Teaching Communication COM 5600
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Mrs. Shania Schoen on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COM 5600 at Western Michigan University taught by Chad Edwards in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 8 views. For similar materials see /class/216988/com-5600-western-michigan-university in Communication, School Of at Western Michigan University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Teaching Persuasive Speech Contains Objectives Persuasive Speech Lecture Notes PowerPoint Presentation Persuasive Argument Activity Delivering a Persuasive Speech Activity Test on Persuasive Speaking Resources for Further Research Jennifer Everts Com5600 Dr Edwards 102507 Objectives Students will be able to D 00 9 Demonstrate the appropriate classroom public speaking and listening skills eg body language articulation listening to be able to identify specific examples of the speaker s coordination of talking and action that would be necessary to in uence or change someone s mind or way of thinking about a topic Define the elements of persuasion Recognize the elements of personal credibility Develop methods to analyze other students speeches Understand outlining main ideas Create a persuasive speech Recognize the specific features of the persuasive speech Apply What they have learned about effective persuasive speaking to both their dealings with others and their own life Analyze the type of audience to Whom they are speaking 10 Adapt their persuasive approach to match the makeup of their audience 11 Understand and implement logical emotional and personal appeals Persuasive Speech Lecture Notes I What is persuasive speech 1 Persuasive speaking demands that you a induce your audience to believe as you do b in uence your audience in order to cause some sort of directed action to take place 2 Persuasive speaking uses both a logical persuasion and b emotional persuasion to get the audience to agree 3 A skilled persuasive speaker understands a audience analysis 1 which is an evaluation of the audiences feelings about the message b they must always be ready to make adjustments to get the audience on their side 11 Analyzing the audience 1 Get to know the people who will be listening to you a how old are they b what is their economic status c will most of them be male or female d what about their political or religious views e how many will be in attendance f how many are in favor of your position g how many are against your position 2 What does a supportive audience look like a friendly b they like you and what you have to say c laughter hugs and handshakes come easily with this audience d the speaker should 1 take the time to present the material thoroughly 2 keep the audience excited about you and your objectives 3 What does an uncommitted audience look like a completely neutral b waiting to be convinced c unbiased d the speaker should 1 be specific 2 provide the necessary information to bring the audience to your side 3 present the argument clearly and persuasively 4 support the argument with solid information 4 What is unbiased a objective b not pro or con to either side of the argument 5 What does an indifferent audience look like a apathetic toward you b openly bored c could be a captive audience d the speaker should 1 offer a different approach if audience remains unresponsive 2 show the audience how the message is applicable to them 3 get the audiences attention 6 What is a captive audience a this audience is often being forced to attend such as office meetings or school assemblies b may not believe what you are saying is relevant to them c the speaker must grab their attention 7 What does an opposed audience look like a hostile to you andor what you are promoting b feels no warmth toward the speaker c feels no sympathy toward speaker s feelings or cause d may need to see some compromise e needs a disclaimer f the speaker should attempt to determine specifically what their audience is hostile about 2 work with the audience to clear up that specific issue 3 let the audience know that speaker see the merit in some of their arguments 4 let the audience know that the speaker is not perfect 5 use a disclaimer 6 avoid needless confrontation 7 create a situation where there are no winners or losers 8 What is compromise a making concessions b letting them know you see merit in their arguments 9 What is a disclaimer a tells the audience what you are not saying b tells the audience that the speaker is not an expert with all the answers III Appealing to the audience 1 Logical appeal a appealing to the intellect of your audience by offering a clearly defined speech that contains solid reasoning and valid evidence 1 be organized 2 offer proof 2 Emotional appeal pathos a appealing to people s feelings of love anger disgust fear compassion patriotism ect b audience s reaction is often based on the speakers emotion 3 Personal appeal ethos i V a the audience with buy what the speaker is selling because they trust the speaker s credibility 7 believability 1 Honesty 7 people are attracted to a integrity b reputation c sincerity 2 Competency 7 often means a credentials or qualifications b composure i calm controlled manner of speaking 4 United appeal a the combination of a logical appeal an emotional appeal and a personal appeal IV Persuasive Argument Activity 1 An informal persuasive activity to allow students to use audience analysis and audience appeals discussed V Voice and body as tools 1 Students are natural persuaders 2 Academic elements of persuasion a body language 1 make