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Introduction to Human Communication

by: Adan Orn

Introduction to Human Communication HCOM 100

Adan Orn
Cal State Fullerton
GPA 3.92


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This 45 page Class Notes was uploaded by Adan Orn on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HCOM 100 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 27 views. For similar materials see /class/217043/hcom-100-california-state-university-fullerton in Human Communication Studies at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 09/30/15
Organizing Your Speech all info from Metcalf 2001 FIRST We ll talk about a How to write good outline b How to structure body of your speech SECOND We ll talk about what makes good Introduction THIRD We ll talk about what makes good Conclusion FOURTH We ll talk some ideas for constructing your Speaking Notes OUTLINING amp BODY Writing an Outline important for several reasons 1 It saves time 2 It makes sure your ideas presented in logical order 3 It helps you decide what research you need don t need 4 It motivates you finish assignment Makes assignment seem less overwhelming Recause all you have to do is fill in blanks SO When you have give presentation or speech First you have choose topic we ve talked about how to do that Second you have do research we ve talked about how to do that Third you have write Purpose Statement Fourth you have write Thesis Statement We ve talked about both those THEN you write Body of speech amp then you write Introduction amp Conclusion There are SEVEN principles of Good Outlining l The Body should contain between TWO and FOUR main points in FourSix minute speech Example Informative Speech Plgpose Statement To inform the audience about three funeral customs of Ancient Egyptians Thesis Statement Egyptian funeral customs included embalming the use of coffins and a process called dry burial Body Outline 1 Explanation of Egyptian embalming practices H Description of Egyptian Coffins Ill Explanation of dry burial techniaueq 2 After you decide about how many main points you ll have you have decide how present them There are SEVEN basic sequence structures you can use order information in body of your speech None of these methods are better than each other Which one you decide use depends on your Topic I m going to go through different options amp give examples of speeches that would fit each option If after hearing different type structures you still can t decide best way organize your speech A Come to office hours amp ask B Email me amp ask 1 CHRONOLOGICAL SEQUENCE When you use chronological sequence You arrange main points according to order they actually occur in real life Example Chronologically Ordered Informative Speech Pmpose Statement To inform my audience about the rise and fall of the American Muscle Car Thesis Statement American muscle cars were introduced in 1964 increased in popularity during the later sixties reached a highwater mark in 1970 and began to decline in the early 1970s Body Outline I The early years 19641966 II Rising in popularity 19671969 III A year to remember 1970 IV Left in the dust 19711972 2 SPATIAL SEQUENCE Spatially structured speeches use a geography b location to organize body s main points Here is an Examples of Spatially Structured Informative Speeches Pmpose Statement To inform my audience about the Best Places to surf in the Orange County Area Thesis Statement From North to South the four best surf breaks in Orange County are the Huntington Beach Pier 56th Street in Newport Beach Salt Creek in Dana Point and Lower Trestles in San Clemente Body Outline 1 Huntington Beach Pier 11 56th Street 111 Salt Creek IV Lower Trestles 3 CAUSE amp EFFECT SEQUENCE Cause amp Effect speeches pretty easy to organize First you list Causes Then you list Effects OR Vice versa Effect Cause First example speech uses Effect Cause format Warning Remember this is Informative not Persuasive speech so be careful about what you list as causing your effect If your topic is noncontroversial amp if there is ONE nearly universally accepted explanation for your effect Go ahead and say A causes B Example noncontroversial cause amp effect informative speech Pmpose Statement To inform my audience about the primary cause of skin cancer Thesis Statement The primary cause of skin cancer is overexposure to sunlight Body Outline 1 What is skin cancer H Skin cancer usually results from unprotected sun exposure On other hand if your topic is controversial That is one single cause has not been unanimously accepted by scientists to be the answer Then you must list as many of competing explanations as you have time for Example controversial cause amp effect informative speech Plgpose Statement To inform my audience about the various explanations for global warming Thesis Statement The three most common explanations for global warming are a The atmosphere cannot handle the excess heat created by the burning of fossil fuels b The ozone is being depleted by aerosol hair products like aqua net c The slight increase in atmospheric temperature over the last several decades is a natural phenomenon that would have occurred regardless of the industrial revolution Body Outline 1 Fossil Fuel Explanation H Ozone Depletion HI Natural Phenomenon Fxnlanation 4 TOPICAL SEQUENCE Another method of structuring main points in your body is by topic In other words When you use a Topical Sequence structure You subdivide your general topic into smaller more specific topics and present those smaller topics in order that makes the most sense Example informative speech using a topical seguence format Pmpose Statement To list for my audience the key components of a French Vacation Thesis Sentence When considering France as a vacation destination make sure you think about budget airfare a daily itinerary plan and clothespins because soap isn t as popular in France as it is in the states Bod Outline I Budget II Airfare III Daily Itinerary IV Clothespins Remember there is no right or wrong order to present your subtopics in Just use some logical criteria However if you are having trouble deciding how to structure your Topical Sequence speech There are three specific sets of criteria you can use First you can use a Least Important Topic to Most Important Topic format So if you were informing your audience about how to have successful job interview In order of importance you might talk about a Dressing appropriately b Being on time c Knowing about job before you go to interview d Using the companies name several times during interview Second you can use a Simplest Topic to Most Complex Topic format If you were informing your audience about some troubleshooting techniques they should think