Mass Communication in Modern Society
Mass Communication in Modern Society COMM 233
Cal State Fullerton
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Popular in Communication
This 29 page Class Notes was uploaded by Keagan Russel on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 233 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see /class/217040/comm-233-california-state-university-fullerton in Communication at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Journalism Information and Society What Is News Anything that39s interesting or that the editor believe should be interesting to the readers Anything that varies from the readers39 accustomed picture ofthe world Anything the gatekeepers decide is news What39s on society39s mind What39s most important money family religion politics etc What39s purely interestin celebrity gossip sports science etc News judgment The understanding of what is newsworthy It is the process of selecting and grading news and visuals to determine ifthey should be used Wthey should be used in part or full and where they should be used Characteristics of News 9 Timeliness 9 Con ict and violence 9 Proximity 9 Magnitude 9 Consequences Impact 9 Prominence NON szqunun By wney Your place in the media sme of thgs Eharacteristics of News Types of news stories 9 Uni ueriess gt Hard news 9 SCIENCEProgress serious stories recent events Sex 9 Politics 9 Editors39 personal interests 9 Audience and the hardnews feature stories gt Soft news less serious stories that aren39t necessarily timely softnews feature stories 9 Newspapers39 role in the community fashion news food news book movie game etc reviews infotainment Journalism s role in society The Fourth Estate Challenges to Elite Authority John Peter Zenger Market piace of ideas Printer ofthe New York Weekly Journal Government watchdog political Journalism Comfort and af icted and af ict the comfortable Charged With SSdiliOUS libel in 1733 fo oyal r criticizing the r governor of New York Government without newspapers or newspapers His anomeyv Andrew without government I should not hesitate a Hamiiron argued me rrurh moment to prefer the latterquot as a defense for libel Thomas Jefferson Peo le control the overnment Age of Enlightenment P 9 People can remove a ruler who fails to secure the 18th century public good Philosophers Thomas Hobbes and John Locke The ruler s authority is conditional rather than Knowledge could only be gained by experience and absolute re ection on experience n Fl L AL 39 Ln A rt Y liberty 1 m r u Knowledge wasn t handed down 39om a higher happiness authority First Amendment Congress shall make no law respecting an establish ment of religion or prohibiting the free exercise thereof or abridging the freedom of speech or of the press or the right of the people peaceably to assemble and to petition the Government for a redress of grievances First Amendment ignored during crises gt Alien and Sedition Act gt Civil War gt World Warl 911 Social responsibility of the media Hutchins Commission 1947 Expressed society s expectation of the news media gt a truthful comprehensive and intelligent account of the day s events in a context which gives them meaning gt a forum forthe exchange of comment and criticism gt the projection of a representative picture of the constituent groups in the society gt the presentation and clarification of the goals and values of the society gt full access to the day s intelligence 2 Emergence of the Reporter Reporters came with the advent of the Penny Press in the 1830s George Wisner hired by Benjamin Day of the New York Sun Reporters fed the public s fascination with criminals Richard Adams Locke hired when Wisner left Locke created the Moon Hoax about extraterrestrial life Reporters became a fixture of American journalism Muckrakers Unearthed corporate greed Exposed abuses in the food and drug industry Established tenet of journalism of exposure Articles were labeled as sensational Boring by today39s standards Radio Journalism In 1922 the Norfolk Nebraska Daily News started the first regularly broadcast noon news Newspapers attempted to limit radio s access to news Print could not match radio s immediacy Edward R Murrow s broadcast of the bombing of London Television Journalism Newsreels were precursor to TV news httgIwwwyoutubecomwatchv2b7BAVeAP M NBC presented NBC Newsroom in 1945 The program consisted of a man reading the news on camera Followed by NBC s Camel News Caravan with John ameron Swayze and Douglas Edwards with the News on CBS 15 minute news programs http www oulube comwatch7vdlL7UWJle4 Edward R Murrow s public affairs program See It Now 24 Politics on Television Television covered the campaign between Dwight D Eisenhower and Adlai Stevenson used short spots Stevenson made