sure that they have a proper posture If their shoulders are sagging and their legs are crossed they will not appear as being sincere and people just will not accept their message b articulation 1 articulation means how their total vocal process works There are several steps to this entire process Students need to understand the process First they need air from the lungs their vocal cords in their larynx must be working their mouth and tongue must be in sync and they have to make sure that they have got some saliva in their mouths to keep things oiled They should be aware of their physical makeup to be able to understand how they speak c Pronunciation 1 students need to pronounce each word They must avoid slang except to make a point and not slur the words They must avoid saying quotyou knowquot d Pitch 1 pitch refers to the highs and lows of the voice Whatever they do they must avoid a monotone e Speed 1 the speed or pace is an important variable to control Between 140 160 words per minute is the normal pace for a persuasive speech Any faster and they may appear to be glib any slower and they sound like they are lecturing If they are not sure about their speed tape them for one minute and then replay it and count the number of words they used in the minute The human ear and brain can compile and decode over 400 spoken words per minute so if they are going too slow their listenersl minds are going to start to wander as the brains finds other ways to keep themselves occupied f Pauses 1 the pause or caesura is a critical persuasive tool When they want to emphasize a certain word have them just pause for one second before this highlights the word If they really want to punch it tell them to pause before and after the word g Volume 1 volume is another good tool for a persuasive speech but they should use it with caution If they scream all the way through their speech people will become accustomed to it and it will lose its effectiveness On the other hand a few well timed shouts can liven up the speech They must try to quotprojectquot or throw their voice out over the entire class or speak to the last row h Quality 1 quality of voice is gauged by the overall impact that their voice has on their listeners Quality of voice is the net caliber of their voice its character and attributes They must try to keep the vocal quality high it is what separates their voices from everyone else39s i Variance i V variance of vocal elements is the most important consideration of all One of the most persuasive speakers in modern history was Winston Churchill One of his most remarkable qualities was his ability to vary the elements of his voice He would start with a slow laconic voice and then switch gears to a more rapid pace People were light headed after listening to him Even if they have no desire to run for political office students can still use the tools of variance Have them try to change their pitch volume and speed at least once every 30 seconds if only for just one word Never let them go more than one paragraph without a vocal variance This keeps the class locked into the speech if for no other reason than it sounds interesting Let the studentsl words speak for themselves re ect their nature through their voices If they use the word quotstranglequot have them say it with a hint of menace in their voices If they say the word quotheavequot let the class feel the onomatopoeic force behind it If they say the word quotbulldozerquot make it sound like a titan earthmover not like a baby with a shovel 3 Use strategy a appear rational a When students are trying to convince someone of something they must first establish their credibility or in other words they must sell themselves before they sell their message If people feel that they are not being reasonable or rational they do not stand a chance They must be committed to the ideals and goals of their speech and what they are saying They should not use words such as quotmaybequot or quotmightquot the should use positive words such as quotwillquot and quotmustquot Students must portray themselves as the authority figures in this speech so they had better supply enough information to prove their points so that they can seem knowledgeable and they had better know their material cold People can usually spot someone who is trying to quotwingquot a speech They should also appear to be truthful even when they are really stretching a point If they do not appear to be earnest even if their message is the 100 truth people will doubt their word and tune out their speech Lastly they must not be afraid to show a little emotion this is not a sterile or static speech Student39s bodies and voices must match the tone of their words If their language is strong they must present a physical force to go along with their deliveries U 0 VI Delivering a Persuasive Speech Activity 1 Students need to understand that how they say something and how they physically present themselves are just as important as what they say By understanding the dynamics involved in effective persuasive speaking students will improve their overall confidence in communicating Persuasive Argument Activity Objective Students will be able to 12 Recognize the specific features of the persuasive speech 13 Apply what they have learned about effective persuasive speaking to both their dealings with others and their own life 14 Analyze the type of audience to whom they are speaking 15 Adapt their persuasive approach to match the makeup of their audience 16 Understand and implement logical emotional and personal appeals Material 1 Index cards with argument