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Introduction to Human Communication

by: Adan Orn

Introduction to Human Communication HCOM 100

Adan Orn
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.92


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Class Notes
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This 24 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adan Orn on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HCOM 100 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/217043/hcom-100-california-state-university-fullerton in Human Communication Studies at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 09/30/15
Nonverbal Communication Types Posture amp Gesture Kinesics The study of body movement gesture amp posture Most of time postural amp gesture related behaviors have obvious meaning EX Slumping Over Tired or Depressed EX Throwing Hands in Air Exasperation EX Drumming Fingers Together ie Simpson s Mr Burns Plotting Scheming or Coldly Calculating But sometimes meaning behind postural amp gesture cues less obvious EX We ve talked about Speech Convergence which occurs when communicators adapt their speech style to other persons speech style By changing our vocabulary speech rate number ofplacement pauses we can show solidarity similarity amp respect for other person But we don t limit our mirroring behavior to language we also mirror others gestures amp postures which can have same positive consequences Research shown that communicators who mirror nonverbal behavior of others perceived as more empathetic than people who do not converge their nonverbal behavioral style to speakers EX Counselors amp Therapists who converge their gestures amp postures to patients nonverbal behavior style Perceived by patients more empathetic amp understanding than Counselors amp Therapists who do not converge nonverbal behavior to patients And Romantic couples who report relational satisfaction also mirror partner s gestures amp postures more than couples not satisfied w relationship But humans tendency converge our nonverbal behavior others around not always good thing Anybody played or watched organized sports heard saying Players or teams take on personalim of their coach Ex UCLA Blown Leads Oregon amp Washington Players look at Howland Calm Confident Controlled Players follow lead If Howland Slumped Over Dejected Players give up If Howland like Lavin Overly Excited Anxious Nervous Energy Players feel sense urgency try to hard Offensive fouls bad shots turnovers oneon one offense RememberNon Verbal behavior reveals our emotional states more than our verbal behavior True leaders act confident amp secure whether they are or not That s key You can fake it Just takes practice awareness amp knowledge Great example is Winston Churchill Prime Minister Great Britain during Unlike France who rolled over to Hitler like well trained dog Great Britain equally as small equally unprepared for war fought like animals played major part squelching Nazis Major reason for this was Churchill s seemingly unwavering determination His public pronouncements that Britain would not fall Historians credit his speeches w maintaining Britain s fighting spirit Lines like If the British Empire amp its Commonwealth last for a thousand years men will still say This was their nest h0ur But Churchill s memoirs amp Historical investigation into private life reveal that in private he thought there was little chance of beating Hitler In private very pessimistic terrible alcoholic Point Many times what separates great leaders from rest of us is ability control nonverbal behavior no matter what emotions they re feeling In case of Churchill his ability to act tough amp controlled helped save country from destruction maybe Europe from Nazi Control But regulating our gestures amp postures very important everyday situation as well Ex Women should know that rapists often decide which women to attack based on nonverbal behavior Women who re rape victims tend to a Walk Slowly b Appear Hesitant c Avoid eye contact w others 1 Move arms amp legs in short jerky motions So its important for variety of reasons some very important others not so important to regulate our posture amp gestures Face amp Eyes We are capable of producing over 250000 facial expressions Because facial expressions are so complex amp convey meaning so subtly Communicologists have avoided studying effects of facial expression on Human Interaction more than any other aspect nonverbal behavior But there have been some interesting studies on facial expression Ex Studies have shown that by smiling amp nodding waitresses earn larger tips therapists are judged more competent amp friendly Students accused cheating treated wmore leniency Teachers inspire students pay more attention score better on tests However frequent smiling amp nodding not always good thing EX Former President Jimmy Carter smiled too much When Carter talked about serious issues w media congress or foreign diplomats He wasn t taken seriously amp appeared not take serious issues seriously Also when you re dominant individual in conversation Supervisor Coach Parent too much smiling amp nodding reduces your persuasiveness In other words when you re at top hierarchy little friendliness good but don t overdo it or you might lose control See this all time w parents amp coaches who try to be child s friend instead of child s parent or coach Of course this why many of us not cut out be in positions of power Powerful people don t mind stepping on some toes or hurting some feelings now amp then As far as eye contact is concerned