Introduction to Human Communication
Introduction to Human Communication HCOM 100
Cal State Fullerton
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This 32 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adan Orn on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HCOM 100 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/217043/hcom-100-california-state-university-fullerton in Human Communication Studies at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Go over papers and scholarly source Review com abstracts journal articles and APA w julie s powerpoint Language which does not convey a clear meaning fails to perform the very function of language Aristotle Nothing is more common than for men to think that because they are familiar with words they understand the ideas they stand for John Hemy Newman Our care must be not that the audience will understand us but the audience will find it impossible to miss understand us Quintillian Language a collection of symbols governed by rules and used to convey messages between individuals Where does language come from Steven Pinker writes in The Language Instinct about the amazing and natural ability of humans to form language and follow language rules There are prescriptive rules how we ought to talk that we are taught in school And Descriptive rules describe how people do talk They are completely different things Most language rules are not taught to you yet we do not say things like apples the boy eat or who did you meet john and He goes on to criticize those who insist we must follow ridged rules of grammar for he believes that it is more of a natural process and language should only be what makes sense 0 Many linguistic researchers believe that there only a few patterns of languages we are born with these formulas incoded genetically and as babies we just fill in the specific language to the formula 3 characteristics of the nature 0flanguage 1 symbolic arbitrary constructions that represent a communicator s thoughts 2 Meaning resides in people not words What a particular word means to you depends on your cultural background personal history and psychological characteristics EX The word Capitalism means different things to different people For one person it might mean Business Free Enterprise Entrepreneur Wealth Opportunity For another person it might mean Class warfare Inequality or Greed But dictionary defines it as An economic system in which the means of production and distribution are mostly privately owned and operated for profit One of most important skills you ll learn in college is how to Define terms correctly Which not easy In order to make logical and persuasive arguments you must be able to define your terms and defend your definition as being the best definition So effective communication requires that words be clearly defined We cannot have an intelligent discussion until we agree what we are talking about 3 Language is Rule Governed If you know the rules and use them you will seem credible and people will trust you listen to your arguments l Phonological RulesGovern Pronunciation EX Von s has fresher produce than Ralph s American workers make more money per hour than South American workers because they produce at a higher level The parking at CSUF often brings me to tears If that guy in the red car takes my spot I m going to tear his head off 2 Syntactic RulesDeal with the structuring of words EX In English every sentence must have noun amp verb 3 Semantic Rules These deal with the meaning of words But remember not everybody uses dictionary definition of word Not all words are in the dictionary seek agreement 4 Pragmatic Rules Deal with what messages are appropriate in what situations EX At work or in classroom sexual humor usually inappropriate how do I interpret a message Power of Language Language shapes Attitudes We label things we value and our labels reveal our values What are God terms Weaver family values freedom liberty N aming We talked about the importance of naming in terms of labels we assign Symbols carry meaning Even the right name is important children with normal popular names receive higher grades How does this affect people from minority cultures who live and interact with the dominate culture movies are often hits or ops based on their title and not their content In the 1970 s there was a diet product brown chewy squares that were supposed to suppress appetite called Ayds They were dropped from the market in the 1980s when the disease AIDS became recognized Not many people would want to buy and eat a heath product called Ayds Racial identity can be an issue of names what do I call my self Does it give me pride Identity History A people respect Black V African American Sometimes an identical action or situation may be called by a new name to receive attention or value International law dictates that The UN will not always step in and stop a civil war with military action but if we beleive genocide is going on we will intervene In Bosnia Herzegovina civil war had been happening for sometime and people groups were killing other groups across religious and ethnic lines Only when this was finally called genocide did the UN and USA step in We can study the power of language and names when we look at our recent presidents Clinton did not have sexual relations names were very tricky President Bush names terrorists as eVil those who oppose us part of the axes of eVil names shape our perception of political truth Language allows us to conceive of and communicate the abstract Adler only way to know religion is through language I we cannot talk about the supernatural with our symbols language helps us transcend Burke Negative does not eXist in nature We can point to a stake and our dog understands Cannot point to the absence of something like what if there was a world with out death Must have language to form our ideas of these bigger concepts Thou Shalt not Kill it is only a