see example given 2 Pens 3 Paper Procedures Break class into groups of four Each group member is given an argument and presents it to group members to discuss and generate ideas for persuasion Students independently write argument defending their position Each person reads their argument to the class Example arguments 7 1 Aids Anguish 7 Your parents have told you that you are not allowed to associate with your best friend Alice anymore because her family has tested positive of the AIDS virus Compose a logical argument persuading your parents to let you keep your friend Give reasons to support your argument 2 Dropout Dora 7 Your friend Dora has lost interest in school and her grades are suffering As a result she will be repeating ninth grade Dora has decided to quit and work more hours as a waitress to support herself She says she ll eventually get her diploma on her own Compose a logical argument convincing Dora to stay in school with reasons why its to her benefit Assessment based on objectives The audience will give each student feed back on their speech based on 1 whether they were persuaded by the speaker 2 the speaker use of logic pathos andor ethos and 3 how the speaker adapted their speech to their specific type of audience Delivering A Persuasive Speech Activity Objectives Students will be able to 17 Demonstrate the appropriate classroom public speaking and listening skills eg body language articulation listening to be able to identify specific examples of the speaker s coordination of talking and action that would be necessary to in uence or change someone s mind or way of thinking about a topic Define the elements of persuasion Recognize the elements of personal credibility Develop methods to analyze other students speeches Understand outlining main ideas Create a persuasive speech Nr lr k ONDOO NM or x Materials 1 Pen 2 Paper Procedure Have the students pick a proposition that not everyone would agree with such as nuclear power plants are superior energy sources Have them write a 6 to 8 minute speech in outline form to persuade the class Each student will then deliver this speech in front of the class while the rest of the students take notes and prepare to give the speaker feedback on the speech Students should practice their speeches at home before delivering them in class Assessment based on objectives Students can conference and debrief each other after each has spoken Students should be encouraged to share personal re ections about their feelings about speaking in public The class has two major criteria to consider after each member s speech 1 The delivery 7 were the speaker s body words and actions in synchronization and harmony Did one support the other or was there tension between the body and the voice 2 Were the students persuaded Why or why not Discuss what makes a persuasive speech work and how the intangibles effect a positive outcome Test on Persuasive Speaking Multiple Choice 1 2 4 As a skilled persuasive speaker your first task is to evaluate accurately and perceptively how your audience feels about you and your message This is called a 3855 audience anticipation audience analysis audience speculation none of the above An indifferent audience is often a b C d unbiased a captive audience an opposed audience a supportive audience Which unbiased audience do you have the best chance of persuading 885533 supportive audience indifferent audience opposed audience uncommitted audience What is variance 3 b C d the speakers pitch the speakers volume the speakers speed a change in the speakers pitch volume and speed The purpose of a persuasive speech is to 8833 change the audiences mind convince the audience to buy something share your opinion all of the above Short Answers provide answers on separate piece of paper 1 If an audience opposes your ideas what might you do 2 What is the difference between ethos and pathos Essay provide answers on separate piece of paper 1 In speaking you compromise by finding a workable middle ground that is acceptable to both you and your audience Write three reasons why compromising is a wise idea for those trying to persuade others Give specifics to show when compromising could help you to persuade you parents and your friends Finally when is compromising the wrong thing to do Resources For Further Reading 2002 2007 Vote for Me Developing Writing and Evaluating Persuasive Speeches Retrieved October 20 2007 from Read Write Think Web site httpWWWreadwritethinkorglessonslessonviewaspid4l4 Beyea Jen 2005 Intro To Elements of Persuasive Speech Retrieved October 19 2007 from Teaching English Language Aits PersuasiveSpeech Web site httpWikielearningubccatelaPersuasiveSpeech Heathcotte Toby 2003 Program Building A Practical Guide for High School Speech and Drama Teachers Glendale AZ Mardel Books Marts Carol 1992 The Complete Book of Speech Communication a workbook of ideas and activities for students of speech and theatre Colorado Springs CO Meriwether Publishing Ltd McCutcheon Schaffer Wycoff 2005 Glencoe Speech New York Mc GraW Hill Glencoe Morgan Nick 2005 How To Move Your Audience to Action Boston Harvard Business School Publishing Prody Kathleen 2001 August Persuasive Writing Speaking amp Activities Retrieved October 20 2007 from Persuasive Writing Speaking amp Activities Web site httpWWWhhshelenak12IntusTeacherlinksOconnorjpersuasionhtInl Parker Douglas 2007 October 12 Delivering a Persuasive Speech Retrieved October 23 2007 from Hotchalk39s LessonPlansPagecom Web site httpWWWlessonplanspagecomLADeliveringPersuasiveSpeech712htIn
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