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Intro To Media & Telecom

by: Mrs. Shania Schoen

Intro To Media & Telecom COM 2400

Mrs. Shania Schoen
GPA 3.8

Wade Cutler

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Wade Cutler
Class Notes
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This 21 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Shania Schoen on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 2400 at Western Michigan University taught by Wade Cutler in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/216982/com-2400-western-michigan-university in Communication, School Of at Western Michigan University.


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Date Created: 09/30/15
Tele Comm and Media 419 600 points total to gure out your grade DbsDirect Broadcast Satellite 1945 Arthur C Clarke author of 2001 A Space Odyssey wrote an article that by placing 3 space platforms into special orbits 22300 miles above the equator worldwide communications could be received The rst ones to explore this theory were the Russians Launched Sputnik worlds first satellite on 0ct41957 The US launched ExplorerI Ian 1 1958 The space rave was on The rst communications satellite names Syncom II was developed by a group of business and government agencies for the direct purpose of communications for the military The rst actual satellite communication was on July 261963 between a US Navy ship in Nigeria and a US Army naval station in New Jersey It wasn t until mid 70 s that the TV industry began using satellite communications TF Question The term Geosynchronous Orbit was born Geosynchronous means exactly what Clarke suggested to hover over one spot on the equator 1975 Home Box Office HBO made history by initiating satellite delivery of programming to cable with the heavyweight boxing match known as quotThe Thriller From Manilaquot oe Frazier vs Muhammad Ali The Father of Home Satellite TV Taylor Howard 1976 Taylor Howard Stanford University Professor and former NASA scientist created the lst consumer Direct To Home DTH Satellite System in his garage Considered to be the first quotpiratequot of TV Mr Howard wrote a 100 check to HBO for the movies he watched on his systemHBO returned his checkthey only dwelt with large companies Howard then published a how to manual on his system 1977 Pat Robertson launched the rst satellitedelivered basic cable service the Christian Broadcasting Network CBNlater became The Family Channel This is just the basic channel TV 1978 PBS began using Satellites From 19811985 the Big Dish satellite market began to take offsales soared and prices fell But the average cost of a system was around 10000 By 1985 that cost fell to 3000 The big draw Programming was free Of course the cable industry called quotfowlquot and lobbied the government against DBS The 1984 Cable Act it allowed cable systems to encrypt their satellite feedsscrambling became the way to deliver TV programs Free dish satellite TV programming was outlawed A huge underground movement began to pirate satellite signals In the early 199039s four large cable companies launched a DBS system called Primestar 1994 Hughes DirectTV was launched and later purchased Primestar These two systems delivered greater quality sound and picture on a much leClConveIterlnputD04AOCQ02Vhtml427201l 81306 PM Tele Comm and Media 419 smaller dish One of the ways DirectTV did this was they used an N coding technique called NPEGZ DirectTV pioneered the development of the 18 dish 1996 the DISH Network Company was formed November 1999 Congress passed the Satellite lIome Viewer Improvement Act SHVIA permits satellite TV companies to provide local TV station s signals to their subscribeIs in that stations market or DMA Designated Marketing Area Future Plans More music stations More Internet and possible phone service Satellite signal to car and GPS Satellite signal to smartphones leCVConVeIterInputD04AoCQ02Vhtml427201l 81306 PM Notes For Telecom and Media Cable tv By 1999 75 of homes wired for cable 2011 93 due to Internet service Cable show now recognized at the Emmy awards We saw edgier programming like Sopranos Mad Menquot 1st cable serves to win Emmy Award for Outstanding Drama Series 2010wired cable TV penetration of US households hit a 21 year low due primarily to the ability to receive programs via alternate systems Today 198039s cable business sales 3billion 25 ofTV business Today 94billion Bulk is from Internet 4th quarter of2010 Wireless activates a record 635000 smart phones Wireless data revenue growth 2 32 in 2010 Cable Vs DBS Comcast is the largest 23million subscriber households Direct I V 19million Dish Network 142 Million Time Warner 135 Million also owns HBO and CinemaX Cox Communication 49 Million Net ix 20 Million as of Ian 2011 and growing 2nd in the list leClConVeIterInputLanWHoJZc html4272011 8 1339 PM Longest Running TV shows 0 CBS Evening News 0 Music and the Spoken Word 0 Today Show 0 World News 0 The Tonight Show 0 Know first two hosts 0 Face the Nation 0 It is Written 