long boring commentaries Richard Nixon Richard Nixon Eisenhower s running mate used television to defend himself against accusations of a secret slush fund Objectivity and Storytelling Objectivity Detachment nonpartisanship reliance on facts sense of balance and use of the inverted pyramid style Storytelling or narrative tradition Appears in books such as Black Hawk Down New Journalism New nonfiction alternative journalism advocacy journalism underground journalism and precision journalism Tom anl39o I0 AN39 3910 00 u II M l l 1 51 d I How the news is written Inverted pyramid Story s summary lead details explaining lead lessim portant info lesserimportant info etc WOODSIDE Calif Two children who vanished while exploring woods near their new home were found alive and well Friday after spending a chilly night in a hollow log quotThey were real smart kidsquot one of the first searchers to find Jocelyn Roux 8 and Alex Roux 6 told radio station KCBS quotThey took care of each otherquot A San Mateo County sheriff39s search team spotted the sister and brother walking on a high rugged ridge about a mile from their home Friday afternoon The children had disappeared 26 hours earlier while taking a walk with their nanny as their family movecFin Narrative personal story reference to broader issue in nut graph rest of the story is about the broader issue SACRAMENTO Susan Gollas inherited her family s farm in Sacramento County when her father died recompense for the13 years she cared for him while his health deteriorated Seven months later Gollas opened her mail to find a bill for 120000 from the state to repay Medi Cal for subsidizing herfather s final two years in a nursing home Dorothy Muscari s mother deaf and mute begged herto move west from Illinois after Muscari s father died in 1963 The two women bought a house together in Salinas When her mother died more than 30 years later Muscari got stuck with a 48000 state claim forthree years of nursing home care Gollas 37 and Muscari 71 made the same mistake not gaining full possession of the homes before their parents died 7 a process that can be as simple as filling out a job application When MediCal recipients die their homes are considered assets against which costs of care can be collected Now forthe second vear in a row a state legislator is trying to exempt people like Gollas and Muscarias a ma39ority of states do 7 because they save California money by keeping their ailing parents out of nursing homes as long as possible SB 1032 by state Sen Teresa Hughes Dlnglewood would grant exemptions to those who lived with a parent and provided care for at least two years summary lead details details chronology of events A gunman with a grudge against City Hall took Riverside39s mayor and City Council hostage Tuesday wounding five people before police shot and captured him The siege ended after police traded gunfire with the suspect and broke down a locked door By the time it was over two council members the mayor two police officers and the gunman had been shot The shooting occurred inside a small conference room off to the side of the City Council chambers at City Hall before an 8 am Redevelopment Agency meeting Council members were getting coffee and pastries in preparation for their weekly meeting Pearson was pouring coffee when she looked up and saw a man with a gun pointed at Beaty39s head said Pearson39s mother Ann Leonard who visited with the councilwoman afterthe shooting Leonard said her daughter had told her that she jumped up and tried to deflect the gun but was wounded possibly by a bullet fragment 3 She fell to the floor and played dead The gunman said police Lt Pete Esquivel quotentered the room shooting narrative continues Specialized reporting Computer Assisted Reporting Several uses of computers in reporting Public Journalism Greater reader involvement in determining content ren S Only 21 of Americans believe local newspapers American Society of Newspaper Editors study discovered the public found Factual and spellinggrammar errors Too little respect and knowledge about local communities Reporters biases Too much sensationalism Too much concern for profit Journalism and Political Participation Public needs useful election coverage Public needs to know when candidates stray from the truth gt at political rallies and during debates gt in news releases gt in political advertising Politicians are limiting access of the news media President Clinton appeared on Arsenio Hall Show ratherthan answer questions from reporters Arnold Schwarzenegger announced he was running for governor on Jay Leno s show Obama McCain campaigns spent 13 billion Total Spending by Presidential candidates Year Total ObamaMcCain BushKerry BushGore ClintonDole 39 B 2008quot 004 2000 1996 1992 1988 1984 1980 