Introduction to Human Communication
Introduction to Human Communication HCOM 100
Cal State Fullerton
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adan Orn on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HCOM 100 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/217043/hcom-100-california-state-university-fullerton in Human Communication Studies at California State University - Fullerton.
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Speech Communication 100 Adler 7 Chapter 2 Perception Introduction of Major Topics for the Chapter What is Perception How do we Perceive others How do we Perceive ourselves What is Perception How we see the world Our Narrative Contributions to our Perceptions 0 Culture Values Family Friends Past experiences Religion Education Etc OOOOOOO How do we Perceive others We attribute meaning to our own actions and the actions of others Generally we do not use the same scale or measurement when comparing our actions to the actions of others Selfserving Bias 0 Other 7 Personal attribution 0 Self 7 EXtemal attribution 0 We defend our actions more so than we defend the actions of other people Making Sense of Large amounts of Information 0 Intense stimuli 7 eX Loud music 0 Repetitious 7 eX dripping faucet o Constrastive 7 eX Big change in personality 0 Motives 7 eX If hungry then notice restaurants First Impressions We often Assume that others have similar personality characteristics as we do 0 We like to associate with people that are similar Negative Impressions 0 Negative have a stronger impact 0 Positive and negative need to be weighted Perception amp Situation o The status of your relationship will affect your perception of events I Happy people see things more positively 0 Past Events 7 how did a similar situation occur last time Expectations Social Roles 7the social roles we take on help to shape our perceptions of situations 0 Amount of information or knowledge of the situation 0 Your own selfconcept Perception amp Culture 0 Culture is a lter that in uences the way we interpret evengthing Perception Checking 7 3 parts 0 1 Description of behavior noticed o 2 At least 2 possible interpretations o 3 Request for clari cation How do we Perceive Ourselves Self concept 0 Adler A set of relatively stable perceptions that each of us holds about ourselves 0 Mental mirror 0 Who are You 7 Student age MF 0 Self Image Self Esteem Self Concept Self esteem 0 Evaluation of self worth 0 High Self Esteem more communication 0 Low Self Esteem less communication Re ected Appraisal 7 Image is crated from how we think others see us Significant others 7 people whose opinions have a significant value to us Culture 0 Shapes our own self concept 0 Individualistic I Uniqueness I Independence I Focus on self and immediate family I Flexible group involvement I I I blame and credit not shared I Value placed on autonomy youth change equality o Collectivistic 0 Extended family before self Strong group orientation The group has a strong in uence 0 o o 0 Blame and credit are shared 0 High value placed on tradition age security and order Personality 7 description of traits people generally exhibit Self ful lling prophecy o Expectations in uence behavior 0 We are who we believe we are Identity Management Perceived self 0 Re ection of self concept 0 Who we think we are 0 Private self Presenting self 0 The way we want to appear to others 0 Public self 0 Goffman I Face I Facework maintaining image Multiple identities We don t always realize that we are managing image High self monitors verses low self monitors Impression Management 0 Why 0 Very difficult o Honesty and Ethical considerations Chapter 4 Understanding Nonverbal Messages We ve already discussed Today 0 how verbal and nonverbal messages help create meaning when we interact with others how our actions speak louder than our words the implications of our feelings and attitudes leaking out through our actions We ve also discussed Judy Burgoon s Expectation Violation Theory amp some of the various natures of nonverbal communication mentioned in your text we will focus on why it is important to sharpen our observations and be open minded when interpreting nonverbal messages we will focus on certain nonverbal dimensions on which cultures differ 7 what your text refers to as Codes of Nonverbal Communication Your text identifies 7 groupings of nonverbal communication codes A culture consists of shared beliefs values understandings and ways of interpreting experiences that people share 1 Appearance Refers to physical attributes such as body size skin tone hair and clothing o It seems that we overemphasize this dimension that it results in lowed self esteem It is interesting to notice the contradiction messages eg at the supermarket magazines that have the top 10 tips on how to achieve that perfect look or body amp the top favorite dishes to cook or bake 0 Clothing functions primarily to keep us covered within society s bounds of