1st religious TV show in color 0 The Open Mind 0 NFL on CBS Late Night TV 0 The Tonight Show is in the top 10 of longest running TV shows 0 The Tomorrow Show aired after the Tonight Show on NBC 19731982 0 1993 David Letterman took over the Tomorrow time slot 0 When Letterman was denied the Tonight Show host he left for CBS in 1993 o ABC s longest running Late Night show is the Jimmy Kimmel Show Saturday Night Live 0 Featrued Dan Akroyd Gilda Radner John Belushi Bill Murray 0 The quotNot ready for primetime players 0 First aired on Oct 11 1975 0 NBC was trying to find a show for the Saturday late night time slot 0 The weekend late night was an untapped time slot 0 NBC wanted to attract the 1834 age demographic 0 Featured a different guest host each week George Carlin was the first o Produced live for 90 minutes 0 SNL is considered to be one of the most distinctive and significant TV programs in the history of TV Produced some of TV s most memorable catchphrases 0 quotYou Look Mahvelous Billy Crystal 0 quotIsn t that special Church Lady Late 1980s1990s The Fairness Doctrine FCC s attempt to ensure that all the coverage of controversial issues by a broadcast station be balanced and fair 1987 FCC ended the Fairness Doctrine because is asserted that the dotrine was no longer having its intended effect actually might be a violation of the First Amendment Both houses of congress voted to keep the doctrine but Reagan vetoed the law The only remnant of this doctrine is election coverage 0 19911995 Saw the end of FINSYN Rules 0 Financial Interest and Syndiation Rules 0 FCC implemented these rules in 1970 attempting to inrease programming diversity 0 and to limit the market control of the 3 TV networks 0 The rule prohibited network participation in creation ofinhouse syndication arms 0 Basically limited the amount of prime time programming the networks could produce themselves 0 It was the hope that these rules would benefit the independent TV producers by giving them access to the lucrative syndication market 0 Obviously the networks fought this from the start they felt this was unfair and that they should have the right to produce and recoupe money they had invested in building up the network 0 By November 1995 the FinSyn rules were elimination o Primarily because these rules were formed prior to cable and the preFox days now the 3 main networks only have a lower audience pull 0 Cheap Programming 0 Start of reality TV Cops Real World 0 Niche marketing 0 Bit three audience share declinds to 69 by 95 from 91 in 1979 Decline of the Network Era Late 80s 90s 0 Intro of cable television VCRs intro In 1975 1976 Time shifting and movie rentals DVR s started in 1999 Even though Sattelite TV started in 1976 the huge boom begain in the 80s and 90s Tuesday January 17 2012 All Super Bowl add time sold out Each 30 ad costs 35 million new record Super Bowl Ads Go Daddy Skechers Tele ora Kia Pepsi Century 21 MercedesBenz Radio Communications Telegraphy and Wireless Communications Six Radio Pioneers Telegraph Pioneer 1 Samuel Morse Successfully invented the telegraph system that was practical and had commercial success Telegraph Originally relied on cable to send Morse code over a wire from location to location 1838 the first public demo of the telegraph 1844 US Congress funded 30000 to construct an experimental line from Washington 9 Baltimore quotWhat Hath God Wrought was the first sent message on the completed line on May 24 1844 Western Union began business in 1851 and built its first transcontinental telegraph line in 1861 along railroad rightof ways Telegraph The org Morse Telegraph printed code onto paper tape but operators began memorizing the code A welltrained operator could translate 4050 words a minute Until 1877 all rapid longdistant communication depended on the telegraph In 1877 the telephone was invented Wireless Telegraphy Pioneer 2 Gugliemo Marconi The beginning of Radio is credited to Wireless Telegraphy Italian inventor Marconi proved the feasibility of radio communication Owned patent on wireless telegraphy He sent and received his first radio signed in Italy in 1895 1899 1st wireless Morse code signal from England to France 1920 transmitted the letter quotSquot from England to Newfoundland the first successful transAtlanticradiotelegraph message Wireless radio proved effective for rescue work when a sea disaster occurred 1901 the US Navy adopted a wireless system with its ships Until then they had been using visual signaling and homing pigeons 1909 Robert Peary used a radio to broadcast quotI found the Pole Pioneer 3 Lee De Forest 1902 Wireless Telephone Company Interested in voice and music transmissions Deforest was the first person to use the word quotradioquot Big breakthrough audio vacuum tube 1906 This tube boosted radio radio waves as they were received and made possible for the human voice music or any other signal to be heard When the US entered the First World War the US Navy controlled all radio development to prevent it s possible use by enemy spies The US gov t