concept the absence of something that we would not have with out symbols language But these bigger concepts are shaped by language Language can communicate power and status We make assumptions about peopel based on thier use of language think about when you hear a southern Drawl someone stuggling w english as their second language a small simple vocabulary a person who uses big words confidently all these uses of language communicate something about the person WE can communicate power by the words we chose and the structure of our language WE don t always want dominance in a conversation usually use communication to build relationships language can display power of lack of it powerless language uses Give me examples call by name on page 81 hedges I am kinda upset I guess I would like hesitation well I wishl could Um you wouldnt mind if Intensifers I am really really sorry Polite form excuse me but would you min Tag Questions Don t you think we should eat now Disclaimer I am not sure if this is the answer Again the key is always exibilty combine polite speech with power speech adjust to the person and situation 0 Linguistic accommodation convergence can show power when members of a close group adapt language use to be similar shows intimacy or solidarity in group Might identify with others by 1 Using a similar vocabulary as other person 2 Adapting their speech rate to other person s rate of speaking 3 Mimicking number and placement of pauses other person uses 4 Adopting level of politeness of other person 0 Divergence can also show power communicators set themselves apart from others by speaking in a way that emphasizes differences 0 Taking responsibility with your language can express power for yourself or transfer the power I finished my homework v My homework is done I was angry with you v You made me angry languages differ in how responsibility is expressed exp Spanish re exive me gusta literally it pleases me Not I like it Remember that the language choices we make can either increase or decrease our persuasive power in relationships and interactions Obviously there are many factors that affect who has more power in relationship but communication choices are important If you rent your house or apartment the landlord always has more power than you Your boss at work almost always has more power than you Your professors always have grading power over you no matter what language style you use with them BUT while particular people may have general control over certain facets of your life you can increase power you have in single interactions with them by avoiding Powerless Language For example your Boss may have general control over how much money you make your assignments at work or your schedule But if you ask for a bonus schedule change or position transfer you can increase likelihood he or she will comply w your request by avoiding powerless language and using powerful language instead D0 ch 3 Activity 1 page 53 in groups Those who control language control power For our discussion I want us not to focus on what is politically correct for even that is a controversial term but I think we would all agree that we want to examine our language to identify any language that might exclude or offend Only when we recognize that can we make the choice to exclude it from our vocabulary But in our conversation I want us to be open please don t be afraid to bring something up as long is it is talk about in a spirit of respect in an effort to understand Who chooses the language ofa culture Suppress people by preventing from speaking their language People are not able to gather have a voice learn in schools if do not share a language Ebonicslate 1990s controversy over whether ebonics is its own language or dialect should it be taught in schools proponents like Rev Jessie Jackson argued that such language expresses cultural pride and individuality Spanish in school controversy here in CA Is there power in allowing students to learn in their mother tongue are we taking away their power by not teaching accepted rules of English the dominate language spoken in US Gender language Does reference to Mankind communicate value or status of women women do you feel left out of mankind Do you like human kind or woman kind better Is it offensive or noninclusive to refer to neutral issues as male Ie manpower manmade one should place his name at the top of the paper write down as many words as you can think of that are meant to mean men and women but only mention men There is a long history to this language Men were more valuable in society men voted were citizens owned property etc When declaration of Independence wrote about the inalienable rights of man it meant men but we have expanded that definition Even whenl was in grade school taught to use he and him when referring to both males and females As text states traditional English almost ignores the existence of women w words like Congressman Chairman Fireman Mailman and Policeman list goes on and on Elizabeth Cady Stanton women s suffragette big controversy over her first gender friendly Bible Racism Racist speech another example of how language can create a reality that simply isn t accurate and communicate power or the lack of power Ex Studies have shown that even people who aren t racist can have their perceptions altered when others use racist language In our western culture we label good things as white and bad things as black We have men in white hats snow white white knight in shining armor and the dark side black cats and witches people are black mailed blacklisted Do you think that has any implications to people s skin color Pass out handout Is our language sexist and racist As competent communicators we need to remember that What we say re ects who we are and people judge us not only by what we do but by what we say as well We can only have power over our communication when we examine it and make conscious choices about how to use