decency 0 Clothing also conveys a sense of culture e g baggy pants tight pants specialized tshirts as well as jewelry tattoos piercings makeup etc 0 Refer to discussion on stereotypes and some of the experiences shared in class based on appearance 2 Kinesics Refers to the study of gestures facial expressions posture amp body movement 0 Emblems gestures that translate words or phrases They have speci c meanings that are generally understood e g the peace sign 0 Illustrators gestures that accompany and illustrate verbal messages and provide meaning eg a circular hand movement to describe a circle 0 Affect displays gestures that express emotions e g hugging to express love smile to express happiness 0 Regulators facial expressions and hand gestures that monitor maintain or control the ow of communication e g raising your hand when you want to speak Adaptors gestures or behaviors that help you adjust to your environment and satisfy some need e g chewing your fingernails or twirling your hair indicating nervousness O 0 Not the same across cultures There are no common cross cultural dictionaries to interpret nonverbal cues e g Giving a thumbs up to indicate approval If you were to look up thumbs up in the Miriam Webster s online dictionary you would nd it de ned as an instance or gesture of approval or encouragemen but that is not necessarily true across cultures For example in various countries in the Middle East it is equivalent to the middle nger here in the Us 3 Eye Contact 0 Oculesics eye behavior or gaze aversion 0 Eye contact is very important in the American society 0 We make judgments about others sincerity and trustworthiness based on eye contact alone sometimes 0 People generally have unwritten rules about when to break off eye contact with strangers 1015ft No staringdown matches 0 Research had indicated that we are more likely to give eye contact when we are physically distant from our partner discuss impersonal topics have nothing else to look at are interested in our partner s response are romantically interested in our partner want to in uence him or her come from a culture that emphasizes visual contact are an extrovert are listening rather than talking and are female 0 We are less likely to establish eye contact during the opposite conditions such as when we are physically close discuss intimate topics have other relevant objects people or backgrounds to look at are not interested in partner s reactions are talking rather than listening come from a culture that does not value eye contact are an introvert are embarrassed ashamed sorrowful sad and submissive are trying to hide something and are male 0 Ask students if they agree or disagree feedbacld experiences 0 Discuss Asian Mexican amp Middle Eastern cultures and how avoiding direct eye contact is a sign of respect No more than 5 minutes 4 Emotional displays 0 The face is considered to be the exhibit gallery of our emotional displays 0 Capable of producing 250000 different facial expressions according to Ekman and Friesen 0 Activity have note cards with the 6 universal expressions written on them Ask for 6 volunteers Explain that they will express the emotions written on the cards and the class will guess the expressed emotion 0 There are 6 primary universal expressions for happiness sadness fear anger and disgust or contempt 0 We learn to mask and control our facial expressions even as young children which can endanger our relationships 5 Touch 0 Haptics touch behavior where how often what circumstances 0 Most powerful form of nonverbal communication also the most misunderstood and carries the most potential problems if it is ill used 0 Learned through observing our role models O O O O The way we touch depends on many variables particularly by one s family experience amp cultural background Highcontact cultures appropriate touching is quite commonplace eg European Middle East greeting behaviors Asian cultures are generally lowcontact cultures Most guidebooks for international business people stress not to touch the head of children in Hong Kong Vietnam China amp Japan because the head is considered sacred Men and women interpret and use touch differently Forearm shoulder is generally considered appropriate Females do not consider appropriate touch as a big deal while it is often interpreted by males as a sign of romantic interest 7 won t open it up for discussion in my classes 6 ParalanguageVocal Paralanguage vocal characteristics of our speech include Rate volume pitch amp silence O O O O The voice not only reveals our thoughts and emotions but also provides leakages about our selfconfidence and knowledge e g students who mumble answers Speakers who speak very softly continually mispronounce words use um and uuh are viewed as being less credible more later especially Chapter 13 presenting messages Backchannel cues serve as regulatory cues to signal a desire to speak or not to speak Ask the class When you are talking with your