research nearly unanimously supports notion that eye contact increases communicator persuasiveness Remember that people at least individualistic cultures associate eye contact wh0nesty Obviously honest people more persuasive than dishonest people Eye contact also gives speaker air con dence amp assuredness which helps gaining compliance amp changing others attitudes However power of eye contact depends on nature of request There are two types requests legitimate amp illegitimate Requests that fulfill need are considered legitimate EX If you asked stranger for couple dollars for candy bar beer or coffee they probably would consider request illegitimate However if you had requested 35 cents call home because you locked keys in your car Or asked for dollar for bus fair stranger consider request legitimate Legitimate reguest Eye contact good confidence trust No eye contact bad raises suspicion distrust Illegitimate reguest Eye contact bad brazenness gall arrogance No eye contact good humbleness vulnerability sympathy Voice Paralanguage can be defined as nonverbal vocal messages So tone pitch volume number amp length of pauses 3 cc 3 cc 3 2 amp dis uencies u um er These are all examples of paralanguage As we ve already discussed listeners pay more attention paralanguage than language when determining what speaker really means Ex If speaker is trying conceal fear or anger hisher voice will sound higher louder and usually heshe will talk faster than usual If speaker trying to conceal sadness He she will speak more slowly than he she usually would also speak in softer tone lower pitch than usual And obviously paralinguistic tendencies amp expectations vary from culture to culture Ex An ideal orator in Mexico has rather loud amp excited speaking voice Ideal orator in United has low but rm speaking voice Touch As was mentioned in chapter ltouch amp physical wellbeing go hand in hand EX Babies in orphanages in 19th early 20th centuries died because they were never picked up held or stroked EX Whether or not children develop allergies eczema amp various health problems depends in part on whether they received physical contact from their mothers Touch is also persuasive EX Waiters amp waitresses who touch their customers receive higher tips than those who don t EX Touching potential charity volunteers increased likelihood they would volunteer EX When salespeople touch customers an average customer shopped for 9 minutes longer than customers weren t touched EX Bar patrons who were touched by cocktail waitresses drank significantly more alcohol than people who were not touched So why is touching persuasive Some studies shown touching others puts them in good mood and positive mood and persuasion are highly correlated Other studies shown that people who touch others appear composed comfortable wthemselves and friendly And we tend to be more persuaded by people we deem credible amp like Still other studies shown that touching indicates dominance amp power Increases likelihood submission on part person who was touched Regardless of reason in general touching amp persuasion positively correlated However there are some things you should remember before you go Michael Jackson on everybody The touching in these studies occurred on hands arms shoulders only Also touching occurred ONCE sometimes TWICE but never more If receiver consciously notices that you ve touched himher persuasion may decrease So touch needs be very subtle occur only once or twice and only on hand shoulder or arm Further more female touching highly persuasive w both women amp men Male touching not quite as persuasive on either seX But on males touch shoulder not hand or arm On females touch hand or arm not shoulder Physical Attractiveness Po uiz Q In what movie did father tell son that cliche Real beauty on the inside Was something Only ugly people say A Jim Carey Liar Liar Unfortunately we do tend to reward physical attractiveness as least as much as if not more than internal beauty EX Taller male candidate usually becomes president amp males over 6 2 receive higher salaries than applicants under 6 ft EX Attractive women get asked out more obviously get higher grades persuade males easier amp receive lighter court sentences than unattractive women Remember Halo Effect People assume if someone skilled in one area skilled in another as well EX Celebrity Endorsement Unfortunately we commonly amp illogically assume physically attractive people are also a Sensitive b Kind c Strong 150 lb male actor tough guys d Sociable e Interesting And bad news is that our tendency reward physical attractiveness appears to be innate EX In study when preschoolers were shown photographs of children their own age amp asked who they wanted be friends with Preschoolers chose attractive children Furthermore children tested rated attractive children as more valuable than unattractive children Finally children s perceptions of attractive amp unattractive children s behavior was biased by attractiveness variable Good looking children s behavior was viewed by their peers as more appropriate amp social than bad looking children who performed same behavior Let s talk about some specific perceptions adults associate w physical attractiveness There are three general body types Ectomorphs are thin amp frail Endomorphs are chubby amp round Mesomorphs are athletic amp muscular People assume mesomorphs are strong amp adventurous People assume ectomorphs are tense amp pessimistic People assume endomorphs are warm sympathetic agreeable but they also label them as dependent amp less powerful mesomorph ectomorph Unfortunately