took over control of all patients related to radio technology amp didn t release control until 1919 RCA was established in 1919 with the purpose of distributing control of the radio patents that had been restricted during the war Thursday January 1 9 2 0 12 Review Samuel Morse successfully invented the telegraph system Marconi credited for inventing Wireless Telegraphy Deforest interested in voice and music transmissions more today Quiz 1 QWhen was the rst Morse code signalfrom England to France A1899 Pioneer 3 Continued Lee Deforest EGO had a huge EGO EGO is an in ated feeling of pride in your superiority to others Does stating that you ARE the quotFather of Radio qualify for having an Ego Yes Father of Radio Lee fought for decades to convince the technical community that he deserved to be known as the quotFather of Radio Deforest was interested in voice and music transmissions While testing the Radio Telephone for the US navy Lee used music to test each set Many wireless amateurs and professional operators intercepted and enjoyed these test transmissions It was at this point where Deforest had the idea of Mass Communications making a profit from desirable listening and demand for wireless equipment anuary 12 1 908 the 055 Ohio was sending out band tunes to other ships even responding to requests a date Deforest considers the beginning of broadcasting Deforest was the single most important individual in the twenty year evolution 19001920 from twoway wireless telegraphy as a commercial business to the technical perfection and use of the radiotelephone for entertainment broadcasting Pioneer 4Nathan B Stubblefield Some consider Stubblefield to be the quotFather of Broadcasting Considered to be the man who invented the precursor to the cell phone 1892 was the firstperson to broadcast a human voice using wireless telephone attached to ground electrodes 1 902 Credited for rst Shiptoshore wireless telephone broadcast using wires dropped in the water from a boat Can you hear me now StubeefieId demonstrated his wireless telephone to afriend and his words he spoke into the phone were quotCan you hear me now 1908 he patented a new version ofwireless telephone designed to communicate with moving vehiclesstagecoaches One major problem no way to transmit other than very short distances quotAhead of his time The failure ofStubeefieId s invention lead him into seclusion and he ended up starving himself to death Pioneer 5 Reginald Fessenden Some people consider Fessenden quotThe Father of Radio Broadcasting Canadian chemist is best known for his invention of the Modulation of radio waves and the quotheterodyne principle which allowed the reception and transmission on the same aerial without interference Known for discovering Amplitude Modulation AM radio Devised the theory of the quotcontinuous wave a means to superimpose sound onto a radio wave Once the signal was received the radio wave would be removed leaving the listener with the original sound December 23 1900 he transmitted his own voice over the first wireless telephone from Cobb Island in Washington DC Christmas Eve 1 906 he transmitted the first radio broadcast in history from Massachusetts ships at sea heard him playing the song quot0 Holy Night and reading a passage from the bible Became the first person to broadcast words and music over radio waves 1906 Fessenden achieved twoway voice transmission by radio between Scotland and Massachusetts Marconi s transmission was only a 1 way transmission using Morse Code Financial backers couldn t see the value in this discovery they thought the only benefit was a pointtopoint transmission primarily to ships at sea Sound familiar IBM Just like at first no one thought people would need a personal computer Tuesday January 24 2012 Pioneer 6 Edwin Howard Armstrong Known for 3 major inventions o In 1913 invented Regenerative or feedback circuit Allowed radio broadcasts to have a greater range 0 1918 invented the Superhetrodyne Tuner that allowed radios to tune into different radio stations 0 1933 credited for discovering Frequency Modulation radio FM Solved the interference problem with AM Considered to be quotThe Man of High Fidelityquot 1933 showed RCA his discovery but they were unimpressed RCA was investing into AM RCA s decision was based on the idea that consumers didn t care about sound quality they just wanted cheap radios Licensed FM to smaller companies when consumers heard the quality they fell in love w FM RCA took Armstrong to court for years over patent infringements and eventually RCA won by dragging the case past the patent time frame Armstrong was broke and on 13154 jumped out ofa 13 story window Thursday January 2 6 2 0 12 Radio The event that solidified Radio s place in history as a necessity was the sinking of the Titanic in 1912 The Titanic used a quotstateoftheart Marconi Radio System It had a guaranteed transmission range of 250 miles but at night transmissions could reach 2000 miles The survivors of the Titanic were credited to the radio broadcasts that were made Transmitting