it Troublesome language Malaprop Euphemism Examining our language to reveal how it shapes our thinking Language and culture Linguistic determinism the notion that the worldView of a culture is shaped and re ected by the language its members speak Classic eXpm Eskimos have estimated from 17100 different words for snow we think differently based on our surroundings and our values we adapt our language to fit Whorfsapir hypothesis Benjamine Lee Whorf and Edward Sapir developed idea that language constitutes a sort of logic a general frame of refernce and so molds the thought of its habitual users Where a culture and language have developed together there are significant relationships between general aspects of the grammar and the characteristics of the culture taken as a whole P2 Empl Hopi native americans Something might be represented as a noun in one language and as a verb in another Leads to idea of Linguistic realativism notion that language exerts a strong in uence on perceptions We view the world through certain lens because of the language we are given to use I have been trying to learn Spanish I love that the word esperar means to hope wait and wish all in one that tells us a little about how we should wait with hope tranquillo Belize and Mexico command descriptive peaceful tranquil chill they value these descriptions people often say they think different when using different languages Commands to children from parents on page 105 English be good French be wise Swedes be friendly be kind German be of your own kind conform to your roll as a child When we inherit a language we are also inheriting a way of thinking and seeing the world In this little example we can see how it is hard to pass judgement of a persons behaVior when we do not understand the language and culture they are operating from Our humor is obViously different depending on what language we use and what culture we are in popular movie out right now called lost in translation story of a J apaneseEnglish translator translating for an American speaker to a Japanese audience the speaker began with humorous anecdotes about his experiences in Japan The translator s version of these anecdotes was the speaker is telling phrases that are considered funny in English but not in Japanese I will tell you when he is finished so that you can laugh Gill Irian J aya seat of emotions are in the liver not the heart Cliches crutches we use like short hand but may not really communicate what we want Ask does this cliche really get my point across say what we mean and mean what we say Euphemisms mild or vague substitute for a blunt expression or disagreeable truth rhetoric of war we de humanize the people on the other side by the labels we give them They are the enemy not Robert and his son Tim We launch strategic attacts not drop bombs on peoples houses We eXpereince causalties we do not talk about the man who died and will not be coming home to his baby girl 0 These euphemisms allow distance our language prevents us from dealing with the horrible truth of war Otherwise we could not cope Metaphors and similes this may sound like English class but it is very important to examine our similes and metaphors to reveal how they affect the way we think Definitions Simile a is like b your eyes are like the moon Metaphor a is b the playground is a battlefield Our language is embedded with metaphors We can hardly think of abstract concepts something you cannot touch with out metaphors Susan Sontag Write in Illness as metaphor and AIDS and its metaphors about the Rhetoric of war and illness Military metaphors have more and more come to infuse all aspects of the description of the medical situation We describe disease as a struggle and a war we are Victims which suggests innocence AIDS has a science fiction avor in the ear of Star wars and Space Invaders AIDS has proved an ideally comprehensible illness This language of war is found many areas of our language we have had wars against poverty wars on drugs cancer etc we all understand what it is to fight a war it gives power to an argument that we must stop wipe out get rid of what we see as a problem It implies that if we do not stop it it will stop kill us Does this make us a more violent culture It is very important that we examine our metaphors when we want to have new ways of approaching a subject People end to view the world through metaphors and act accordingly If you veiw life as a game how would you act If you view life as a journey would you behave differently How about a dance What are other metaphors people use to describe life Lakoff and Johnson write in Metaphors we live by about how the most fundamental values in a culture will be coherent with the metaphorical structure of the most fundamental concepts in a culture 0 values are demonstrated by the metaphors we use More is better the future is brightie better activity is up ie good improving 0 They reveal how we think 0 He broke down implies the mind is a machine 0 He cracked up implies the mind is a brittle object we use prepositions locations to describe abstract concepts 0 We are IN love 0 But OUT of trouble 0 We FALL INTO depression 0 We slowly GET IN shape The study of communication is Epistemic it tells us what we know and how we know it reveals our patterns of thinking D0 words have power aside from What they symbolize Or the power we Wish to give them This is a controversial subject Our book tells us that words are arbitrary symbols that the meaning lies only in the people and what we decide a word means This is more of a deconstructivist or nominalist view of the world and language But we talked with chapter one about how it seems some words and meanings are not completely arbitrary That there may be sense and meaning and power in the words themselves We use words language to label phenomenon that occure and often when we finally do label something it makes it somehow more real Have you ever had a feeling