endomorphs less likely earn high salaries less likely get jobs less likely be accepted into colleges than thinner people same IQ Hair color important for how women are judged Simply having hair plays role in how men are judged For example men prefer presence women w blond hair Average elected politician has more hair than average man same age So to children amp adults looks matter Now obviously competent communicator is aware of Halo Effect Aware of our stereotypes about looks and makes sure to base hisher opinion of others on character not physical appearance Research has shown that people prefer be around similar race people In general whites prefer company of whites African Americans prefer company African Americans Midget prefer company of Midgets But these tendencies come from ignorance We can alter our perceptions Obviously ignorant discrimination hurts people who are being discriminated against but it also hurts discriminators EX People watch sports for entertainment Higher quality athlete More entertaining game is By disallowing African Americans from playing baseball in early 20th century baseball fans probably missed out on some of best players of time Or imagine how much money businesses have lost over years because they refused to hire women The point of learning about our psychological processes is not to say Well we re naturally like this nothing we can do But instead to say OK I have certain tendencies I m going to make conscious decision prevent those tendencies from affecting my life or other peoples lives But What Ijust said does not apply to clothing You can learn everything you need to know about someone from clothes they wear PAUL GET TWO VOLUNTEERS Boy amp Girl Audience answer these questions on paper Looking only at clothes tell me 1 What city person lives in 2 Whether they re single or in relationship 3 What kind music they like 4 Car they drive 5 What they do for fun 6 GPA Anyway obviously we use clothing as mental shortcut when deciding others a Economic status b Educational level c Social status d Moral Standards e Social Interests t Religiosity Distance The study of distance or proxemics examines how we use space to communicate Text talks about what distances United States Americans view as appropriate But what I want talk about is what happens when communicators violate other people s expectations of appropriate personal distances We all have expectations about how close others should stand to us When people violate those expectations we become distracted amp aroused How we react to space Violation Whether person stands too far away or too close Depends largely on reward value of space Violator If Violator is attractive has power to reward or punish us or is just really neat the Violation is usually Viewed as surprise amp we tend to be more persuaded by other person If person w reward Value violates our space expectation by coming closer to us than we eXpected We interpret their behavior as sign of liking trust or approval amp we want to maintain that liking trust or approval tend to do what other person asks of us If person wreward Value violates our space eXpectation by standing further away than we eXpected we feel like they don t trust us don t like us or we have let them down amp since we want them to trust us like us approve of us we tend to do what they ask On other hand if our conversational partner has low reward value We View Violation as insulting or disrespectful if they stand too far away Inappropriate or uncomfortable if they stand too close Either way space Violation from communicator wlow reward value decreases our likelihood of complying w their request Time Chronemics is term social scientists for study of how human beings use amp structure time The way we View our own amp others time sends messages about way we View ourselves amp people we re interacting with For example who is expected to wait for who indicates who is more powerful amp who has higher status Ex A common expressioninside joke among low ranking military personal is Hurry up amp wait because often times soldiers are expected to be on time even though their superiors often show up late Point is that the higher your status more power you ll have over other people s time However just because you have high status doesn t mean you should make it habit to be late Its true people who arrive late are often considered dynamic but they re also considered much less competent composed polite amp sociable than people who arrive on time And of course how people view time varies across cultures Ex People in United States amp most of Europe tend to treat time as tangible entity which can be saved borrowed divided lost and killed People in these countries place higher value on sticking to schedule than on activity in progress People in Latin America amp Arab countries tend to see time as holistic entity amp place more value on activity in progress than particular schedule For example In United States if we were having exciting amp meaningful discussion in class when 215 came we would still stop amp move on next thing If we were in Latin America however we would probably just continue discussion until we had resolved problem or come to an agreement And Finally the physical environment people create for themselves can in uence others perceptions of us and our own behavior as well EX Interior decorating Interior decorating is such huge business because we all know that way our homes look helps others formulate their impressions of us The color paint we choose wallpaper we select whether we have carpet tile or wood ooring round table