1976 Carter or in millions quot as ofOct 20 2008 m o S m 0 CenteriorResponsibie Politics Journalism and the Internet Shovelware Old media posting their content on the web Some Internet news sites use undocumented reports and lack fact checking Matt Drudge httg HWWW msnbc cummuduiEsairgurt securigscreener httg Hiang sbsun cumpro Ects re uud Business and Journalism Income 39om advertising and sales support ofthe news organizations or add to pro ts pro ts Distribution of revenue determines quality ofjournalism News organizations make higher than normal pro ts Advertising revenues are declining To maintain pro t the number ofjournalists will have to be cut BOOKS First commercial mass media Growth of Literary Culture 0 Scribal Culture Before Gutenberg39s printing press mid1400s 0 Lecture System of Education Teachers read texts to students Books too expensive to give to students Prior restraint o Banning books ideas before publication ban book ratherthan punish author a er book is published need I emission from authorities before ou can publis 1529 Henry VIII banned books amp invoked prior restraint His edict was largely ignored Books and Social Change 0 Colonists brought books with them from Britain Most books were imported 1731 Benjamin Franklin established a subscription library in Philadelphia Members paid a fee to read books Books and Social Change 0 Elite Dominance of Cultural Norms Books were expensive during colonial times wealthy elites the up er class set social norms controlled distribution of information accessible to the masses economic change cookbooks adventure stories the Civil War Books and Sonial Change 0 Popular audiences dime novels cheap pulp ction liction factory Inexpensive books led to a democra ization of nowledge Middle and lower have easier access to books Books and Social Change 0 Harriet Beecher Stowe Uncle Tom39s Cabinquot Serialized in National Era magazine Book published before last installment 20000 copies sold in three weeks 0 Frederic Douglass Narrative ofthe Life of Frederic Douglassquot My Bondage and My Freedomquot 0 Maintain social norms i le Last ofthe Mohicansquot 0 Inform Textbooks Biographies Histories o Persuade Uncle Tom s Cabinquot Frederick Douglas autobiography fVVrathquot Grapes o The Association ofAmerican Publishers categorizes boo s as 0 Trade books wellmade popular books 0 Mass market paperbacks trade books but are produced with cheaper materials 0 Book club and mail order irade books but produced wun cheaper materials 0 Religious books 0 Audio books CD or iPod o Ebook electronic books 0 Professional usiness law medicine and technicalscienti c o ElHi higher education Amazon s punabie reader Kindle Seven major players Media Conglomerates in the Book Business Random House Penguin Group Simon amp Schuster HarperCollins Time Warner Conglomeration amp Media Convergence Rupert Murdoch s News Corp owns HarperCollins pcl 20th Century Fox studios amp film library Fox TV network amp cable news Preview TV TV Guide later sold it Star TV Asian satellite system Latin American payTV channel Family Channel various magazines Media Consolidation Handful of corporations control all the media 0 Sony 0 Disney ABC 0 News Corp Rupert Murdoch o TimeWarner CBS 0 General Electric NBC Supplying the Audience s Demand Markets and processes in the book industry Most of the cost borne by the book buyer Money goesto publisher author JK Rowling s Harry Potter books First book sold for 4000 in UK US publisher paid her 100000 Warner Bros bought the rights for the first two books Supplying the Audience s Demand Markets and Processes in the Book Industry 0 Distribution Half of sales through chain stores Independent sellers Online sales Catalog sales Average press run10000 books 100000 in sales is a best seller Marketing books 0 Mass marketing and promotion Ad campaigns Interviews in the media Pointof purchase displays Internet promotions o Subsidiary rights Adaptations for additional markets gt Movie rights gt Book club editions gt Paperback editions Trends and Innovations 0 electronic publishing 0 audiobooks o superstores o multimedia products 0 books on the Web 0 electronic books Top 5 national advertisers in 2008 sales in millions mags paprs TV Internet Procter amp Gamble 4838 1470 187 2154 47 Verizon 3799 109 682 1165 143 ATampT 3073 54 289 1329 70 GM 2901 476 321 1176 188 Johnson amp Johnson 2529 400 47 902 46 total 17033000000 7202009 Advertising A paid mediated presentation of information about services products or ideas with the specific goal of influencing the consumers of the information 7 Advertising is a form of promotion gt I romotion making the I ublic aware of a company candidate product service or issue gt promotion includes advertising public relations packaging personal selling and gifts 