving help decreases People think someone else will help What is altruism Helping others for unselfish reasons What is selfperception theory Theory that we acquire our attitudes by observing our behaviors What is footinthedoor technique Recognize examples 8 also explain how foot in the door tech relates to Milgram s obedience research Persuasive technique involving making a small request before making a big one Milgram asked the participants to act as teachers amp make small shocks leading up to bigger ones 10 Define stereotype 8 prejudice Stereotype is a belief positive or negative about the characteristics of members of a group that is applied generally to most members of the group RACISM Prejudice is drawing negative conclusions about a person group of people or situation prior to evaluating the evidence 11 What is meant by quotcomprehension proceeds productionquot Childrenare learning to recognizeampinterpretwords well before they can produce them 12 Imitation 8 nativist accounts of language 8 lang acquisition device Imitation is the simplest explanation of children learning language repeating what they hear Nativist account says children come into the world with some basic knowledge of how the language works Language acquisition device is hypothetical organ in the brain in which nativists believe knowledge of syntax resides 13 What is framing 8 how can it interfere with logical reasoning It can interfere with logical reasoning when an idea is framed to highlight a negative or positive 14 Availability heuristics People based v l u on information is 39 3 Murder or suicide 15 What is confirmation bias Tending to look for evidence that will confirm one s beliefs opposed to evidence that goes against it 16 Hindsight Bias Tendency to review older memories amp include new information falsely believing one could have correctly predicted an outcome of an event 17 Meta Cognition Awarenessampunderstandingof your own cognitive abilities 18G Factor General intellectual ability underlying all mental activities 19 Alfred Binet 8 his role in intelligence testing Psychologist who developed testing for intelligence IQ 20 What is mental age What problem was with the original IQ testing Mental age is the overall intelligenceof a person ampwhat age it corresponds to The problem was it would consider many people mentally retarded who aren t Age level which aperson functions mentallyintellectually 21 Piaget s stages for child development 0 Sensorimotor ages 02 No thought beyondimmediate physical experiences 0 Preoperational ages 27 Think beyond here amp now but egocentric amp unable to perform mental transformations 0 Concrete Operations ages 711 Able to perform mental transformations but only on concrete amp physical objects 0 Formal Operations ages 11 amp A Able to perform hypothetical amp abstract reasoning 22 What is conservation When the physical presentation of something changes but its amount stays the same IE pouring liquid into tall cup same amount as regular cup 23 Zone of Proximal Development Stage of learning in which a child can benefit from instruction 24 What kind of model did Erikson develop 8 what is psychosocial crisis Erikson developed a model of identity psychosocial crisis a dilemma involving our relations to other people 25 According to KuberRoss what are the 5 stages we go through when reacting to impending death Denial Anger Bargaining Depression Acceptance 26What part of our psyche uses defense mechanisms 8 what is their purpose Ego uses them unconscious maneuvers intended to minimize anxiety Repression Returning psychologically to a younger typically simpler 8 safer stage Denial Motivated forgetting of distressing external experiences A mother who loses a child in a car accident insists her child is alive somewhere ReactionFormation Transformation of anxietyprovoking emotion into its opposite A married woman attracted to her coworker expresses hatred toward him Projection Unconscious attribution of our negative characteristics onto others You are forgetful with your assignments but complain about others not ever helping you Displacement Direction impulse from a socially unacceptable target onto a more acceptable one quotGolfer throws putter into woods after missing easy shotquot Rationalization providing reasonable sounding explanations for unreasonable behaviors of failures Said you missed your shots on net at try outs because you didn t really want to be on the team Intellectualization Avoiding the emotions associated with anxiety provoking experiences by focusing on abstract and impersonal thoughts A woman who s husband cheats on herfocuses on the study that quotx amount of men are sexually promiscuous by nature so there is nothing to worry about Identification with Aggressor adopting psychological characteristics of people we find threatening A college basketball player who initially feared his tyrannical coach now comes to accept his behavior and adopts them himself Sublimation transforming a socially unacceptable behavior into an admired and socially valued goal A boy who enjoys beating up on other children grows up to become a successful professional boxer 27 Describe Adler s inferiority complex that can lead to for these feelings 28Repertoire a list of roles we take on amp perform 29 Locus of Control Internal 8 External 8 which one is associated with better health Extent to which people believe that reinforces amp punishers lie inside amp outside of their control internal believe that life events are largely due to their own efforts amp personal characteristics External believe that life events are largely a product of fate amp chance nterna for better health they feel they have more control of their ives 30What is unconditioned positive regard how is it different than letting people do whatever they want What are conditions of worth What prevents people from becoming fully functional human beings UPR is the basic support of a person regardless of what that person does IT is different because its not supporting their actions but moreso them as a person Conditions of Worth expectationswe place on ourselves for appropriate amp inappropriate behaviors ger our genuine selves mm 96 39 l39lfif gmii li i 31 What is the Big 5 Model Name each of the factors Five traits that have surfaced repeatedly in factor analyses of personality measures Openness to Experience Conscientiousness Extraversionbeing assertiveseeking out external stimuli Agreeableness Neuroticism tendency to experience negative emotional states 32 What is a mental disorder 4 components list 8 describe components Statistical RarityUncommon to the population like schizophrenia Terrels condition Subjective DistressProduce emotional pain anxiety or mood disorders Impairment39 Interfere with people s daily lives ampdestroy relationships 8 marriages Most Societal DisapprovaISociety having negative attitudes towardsdisliking conditions masturbational insanity schizophrenia 33 Categorical 8 dimensional models of psychopathology Categorical Model in which in how DSM is set up Ie pregnancy either pregnant or not Dimensional some disorders better fit this model mental disorders differ from normal functioning in in 52 Ie height 34 PTSD 8 four symptoms gt 1 month Marked emotional disturbanceafter experiencing or witnessing a severely stressful event Symptoms Intrusive Thoughts Avoidance Behaviors Nightmares Increased anxietyirritabilityarousal 35 What is bipolar disorder 8 what is a manic episode Depression amp Mania Manic Episode period of time dramatically eleveated mood decreased need for sleep increased energy inflated selfesteem increased talkativeness irresponsible behaviors 36 What is personcentered therapy Therapy centering around client s goals 8 ways of solving problems 37 What is systematic desensitization How does this work Steps When clients are taught to relaxas they are gradually reexposed to what they fear in a stepwise manner Therapist begins by teaching client how to relax imagine relaxing scenes focusing on breathing and maintaining a slow breathing rate Therapist has client construct an anxiety hierarchy a ladder of situations that climb from least to most anxiety provoking reax and picture first scene moves on to the next more anxiety producing only after client reports feeling relaxed while imaging first 1quot1 38 What is contingency management Reinforcement of desired behaviors 39 How does Elli s rational emotive therapy 8 Beck s cognitive therapy attempt to treat mental disorders ELLI Challenges clients unrealistic thoughts the vulnerability to psychological disturbanceis a product of the frequencyampstrengthof our irrational beliefs Beck dentifyingampmodifyingdistorted thoughts amp beliefs more M emphasis on 40 ScientistPractitioner Gap 8 empirically supported treatments Refers to the sharp cleft between psychologists who view psychotherapy 2 those who believe that as H 3 3 should primarily Empirically Supported Treatments intervention for specific disorders supportedby high quality scientific evidence 41What is ECT 8 when is it used to treat disorders ECT electroconvulsive therapy delivers small electrical shocks to brain to lift peoples moods used for 10 of severe depressive patients
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