Morse Code not voice in 1912 Radio Act of 1912 Us Congress Mandated radio equipment for all longdistance vessels after Titanic tragedy and that the wireless system be manned 24 hours a day Auxiliary power must also be available in case of engine failure Each ships radio had 0 have a range of at least 100 miles during day Radio Act of 1912 also purged the airwaves of amateur radio users Operators had to be licensed and adhere to certain band widths Large portions of the spectrum was set aside for the Navy Radio Frequency wasis considered a quotNatural Resource Radio stations had to obtain licenses from Commerce Department 0 First gov t intervention in field of media and telecommunications Racio Corporation of America British owned American Marconi was gaining access to General Electric invented technology US Gov39t felt uneasy after WWI to have a foreign run company control domestic communication GE acquired American Marconi s holding currently Britishowned Wireless patents pooled and distributed to promote radio development by RCA Gov t didn t create a company told GE to create a company RCA in 1919 RCA monopolized wireless industry expanded US communication technology throughout the world The Radio Industry GE ATampT Westinghouse join forces GE and Westinghouse would manufacture radio sets RCA in charge of sales distribution ATampT telephone service amp radio transmitters Evolution of Commercial Radio 1920 radio realized as mass medium KDKA AM Pittsburg first commercial broadcast station 8 MK in Detroit later WWI on the air 0 Claims to be first radio station in the world to broadcast regularly scheduled programs By 1925 55 million radio sets were in use in US Radio in the 1920 s By 1921 more than 10000 licensed amateurs were on the air Most historians state that radio broadcasting began in 1920 s with the broadcast of KDKA Radio became a public quotchasequot and people stood in line to complete and order form for radios after dealers were sold out Between 1923 amp 1930 60 ofAmerican families had purchased a radio 9999 of radios were AM could not transmit FM By 1922 over 600 radio stations had sprung up in the US all in a matter of 2 years 1921 saw Chicago s 1st radio station KYW o KYW was the first specialized radio station broadcasting exclusively opera 6 days a week ATampT and Advertising August 28 1922 ATampT opened WEAF the first commercial radio station in New York Advertising supported radio network developed WEAF sold first ad to New York Real Estate Developer for 50 Ads ensured profits after radioset sales had saturated the market 1926 ATampT sold WEAF to RCA for 1 million The Network radio Idea ATampT first to sell advertising and interconnected broadcasting stations using wire Improvements in central control cultural unification economic efficiency One large company could supersize programs for an entire national grid of stations Network Radio 1926 NBC is the first national radio network NBC charged affiliates up to 96hr for programming CBS paid affiliates 50hr to carry network programming Networks paid affiliates for all programming station compensation Affiliates had to talk entire programming schedule Tuesday January 3 1 20 12 Assignment 2 Research paper due 21612 Quiz 2 Q What was the rst commercial broadcast station 7 AKDKA AM Pittsburg History of Station Call Letters By 192 2 four letters were needed to keep up with the demand for new stations Starting in 1934 the FCC decided on the usage ofquotWquot east of the Mississippi River and K to the west Existing stations were allowed to keep their calls even if on the quotwrongquot side of the river ie KDKA in Pittsburg Radio Act of 1927 Congress passed this act to bring order to the quotchaosquot of radio broadcasting Radio station had to operate with in the quotpublic interest Prior to 1927 radio was regulated by the Department of Commerce natural resource Powers were limited they were not allowed to deny broadcast licenses to anyone who wanted one Too many stations on too few frequencies Transferred power to the FRC Federal Radio Commission later would become FCC Two main provisions came out ofAct of 1927 o 1 The creation of a new government commission quotThe FRC o 2 The commission s mandate to regulate radio in the quotpublic interest convenience and necessity The 5 person FRC was given power to grant or deny licenses To assign frequencies and power levels for each licensee The Commission had little or no power over networks Had no authority over advertising The FRC was free to control radio to serve whatever interests it deemed were within the scope of public interest convenience and necessity as long as the commission did not deny quotfree speech to broadcasters BUT Congress limited free speech in this Radio Act quotNo person within the jurisdiction of the United States shall utter any obscene incident or profane language by means of radio communication Congress wrote the first quotEqual Opportunity provision of the act Section 18 to prevent broadcasters from using the radio as a personal political