7 economics of advertising gt interaction of the supply and demand in the advertising market gt connection between advertising market and consumer market Advertising in American Life 0 Mercantile Press and Advertising mercantile newspapers served businesses gt announced arrival of goods from England gt real estate sales gt services offered Advertising in American Life 0 Development of Mass Advertising 1840s Penny Press caused explosion in circulation gt merchants could reach thousands of readers each day it was the first mass advertising gt papers began to sell advertising space by the column inch Advertising inAmerican Life 7202009 a Development of Nhss Advemslng e rrse crr amemsr gt genemeenrern e rrga gt reatedme rstnewspaper g ctery gerrts ewspapersmagazmes arrg advems gt ceurg piacethe same ag rrr many punrrcatrerrs rre gt evurveg rrrtn tugays agvertrsrrrg agerrcres in American Life Mass Adverusmg etme buyer bewa vernmem te create trutmrr ans Pure Fund and Drug Act rar Trage Cemmrssrerr estabhshed r 931 Fund and Drug Agmrrrrstratrerr estabhshed regurate agvertrsrrrg arrg rrrterstate trage crack gewrr err rarse agvertrsrrrg Advertl gin American Life In Amerlcan LIfe o amaacastmg Arrlves aroaacastmg Amves ere was rst rrrstarrtarreeus rratrerrar megru m gt ceurg reach mrurerrs er peepre atme same trrne errse ufadvemsmg age m c rrcre esfuradv gt agerrcres became erseNrce ergarrrzatrerrs r arch augrerrces r amrse hentwheretu pra e the ag 7 buy ad space rrr ewspapers ramu TV etc rwnt the agce W 7 create the ad rHustrauuns vrgeu etc oeroaacastr g r n nves e Tv retvrewers see gruguct amp hear rratrurrar messa e a gt persuasrve message rs much mere errectrve gt Tv has tn greatest grewm rrr ad revenue anre TV e rsercanreach seg rrteg augrerrces 7 target pregucts er cam pargrrs te grrrerert augrerrces 0 Identifying Consumers as Types Tools advertisers and ad agencies use to identify potential customers 7 demographics gt characteristics of the person or household age income family size marital status etc 7202009 0 Identifying Consumers as Types Tools advertisers and ad agencies use to identify potential customers 7 psychographics gt lifestyles and activities hobbies movie attendance music preferences sports etc 0 Identifying Consumers as Types Tools advertisers and ad agencies use to identify potential customers 7 geographics gt where the potential buyer lives Advertising in American Life 0 Other methods of advertising 7 billboards 7 TV informercials 7 clothing logos 7 yellow pages 7 direct mail 7 product placement in TV 7 Internet and movies 7 magazines 7 radio 7 newspapers Advertising in American Life 0 Advertising and the Price of Products Does advertising make goods more expensive 7 Some say yes cost of making the ad is passed on to the consumer 7 Others say no ads actually lowers the price of goods gt economies of scale mass production reduces manufacturing costs Advertising in American Life 0 Advertising and the Price of Produ 7202009 competition s notlrer factor in price is brand loyalty and the product s recognition 7 some adverti 39 slng emphasizes product quality gt errentiating the product show how it is different and better than the 0 Social co gt racking up credit card bills to buy things advertisers tell use we for social acceptance r of watch or shoes or clo es Advertising in American Life gt fashion ads that encourage anorexia or earlyteen se ality Cultural amp Political Impact of Advertising 0 Manipulation byA vert In 9 r in uence people to buy things they don39t need or can39t alfo rd 7 in uence children39s behavior gt young children lack rational thinking abilitie s c n39t dilferentiate between program and a Cultural amp Political Impact of Advertising 0 Manipulation by Advertrsrng r slottlng gt manufacturers paying for store promotions and shelf spac Cultural amp Political Impact of Advertising I Advertising s In uence on Journalism 7 favorable treatment of major advertisers r selfcensorship to avoid offending advertiser r lighter news to draw larger TV audiences 7 response to consumer boycotts OAdvertising as a Pu ic Structure of Advertising amp Demand 7202009 gt housing gt restaurants gt automobiles e 7 provides information that the public wants 7 consumer behavior gt the study of how advertising affects people Structure of Advertising amp Demand 0 In uence ofAdvertising on Consumer Behavior 0 In uence ofAdvertising on Consum Structure of Advertising amp Demand ehavlor 7 two perspectives of consumer behavior ive cognit gt rational mental process N gt more often found in print a behavioral gt appeals to the emotions gt more often found in TV ads gt use information in ads to make rational choices Quality advertising Some types of persuasive messages salience and novelty 39 E autumn United Colors of enenon 