rectangular table whether we have art in uences others when they decide whether we are modern or old fashioned educated trendy wealthy tasteful And of course our environment in uences how we interact w others as well EX All other things being equal organizational employees are more productive amp open minded when they work in aesthetically pleasing environment EX People sitting around circular tables engage in more conversation than people sitting at square tables So environment amp interaction behaviors are highly related In fact environmental psychology is one of oldest divisions of psychological study Homework 123125 Due Wednesday Week 3 Language Activity Split the white board into two halves On one side write all the names for males that the class can think of On the other half write all the names for females Label the terms positive or negative and add up the results m Show how the language we use sets boundaries demeans others without us knowing it The difference between the right word and the almost right word is the difference between lightening and lightening bug Mark Twain Introduction Language can enhance or detract from the quality of one s relationships If quality relationships make humans happy language needs to be understood Language a collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals Adler amp Rodman 2003 Language the body of words and the system for their use in communicating that are common to the same people group Verderber 1999 Language the use by human beings of voice sounds or written symbols that represent these sounds in a patter to express meaning American Heritage Dictionary 1985 Components 1 Language is symbolic Arbitrary construction that represent a communicator s thoughts Example LOVE on the white board A rose by any other name would smell just as sweet What if a rose was named a mushpot Would that change its smell 2 Meaning is not in language but people Successful communication occurs when we negotiate the meaning of a statement Example Use of the word PIMP now compares to 50 years ago SHOW CLIP FROM TOMBSTONE 3 You choose language Based on patterns and history Language is Rule Governed agreed upon rules 1 Phonological rules given how words sound when pronounced Example champagne lead tear read 2 Syntactic rules Structure of language 3 Semantic rules meaning of speci c words What makes man malebiologically women female biologically 4 Pragmatic governs how we use language Two examples 1 Connotative conveys feelings subjective 2 Denotative conveys content literal meaning objective Language is Powerful Shapes Attitudes can be used to promote or demote Sexistracist language is real it does affect people Example Congalton s use of humyn vs human Re ects Attitudes Power The need to achieve content goals and relational goals Women use more hedges and hesitations that men to show submissiveness They don t want to be a feminazi or a bitch But when men are blunt they are con dent Women in power positions need to be especially careful Affiliation convergence vs divergence Language can put one in the ingroup or outgroup Attraction and Interest Responsibility You vs I messages con ict resolutions situations Taking ownership of feelings rather than evaluating others Example You are not doing this right vs I must not be explaining this very well Troublesome language semantic problems we don t understand properly Eguivocal language more than one correct de nition Relative words gain meaning by comparison Mg used by a group of people whose members belong to a similar cogroup gt7 4 Example hawked down Quan Football and my ingroup m specialized vocabulary that functions as a shorthand by people of a common background Example I know what a tight eagle cover 2 shell is Not many other people do I know what Gun Deuce Hop 56 Berretta Ydrag means Allness statements words that re ect unquali ed often untrue generalizations that deny individual differences or variations Example Everyone likes that They all do that Disruptive Language Fact vs Opinion Fact vs Inference conclusions derived from interpreting evidence Emotive language words that announce a speaker s attitudes toward something Example How people often speak ofthe 0 Simpson case or now the Michael Jackson case Evasive Language Euphemism pleasant term substituted for an unpleasant one Example Fat vs Bigboned Eguivocation a deliberately vague statement that can be inferred either way Profanity and vulgarity indicates a lack of vocabulary Gender and Language Men and women differ in their content Men and women talk about different topics Reasons for communicating Men often communicate for a purpose utilitypractical Women often communicative to develop relationships Culture and Language Low context culture uses language primarily to express thoughts feelings and ideas as clearly and logically as possible Example United States Canada High context culture values language as a way to maintain social harmony Example Many Asian and Middle Eastern countries Language and Worldview Linguistic determinism The worldview of a culture is shaped b the language its members speak Linguistic relativity If language determines thought the speakers of different language will experience the world differently Both are r of the SapirWhorf HVpothesis English speakers do not see the world in the same way a Hopi American Indian would Example Spanish speakers use usted to indicate politeness or strangers and tu as amore familiar term This is a distinction Spanish speakers have that English speaks don t This can affect how one sees the world


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