about something and then someone else gives you the name for it and suddenly that feeling is so much more real and easy to understand counselors do this for us we may describe how we are feeling and they are able to label it as anXiety or depression and by giving it a word we are then better able to treat it Before AIDS was diagnosed people were dying of pneumonia wasting away but not AIDS now that we have a name for it and can treat it as a separate disease it is more manageable sadly there are many parts of the world where AIDS is an unmentioned killer it is taboo to even say the word and so people go untreated die of many complications but never AIDS There is power in words As the English language continues to evolve so does the need to name and describe new phenomena For example the term sexual harassment did not emerge until the 1970s it was generated by feminists who wanted a term to correspond to a very real behavior many people eXperienced in the workplace Words give us tools to create and understand our world by naming and labeling what we experience Most of us would agree Not everything in our world is material tangible But words allow us to identify those intangibles Names give validity and somehow make something more real The spoken word is an action Walter Ong write about the power of the spoken word He mentions how most religions think of God as speaking to people not writing to them We use phrases like that music or that message really spoke to me we do not say it wrote to me The Hebrew dabar which means word also means event and this refers directly to the spoken word The spoken word is always an event a moment in time Takes place in history Orality and Literacy P75 I believe there is a Mysterious element in the spoken word Think about magic Magicians say spells chants the spoken word has power over people and events because it is an action Most cultures have folklore stories traditions about the power of words 0 Many cultures people have rules about what you may say outloud never takl about someone s death Jews traditionally dont say the name of God aloud doesnt show reverence holiness Religions emphasis this we say chants together prayers aloud read or recite scripture out loud Our book hints at this The Judeo Christian Tradition especially recognizes the power of words language as action Read intro to John From a modern translation of the Bible by theologeon Eugene Peterson I am not going to actually read to you from the Bible but his description of how historically Jews and Christians have placed emphasis on the power of spoken word especially in connection to their God The Christian tradition of course grew out of the Jewish tradition He compares the first book of the Jewish and Christian scriptures Genesis with John the fourth gospel of the Christian New Testament which tells the story of Jesus Discussion What do you think Is there power in the spoken word Do you come from cultures that emphasises this idea Are there words you never say out loud Is this just superstition My Big Fat Greek Wedding Instructor s Directions PURPOSE 0 To allow students the opportunity to review chapters on verbal nonverbal and adapting to others 0 To help facilitate the recognition and understanding of the purpose and application of selfdisclosure in relationships 0 To provide an opportunity for students to learn Beebe Beebe amp Redmond s 2002 Stages of Relationship Development To introduce concepts of the different styles of con ict management To help students gain an understanding of Johari s Window OVERVIEW This activity is based on Kolb s experiential learning cycle 1984 Kolb s learning cycle identi es and explains the fourpart framework of learning styles people have These learning styles are Active Experimentation AE Concrete Experience CE Re ective Observation RO and Abstract Conceptualization AC People who are AE learners prefer to learn using simulations games practice assignments case studies homework and projects CE learners prefer examples trigger films small group discussion exercises and guided imagery RO learners learn best from discussion thoughtful questions observations and worksheets And a person identi ed as an AC learner prefers analogies projects theory construction and reading This activityhomework assignment meets one or more needs of the above types of learners in that it contains a trigger lm entails observation and a worksheet and requires discussion and analogies This activity should be implemented after or immediately prior to depending on observed student learning styles lectures on Understanding Interpersonal Communication and Enhancing Relationships Beebe Beebe amp Ivy 2007 Chs 7 amp 8 TIME 50 minutes 5 to brief students and cue movie 25 to cue and watch movie scenes 20 to debrief MATERIALS DVD My Big Fat Greek Wedding Scenes Ch 3 1255 Chs 57 Handouts Attachment 1 Debriefmg Questions Attachment 2 Brown CM 2006 1 Instructions for Students 1 Hand out an assignment packet to each student N Review exercise abstract and questions E Instruct students to take notes during the movie 4 Instruct students to keep the questions in mind while taking notes V39 Debrief using 5 or more of the debrie ng questions attached 0 Inform students the 5 points for the homework assignment will be dependent on the depth and completeness of responses Brown CM 2006 2 ATTACHMENT 1 Name Time HCom 100 My Big Fat Greek Wedding Inclass ActivityHomework Assignment Worth up to 10 Activity Points 5 pts in class participation 5 pts Homework assignment Movie synopsis T MM is a mousy GreeldAmerican woman who still lives with her family She works as a Hostess for the family restaurant She is a late bloomer who goes through a physical and educational transformation at age 30 She then starts working for her aunt s travel agency meets a nonGreek CaucasianAmerican man the first in her family to date outside the Greek culture falls in love and wants to marry Ian Ian is a handsome