7202009 identity advertising hm se quotMy recipefnr 77 r increliiblj39sbq r knives source Chqf schonce din quotrand credibility hon e 5 rpeners 39 quot m 350 yum n as n prufruiumu quotnunr nu may an 7 n1 n1 1 m a 10m up m I nr bl uir alrrxs nu um miAr w classical conditioning stimulus and response Structure of Advertising amp Demand 0 Advertising Affects Consumers in Four Ways 1 make people aware of the product or service gt have to know it exists before you can buy it 2 provide price information gt look for sales in stores gt know what kind of car you can afford gt know where you can afford to buy or rent a home Structure of Advertising amp Demand 0 Advertising Affects Consumers in Four Ways 3 provide information about quality Structure of Advertising amp Demand 0 Advertising Affects Consumers in Four Ways 7 same ad won t affect all consumers gt endorsements from creditable sources gt need to create campaign with several ads 4 get people to identify the product with a certain attract different demographics person or activity attract different psychographics gt identity advertising Supplying the Demand for Advertising 0 Advertising Support for Media 7 advertising in the past financed mass media 7 today more money comes from consumers than advertisers gt cable TV gt payperview movies gt home video gt increased sales of recorded music gt Internet access from Supplying the Demand for Advertising 0 Who Produces Advertisements 7 the ad agency team gt the creative side creates the ads for various media copywriters designers artists photographers video production companies Supplying the Demand for Advertising 0 Who Produces Advertisements 7 the ad agency team gt the business side merchandise experts oversee other forms of promotion besides advertising account executive oversee the campaign 7202009 Supplying the Demand for Advertising 0 Who Produces Advertisements 7 ad agencies connect advertisers to media gt create ad campaign gt place ads in proper media Supplying the Demand for Advertising 0 Who Produces Advertisements 7 the ad agency team gt the business side media buyers place the ads in various media researchers plan and assess the effectiveness of the ad Supplying the Demand for Advertising 0 Two types of agencies 1 full service gt offer the client all the adteam services 2 boutique agency gt specialize in creative services 7202009 Types of Advertisements 0 Geographic Coverage 7 National gt same ad throughout the country Nike Dominoes General Motors Types of Advertisements 0 Geographic Coverage 7 Local gt local businesses sporting goods store selling Nikes local Dominoes promotion GM ad targeting S Calif market Types of Advertisements 0 Geographic Coverage 7 Regional gt zoning ads for small area of the media s market community news insert in LA Times regional distribution of national magazine cable company s local ad slot on CNN or AampE 7 geographic coverage affects the price of the ad gt bigger audience higher ad rates Types of Advertisements O NonCommercial Ads 7 Business Ads gt influence attitude toward a business gt create positive attitude Types of Advertisements 0 NonCommercial Ads 7 Public Service Ads gt promote behavior and attitudes that benefit society gt many are created by the Advertising Council Types of Advertisements O NonCommercial Ads 7 Political Ads gt persuade people to vote for a candidate or support an issue gt types of political ads biography ads inoculation ads position ads attack ads daisy httplmMANyoutubecomwatchvEr5h TXun60 7202009 Trends and Innovations I Blends and Infomercials 7 children s TV shows based on toys and candy 7 infomercials gt 30 or 60minute ads designed to look like talk shows demonstrations of product testimonials from users Trends and Innovations 0 Online Advertising 7 newest advertising medium 7 ad rate based on number of hits 7 first have to solve problems with on line advertising gt auditing accurately reporting number of hits on ad gt formatting conformity in ad design gt getting people to respond to the ads Trends and Innovations 0 Worldwide Advertising 7 transnational corporations gt products marketed throughout the world 7 new markets opening in emerging countries 7 top ad agencies no longer get the majority of their money from one particular country Il39enCIS and I New ways to advertise 7 elevators 0 Television 7 virtual ads gt placing virtual logos in programs 7 more ads 0 Radio 7 more ads 0 TV running infomercials in stores 0 Viral marketing 7 short advertising video sent via email httplmmwyoutubecomwatchvelungzdh0ampNR1 Resou rces 0 Advertising Research Foundation ARF httpwwwarfsiteorg O CSUF s Ad Club httpcommstudentsfullertoneduadclub Walter Cronkite 19162009 Kenn edy httplmMANyoutubecomlwatchv2KBQi gtchs7l Vietn am httg lmMANyoutu becomwatchvJdOb 183d1o Public