power base The law would exclude radical politicians from the airwaves since they would not be legally qualified candidates Communists Candidates ofimmigrants who supported unions or radical political change would have limited access to the airwaves Even though the FRC primary responsibility was radio it issued the first TV license in 1928 Radio Industry in the 1930 s Beginning of quotThe Golden Age of Radio The experimental years were over Networks were off and rolling Radio was moving towards a form of whoesale entertainment for the masses selling products through advertising and selling radio sets Note The Great Depression 19291939 CBS was formed as an independent programming enterprise 1926 RCA formed a whollyowned subsidiary and called it NBC RCA which saw programming as a form of marketing an enticement to purchase radios RCA formed a 2 1 network the two networks were called NBC Blue and NBC Red RCA became the most lucrative broadcasting company in the US By 1935 RCA was spending millions of dollars annually to fund a new and emerging technology television RCA s dominance of the broadcast industry in the 30 led the government to investigate the legitimacy of networks or quotchain broadcasting FCC criticized the networks control of the majority of high powered stations FCC forced RCA to sell one ofits networks NBC Blue was sold and eventually became ABC Thursday February 2 2012 Side Note The FRC became the FCC with the Communications Act of 1934 FCCFRC forced RCA to sell one of its networks Lost its legal battle to hold onto the network Importance of music and shows Importance of music The 19305 saw popular stations affiliated with CBS or NBS redblue 40 of NBC programming in the 19305 was music NBC had inhouse orchestra aired live music daily Smaller stations played more records The Comedy Variety Shows Radio s first breakthrough format Ethnic amp minstrel humor Jack Benny Show 193 21965 people knew when Jack Benny would be on it was very popular 15 min 30 min radio show families would gather around the radio and listen in Situation Comedy Amos 39n Andy huge success in situation comedy First serial show most popular in history Originated from station WMAQ in Chicago Know the station name Profoundly in uenced the development of dramatic radio Criticized as racist Target audience were working and wealthy white people The Characters Amos was naive but honest and hardworking Andy was louder with overin ated selfconfidence George quotthe Kingfish Stevens was always trying to lure the two into getrich quick schemes Originator of quotHoly Mackerel Aired daily recorded live mostly Freeman Gosdenamp Charles Correll Did not transfer well from radio to TV show became very unsuccessful after being aired on TV CBS Radio Becomes the nation s largest radio network with 97 stations in 1933 CBS introduces the first radio quiz show quotProfessor Quiz in 1936 became the first big show that transferred well from radio to TV Serial Drama for Women Soap Operas These shows moved to daytime but first were tried during evening 15 minute daily shows Soap Opera coined by the Press in the 1930 s Start of quottargeted marketing First sponsor ColgatePalmolive 1937 NBC quotThe Guiding Light premiers o Longest running drama in radio and TV history combined I 19372009 By 1940 serial drama s represented over 90 of all commercially sponsored daytime broadcast hours CBS had over 20 serial drama s for women The quotSoapquot in Soap Opera alluded to their sponsorship by manufactures of household cleaning products War of the Worlds Aired Oct 30 1 938 Caused public outcry 60 min broadcast Many listeners believed that an actual Martian invasion was in progress Radio 1960s to Today FM was born Invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong in 1930s Armstrong was well aware of AM s major limitations 0 1 Static interference from household appliances and lighting 0 2 Limited audio quality 0 3 Nighttime interference between many stations cochannel interference FM had greater clarity but at a cost of shorter distances Armstrong took his invention to RCA and they bought into the patents RCA helped Armstrong develop an experimental FM radio station RCA saw FM as competition to their AM business and stopped developing FM RCA closed the experimental FM station Legal battles ensured between RCA and Armstrong RCA went after him from patent infringements By 1941 50 FM stations were on the air still weren t many people listening to FM at the time though The WWII started and all FM development stopped RCA pressured the FCC to change all the FM radio frequencies FCC moved them to where they are now A move that would instantly make exiting FM stations obsolete Once TV started up interest in FM radio further diminished and by 1949 many FM stations had shut down January 31 1954 Armstrong gave up his long legal battles with RCA wrote a note to his wife apologizing for what he was about to do and then jumped from his 13th story NY apartment Once FM stations started making money RCA quickly started FM development again