CaucasianAmerican man who notices Toula first at the Greek restaurant then again after her transformation while she is working at her aunt s travel agency When he sees her at the agency he goes in to chat with her and ends up asking her on a date After dating for a while they fall in love but then the family finds out His is introduced to the family and he eventually asks her to marry him The cast also includes Mom and Dad who own Dancing Zorba s a restaurant and expects Toula to marry a good Greek boy and have lots of Greek babies an older sister Athena who has always been perfect has married a good Greek boy and has had lots of babies a younger brother Nick who cooks for the family restaurant has not yet but intends to marry a good Greek girl and have lots of Greek babies an aunt Voula and her daughter Niki who own a travel agency for whom Toula eventually becomes an agent WHAT DID YOU SEE If necessary continue your answer on the back of the page or another sheet of paper Remember to write the number of the question you are continuing and write your name and class time on the continuing paper Make sure you attach extra answer sheets to the assignment handout Using Chapters 2 4 and 6 8 of your text book answer the following questions 1 Describe the different stages of selfawareness you saw Toula experience before during and after her transformation Ch2 pp 3244 amp 52 Brown CM 2006 3 2 Brie y describe any 12 nonverbal behaviors you saw in the Video clips and identify those using concepts from Ch 4 pp 8890 3 What is Toula s family s a cultural orientation b cultural style of 39 im Brie y explain your answer using concepts from Ch 6 pp 141148 4 What is Ian s family s a cultural orientation b cultural style of 39 im Brie y explain your answer using concepts from Ch 6 pp 141148 Brown CM 2006 4 5 What acts of appropriate or inappropriate andor risks in selfdisclosure did you see Ch7 pp 180182 a Identify each person b Brie y describe the communication episode 6 In the Video clips you saw use Johari s window to brie y answer the following questions Ch 7 pp 183182 a What did Toula know about herself that others knew too b What did others know about Toula that she did not know about herself c What did Toula know about herself that others did not know d What did no one knew about Toula that neither she nor others knew Brown CM 2006 5 7 In the Video clips you saw describe the stages of relationships Toula and Ian experienced Ch 8 pp 197201 8 Identify and brie y describe Ch 8 pp 208209 a Ian s style of managing con ict b Toula s style of managing con ict Brown CM 2006 6 ATTACHMENT 2 Debrie ng Questions 1 Describe any acts of selfdisclosure you saw a Was it were they appropriate or inappropriate 2 What acts of reciprocity in selfdisclosure did you see 3 What did Toula tell her father when he asked where she was going 4 Does Toula have the right to NOT selfdisclose Whynot 5 What was Toula s family s communication style What makes you answer whatever their answer is 5 When Toula s mother says Lucky for me I have YOU to tie my shoes would you say this communication was high or low context Why 6 What do you think she meant by that 7 What is Toula s family s cultural orientation a Can anyone describe incidences that would be indicative of your answer 8 What is Ian s family s cultural orientation a Can anyone describe incidences that would be indicative of your answer 9 Was there anyone in the movie who displayed ethnocentric attributes a Who b What did you see 10 Was there anyone in the movie who displayed ethnorelative attributes a Who b What did you see 11 Before Toula thought to change her appearance which one of Johari s Windows do you think Toula s selfawareness belonged in Why 12 When Toula went to her father about going to college to take computer courses what was her perception of herself compared to her father s perception of her Brown CM 2006 7 Speech Communication 100 Adler 7 Chapter 3 Language Introduction of Main Topics What is Language Power of Language Troublesome Language Gender amp Language Culture amp Language What is Language De nition 0 A collection of symbols governed by rules and sued to convey messages between individuals 0 Symbolic o Meanings are in people 0 Meanings are socially constructed 0 We may use words differently than others 0 Negotiation of meaning Rule Governed o Phonological rules 7 how words are pronounced o Syntactic rules 7 structure of language 0 Semantic rules 7 meanings o Pragmatic rules 7 use of language interpretation Power of Language Do names have power Language choice in uences credibility and status Sexism Racism Language re ects attitudes Powerless Language 0 Hedges 7 eX I m sorta or I m kinda Hesitation 7 Um well uh Intensi ers 7 So that s how I feel Polite form 7 Excuse me Tag Questions 7 Isn t it o Disclaimers 7 I m sure but Acceptance of Responsibility 0 I verses You 0 It verses I 0000 0 Questions verses statements Troublesome Language Equivocal language 7 more than one meaning Relative words 7 comparison related Slang 7 language from a coculture Jargon 7 technical specialized vocab Abstract language Identi cation of different types of statements 0 Fact 7 veri able 0 Opinion 7 speakers beliefs 0 Inference 7 speakers belief about why a fact occurred Euphemisms 7 substitution of words which are more pleasant facesaving Equivocation 7 vague statements Gender amp Language Content differences Reasons for Communication Conversational Style Culture amp Language Each language has its own style Low verses High context Communication Styles 0 Low Context Explicit verbal message Less focus on situational context Self expression is valued Opinions are stated Persuasion is often attempted Verbal uency is admired 0 High Context 0 00000 Less reliant on explicit verbal messages Contextual clues are very important Less direct opinion giving Refrain from directly saying no Use silence Harmony is sought
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