relations The management of communications between an organization and its publics PUBLIC RELATIONS two types of publics 1 people inside the organization gt employees gt stockholders gt trustees 2 people amp groups outside the organization gt consumers gt voters gt the media gt politicians amp government organizations gt business organizations Two types of public relations structures inhouse gt PR department part of the organization contracted gt organization uses PR agency Aims of Public Relations 0 Inform a positive message distributed by the mass media that promotes an organization or company media disseminate the message forfr gt advertising is paid for gt publicity is free Aims of Public Relations change people39s attitudes 7 support your organization and its goals 7 buy your product 7 support your candidate or policy Aims of Public Relations I Seek lnronnation From Publics 7 public targeted audience gt no organization dealsWitn gtWhu tne organization vvaritstu influence or inforrn 7 need to get feedbackfrum puplicto rneasu rnessage s success gtthen refine tne rnessage gt make it rnore effective Public Relations in American Life a Public Relations in a Social Context do7event stage to gain publicltyfurtax protesters 7 Press agents and entertainrnent gt laws riurn perfected tne art of self7prornotion Public Relations in American Life I Public Relations in a Social Context 7 Press agentry and pusiness 7 s pusinessespeganto recognize tne benefits of good publicity i ia 7 carnpaigned forfederal funds to puild railroads 7 offered rnedia unkets on newrailroad lines 7 Emerging professionalisrn used PR to improve tne puplic irnage s nd to attacks frorn muckra keys 7 John D Rockefeller Leland Stanford Andrew Carnegie etc World War mittee for Public Information Propaganda campaign to generate supportfor the war Encouraged people to enlist and to buy war bonds r Blended propaganda and 5 public relations Demonized Germans 0 Public Relations Permeates Our Lives Today a great deal of news originates as a news release httpgrnewswirecom Two Types of Messages 1 Informational Messages make the public aware of an event or issue that the organization believes is important gt new adult education classes gt new movie in production gt new company president Two Types of Messages 2 Persuasive Messages cause people to change their beliefs or act in certain ways gt promote use of seat belts gt raise funds for a charity gt support or oppose candidate or ballot measure gt 1930s40s FDR s fireside chats created support for New Deal amp arming England effective persuasive PR relies on accurate information gt lies are eventually uncovered gt messenger loses credibility Demand for Public Relations 0 Demand for PR Services 7 businesses gt communicate with customers gt communicate with employees 7 nonprofit groups gt communicate with donors amp potential donors gt communicate with employees 7 government gt communicate with citizens gt communicate with world leaders gt communicate with employees Demand for Public Relations 7 politicians gt communicate with voters gt communicate with donors amp potential donors 7 specialinterest groups gt communicate with politicians gt communicate with voters 0 Demand for PR Information 7 company employees 7 consumers amp residents gt information about new cars health tips road construction vacations etc 7 news media gt source of news Elements of Public Relations 7 Counseling 7 Research 7 Media Relations 7 Publicity 7 EmployeeMember Relations 7 Community Relations 7 Public Affairs 7 Government Affairs 7 Issues Management 7 Financial Relations Elements of Public Relations 7 Industry Relations 7 DevelopmentJFund Raising 7 Minority RelationsMulticultural Affairs 7 Special Events and Public Participation 7 Marketing Communications Ways of Delivering the Message 0 News Releases 7 sent to news media gt mail fax e mail wire service Web sites 0 Newsletters 7 sent to news media and groups publics 0 Videos VNRs 7 sent to news media and groups publics httppmewswirecom Ways of Delivering the Message 0 News Conferences and Interviews 7 sometimes tied in with pseudoevents 7 sometimes tied in with staged photo opportunities 0 OneOnOne meetings 7 lobby government 7 talk to reporter Groups Using Public Relations 0 Political and Government 7 politicians and political parties gt inform and influence the public 0 Interest Groups 7 attempt to influence public policy two audiences for persuasive messages 1 public most affected by what you re trying to change gt senior citizens and Medicare gt gay rights and gay activists or the Christian right 2 politicians deciding the fate of the issue gt lobby them directly Groups Using Public Relations 0 Forprofit Organizations 7 create a favorable attitude toward goods or services gt positive public