Tuesday February 7 2012 FM was born The power of FM The highest permitted power used by RM staions today is 100000 watts Many stations were grandfathered with higher power levels The highest WIEF built by RCA Grand Rapids Mi at 320000 watts 0 Now quotWBCT B93 0 At one time permit to use 550000 watts Two other higher power stations are 0 WAFM Birmingham 540000 watts o WOOD FM in GR 256000 watts FM Transmission 1960s to help FM sales the FCC opened more spectrum space opened for FM to help FM sales Able to broadcastin stereo and radio s were able to reproduce stereo sound January 1967 RCC pass the nonduplication rule prohibiting stations from simulcasting programming from their AM stations to their FM stations Freeform radio was born 0 DI s had the freedom to play whatever they wanted 0 In the 70 s a new format was building stream Album Oriented Rock AOR o Other similar formats spun off Active Rock WRIFDetroit DREAD cards Detroit Rockers engaged I the Abolition of Disco NPR and PBC 1967 NPR and PBC were created as first noncommercial networks New Ownership Pattern Large companies buy several stations 0 The quotmom and pop radio stations sold out to these larger companies Change formats to make them complimentary As of 2004 0 Radio reaches 94 ofpopulation every week Radio Goes Digital SiriusXM merger July 08 185 million subscribers Sirius paid 33 Billion to buy XM To help them get passed the Monopoly issues both agreed to a 3 year price cap and an 8 setaside of Fulltime audio channels for public interest and minority programming Since 2001 LPFM takes off Pirate stations are unlicensed radio stations they were ordered off the air if want LPFM eligibility Effective wattage is only 1000 watts 35 mile radius By 2007 810 LPFM stations on the air Half of licenses approved in the first round were to rightwing Christian fundamentalist groups Other TV Programming Trends TV Western most popular drama 19591960 26 oftotal network primetime over 120 The first westerns were for kids Roy Roger In the mid 50 s Gunsmoke began its 20 year run and was the 1st successful quotadultquot western Other Westerns Wagon Train Maverick Have Gun Will Travel In the 1960 s the big winner was Bonanza After the fall ofWesterns in midlate 60 s due to Viet Nam the have never made a successful come back like quiz shows Sports Broadcasting Begins Sports Broadcasting Act of 1961 Sports 1961 Sports Broadcasting Act negotiated the sale of national broadcast rights Sports Broadcasting Act 1961 Granted antitrust immunity to any agreement among the clubs in professional baseball basketball football and hockey to pool and sell their broadcast rights to sponsored telecasts ofleague games This act did NOT grant immunity to collegiate sports colleges still pooled their right to weekly regional and national telecasts TV Programming in the 1970 s TV programming changed dramatically with the first airing of topics that were once considered taboo Mary Tyler Moore premiered in 1970 showcased a single working woman News became mainstay in US homes with the horrors of Vietnam Vietnam was considered the first quotTV War Sitcome also changed we went from Ozzie and Harriet to the Brady Bunch Producer Norman Lear observed how American life was in the 1970s and all the problems we were facingthis brought about a new genre called quotsocial consciousness programming Lear s show called quotAll in the Family broke down TV barrierssuch as race politics woman rights and homosexuality quotSocial consciousness programming took the 70 s by storm and many spinoffs ruled the airwaves By the mid70 s TV audiences tuned into the lighter side ofAmerican living with shows such as Happy Days Leverne and Shirley Little House on the Prairie The Walton was a huge CBS show during the 70 s showcasing American life during the depression The mid70 s brought about a new genre called quotIiggle TV Shows such as Charlie s Angels and Three s company were centered around sexual gratification and bawdy humor The late 70 s show another new genre called quotFantasyquot TV Shows like The Love Boat Fantasy Island were big hits The highly successful variety show genre of the 50 s and 60 s had its last run in the late 70 s with shows like 0 The Carol Burnett Show 0 The Flip Wilson Show 0 Sonny amp Cher 0 Tony Orlando and Dawn 0 Donny and Marie Programming Late 70 s 90 s 0 Primetime Dramas 0 From the success of Daytime Dramas Soaps o A show for both men and women even though men would never admit it 0 Even though Prime Time drams haven t seen the longevity of Daytime Soap Operas they have produced very large hits 0 Dallas Dynasty Beverly Hills 90210 Grey39s Anatomy Desperate Housewives Primetime dramas Dallas 19761991 0 First primetime show to have serial plotlines amp soap opera melodrama 0 1st US show to be an international hit 0 Masculinized the world of soaps o quotDallasificationquot o Noxious effects of American culture and European TV 0 People around the world thought that this was how all americans lived


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