friends how do you know when it is your turn to talk Interjecting during pauses is one example of a backchannel cue Response latency How long it takes one to respond Could be interpreted as a sign of respect disrespect anger or discomfort eg class participation opportunities 7 Proxemicsterritoriality We shape our buildings thereafter they shape us Winston Churchill People from different cultures respond to their surroundings or cultural context cues in different ways We don t think about these unwritten rules or norms that we follow in terms of space until they are violated As discussed in Expectation Violation Theory In 1966 anthropologist Edward Hall 191490 years old coined the term proxemics to refer to the study of people s use of space as a special explanation of culture He titled his book The Hidden Dimension because he was convinced that most spatial interpretation is outside our awareness He argued that the perceptions of space that we share are molded and patterned by culture During World War II when he served in the US Army in Europe and the Philippines Hall observed the many difficulties created by failures of intercultural communication cultural perceptions of space Hall identified 4 spatial zones o Intimate space 0 inches15 feet The closest quotbubblequot of space surrounding a person Entry into this space is acceptable only for the closest friends and intimates Personal space 15 ft4 ft The space in which we feel comfortable conducting routine and social interactions with acquaintances as well as strangers 0 Social space 412ft Similar to personal space reserved for the more distant individuals 0 Public space 12ft to infinity The area of space beyond which people will perceive interactions as impersonal and relatively anonymous 0 Hall also categorized cultures as either highcontext or lowcontext in his studies In high context cultures nonverbal cues are extremely important in interpreting messages Communicators rely heavily on the context of more subtle information such as facial expression vocal cues and even silence to interpret messages That is why the term highcontext is used The emphasis in the communication is placed on the context Asian Arab Southern European African and South American people are more likely to draw on the context to interpret meanings Low context cultures rely more overtly on language and the meaning of words and use fewer contextual cues to send and interpret information Thus they need more detailed background information and prefer explicit and careful directions from someone who knows Individuals who are Swiss German Scandinavian and Northern American may perceive that persons from highcontext cultures are less attractive knowledgeable and trustworthy because they violate unspoken rules of conduct and communication Individuals from lowcontext cultures often are less skilled in interpreting unspoken contextual messages People of high status given more space And allowed to invade the space of lower status people 0 Urban planning Size shape designs eg draw or show pictures of communities where the houses are stacked next to one another vs built in circular bunches or cells This illustrates the efficien use of space vs the sense of community and safety 0 Another example would be the classroom environment Sitting in a circle vs all desks facing front Info on Edward T Hall httpwww csiss u 39 39 l3 amp Chapter 6 in text 8 Chronemics I add time Monocronic Concerned with time and scheduling where time is a commodity that is wasted spent saved etc eg US vs polychronic focus is on relationship Take pride that the clock doesn t rule their lives e g Mexico Italy Middle East etc most of the rest of the world Conclusion or intro Major research findings all indicate that awareness is key to interpretation If we are aware of our own nonverbal leakages and expectations more open to other cultural frames and realize that we are not experts and are not always correct in our interpretations we stand a better chance of understanding the meaning and the message that is taking place Awareness is key to interpretation Balance verbal and nonverbal cues iPerception checking as we discussed earlier this semester in chapter 2 is a strategy for checking the accuracy of your interpretation of another person s nonverbal behavior Be other oriented Have open cultural frames Be aware of the environment Prepare to fail The reason we say that nonverbal communication is more believable than verbal communication is that verbal communication is a conscious activity much of our nonverbal is not For the most part we have more control over our words than our nonverbal cues Oftentimes we leak our emotions without even realizing it Nonverbal cues could be interpreted differently across ali erent cultures which makes nonverbal behavior more ambiguous than verbal behavior Prepare students for nonverbal walk activity and explain what we are going to do the next class session We will meet in class