attitude vital to business 7 attempt to influence public policy gt new regulations or government fees Groups Using Public Relations 0 Nonprofit Organizations 7 create a favorable attitude toward the organization gt vital to fund raising 7 create awareness of the organization in people who need its services gt vital for fulfilling it goals The Public Relations Process 0 Define Your Objective 7 publicize a new car model 7 publicize a fundraising campaign 7 determine a candidate s stand on issues The Public Relations Process 0 Research Your Publics 7 which auto magazines would be interested in your type of car 7 what mailing lists would reach potential donors 7 which media do your potential donors use most 7 how will the public react to the issues The Public Relations Process 0 Modify Your Objectives to Reach Goals that Research Shows are Attainable 7 tailorthe message about the carfor each media s needs gt expect more coverage in auto magazine than in newspaper 7 set reasonable fundraising goals 7 modify position on issues The Public Relations Process 0 Decide on Your Strategy 7 select articles and pictures for auto magazines 7 stage events forTV coverage 7 meet with reporters The Public Relations Process 0 Set Up Your Themes Symbols and Appeals 7 create appealing message gt car safety and looks gt homeless children need help gt leadership qualities The Public Relations Process 0 Blueprint an Effective Organization to Carry on Activity 7 assign tasks 7 create a budget 0 Chart Your Plan for Both Timing and Tactics 7 introduce car at press conference 7 arrange test drives for reporters 7 plan policy statements for candidate The Public Relations Process 0 Carry Out Your Tactics 7 execute the plan 7 evaluate the feedback 7 adjust the tactics 7 evaluate the outcome Conducting External PR Dealing with publics outside the organization 0 Lobbying 7 influence politicians and policy 7 purpose is both to inform and persuade gt information on the organization s position gt information on how the policy would affect the organization or public positive or negative effects gt present arguments for or against the policy Conducting External PR 0 Political Public Relations 7 influence voters 7 manage campaigns 7 used by politicians and interest groups 7 spin doctors Conducting External PR 0 Events Coordination 7 CSUF Comm Week 7 political campaign tours 7 booksigning tours 7 concert tours gt create and distribute media kits Conducting External PR 0 Financial Public Relations 7 give investment advice 7 communicate with three publics 1 investment analysts 2 financial journalists 3 institutional investors 7 want to reach investors potential investors and other interested parties Conducting External PR 0 Fund Raising 7 nonprofit organizations gt recruit volunteers gt coordinate publicity gt arrange for premium gifts or auction items Conducting External PR 0 Crisis Management 7 product tampering 7 serious accidents 7 product recalls 7 clients image can be damaged if crisis is not handled well Conducting External PR 0 External PR Tools 7 tools to gather information gt focus groups gt surveys gt existing research university studies previous polls census data Conducting External PR c ndquot t39quot9 EXtema PR External PR Tools 0 Problems Facing the Practitioner 7 tools to disseminate information 7 quotgm was gt media kits gt faxes gt PR is overhead not revenue its value is hard to measure 7 lack of respect gt oneonone meetings gt clients don39t totally understand or appreciate their function gt some reporters think they are hired gunsquot who will do anything for their ci don39t totally believe them Internal PR Conducting Internal PR 0 Who Communicates With Whom Directions ol Internal Communication 1 1 E Internal PR Conducting Internal PR 0 Problems Facing Internal PR Practitioners r tight budgets 7 lack of respect 7 management control Trends and Innovations 0 Diversity 7 must reflect diverse publics in order to successfully communicate with them Trends and Innovations 0 Electronic PR 7 organizational Web sites 7 blogging 7 public is proactive gt seeks out information Trends and Innovations O Specialization 7 specialize in PR for one kind of industry gt become an expert in that field health care politics or policy automotive industry Trends and Innovations 0 global public relations 7 local PR rep for international company gt must understand the local culture gt must understand how to use the local media Resou rces 0 Association for Women in Communications httpwwwwomcomorg 0 Public Relations Society of America httpprsaorg 0 International Association of Business Communicators httpwww iabccom To see some company news releases PRNewswire httpvwmprnewswirecom Business Wire httpvwmbusinesswirecom
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