about when they can t get printer work using a simple to complex format you might talk about in order a Making sure printer s plugged in b Making sure printer s on c Turning printer off then on again d Reconnecting printer to server Third you can use a Familiar to Unfamiliar format For example if you were talking about different types of Stars 1 Stars like sun 2 Black holes 3 Novas 4 Binary stars Recommended Outline Format for Body Thesis From North to South the three best surf breaks in Orange County are the Huntington Beach Pier Salt Creek in Dana Point and Lower Trestles in San Clemente Write on Board I The Huntington Beach Pier A Consistent Surf 1 Open to swells from both North and South a Quote from Sean Collins founder of sur inecon1 The Huntington Beach pier is located in such a way that it picks up swell b Statistic from National Weather Service Average wave heights at the Huntington Beach Pier are 13 ft higher than B Easily accessed 1 Large Parking lots a Website information According to www huntingtonbeachcom there are 525 parking spots both north 2 Secret spots a Personal Interview Local surfer Slash told me that there is secret free parking in the alley behind Dairy Queen 11 Salt Creek A Gets pretty hollow a Visual aid Show audience picture of a wave B Scenic environment 1 Clear water a Visual aid 2 Reefrock bottom a Visual aid 3 Good distance from main highway a Visual aid 111 Lower Trestles A Only true pointbreak in Southern California a De nition Steve Hawk former editor of SURFER magazine defines a point break as b According to Bank Wright author of Surfing California Lower Trestles is the only true point break B Holds shape regardless of size SO 1 Roman numerals re ect points presented in the thesis statement A Capital letters represent main ideas 1 Regular numbers represent additional information supporting those main ideas a Lower case letters indicate supporting eVidence for the main ideas and supporting ideas such as Statistics guotes personal testimony Visual aids and definitions Some other OutlineBody Rules are 1 Each thesis point must have TWO main ideas See board Huntington Beach A Consistent surf B Easy access Psychologically audience thinks more better so two or three points better than one 2 Each main point should contain only ONE idea INCORRECT III Lower Trestles is the third best surf spot in Southern California for several reasons A First it is the only pointbreak Second it holds its size even in large surf CORRECT III Lower Trestles is the third best surf spot in Southern California for several reasons A Pointbreak B Holds shape Reason Two points at time confuses audience 3 Use parallel sentence structure In other words the sentence structure amp wording for each Thesis Point should be similar For each Main Point should be similar and so forth EX If your rst thesis point begins The First Reason why Your second amp third thesis points should start out The Second Reason Why The Third Reason why Same goes for main points Remember Audience doesn t want to work Many times when we try to be creative we end up confusing audience What excites the audience is your INFORMATION not your clever wording Save clever wording for your Creative Writing class 4 Use Internal Transitions to indicate a new idea is coming within each thesis point Use External Transitions to indicate a new thesis point is coming after the previous thesis point is listed Internal Transitions are single words or very brief phrases which link material within a thesis point Example internal Transitions are write on board Also and However Then and so But Next first second In addition to often Finally Another External Transitions are One Sentence Phrases occurring between the thesis points Ex Now that you know the reasons why Salt Creek is such fun place to surf let s move on to the reasons why Lower Trestles is such a popular surfing destination IMPORTANT Include your External Transition statements in your outline INTRODUCTION OPTION S 1 Refer to the audience Ex You guys look like the type of people that really love outdoor sports so I thought you d enjoy learning about the best surfing destinations in Southern California 2 Refer to the occasion Ex Why are we in school on such a beautiful day We should be outside doing something fun like surfing 3 Ask a question EX Did you know that the most famous surfer of all time the famous Hawaiian Duke Kahanomoku loved to surf in Southern California 4 Cite a startling fact or opinion EX 910 Southern Californian surfers over the age of 23 have college degrees So if you re worried that you ll turn stupid by learning to surf quit worrying 5 Tell a personal stom or anecdote EX So there I was all alone night surfing at the Huntington Beach pier when I saw two foot dorsal fin rise out of the water and make a beeline right for me 6 Tell a joke 7 Use a quote Rather than trying to write perfect introduction yourself you might find that someone else has already written it for you For example instead thinking up my own introduction for speech on Orange County Surfing I might start speech with following quote from Orange County surfing legend Phil Edwards Unfortunately when people think about Orange County nowadays images of traffic spoiled children and planned neighborhoods predominate which is really a shame because the History of Orange County really revolves around surfing CONCLUSION All conclusions should 1 Review thesis statement EX Tonight we ve talked about the top four surfing destinations in Southern California 2 Review speech s main points EX Huntington Beach has the consistency Salt Creek has the power and Trestles has the shape 3 End with a memorable closing remark Give your audience reason remember you amp your presentation You might end with a memorable quote You might end by telling a summarizing but unforgettable story You might end by calling your audience to action EX If you informed your audience about lack of blood donors in Southern California You might end speech by telling audience specific day amp time they can sign up amp give blood But whatever method you choose make sure your conclusion a Is relevant amp appropriate b Matches the mood amp style of your speech SPEAKING NOTES 1 Use 4 by 6 or 6 by 9 note cards 2 Number them in upper right hand corner In case you drop them or lose your place 3 Write your Introduction Conclusion amp External Transitions statements almost word for word These are only parts of your speech you should try memorize 4 Use key words only for material in body DON T TRY MEMORIZE 5 Use Plenty of Note cards but not so many you are ipping cards every two seconds 6 Use Different colors to indicate different material EX Black or Blue for main points Red for transitions Green for citations lt s really up to you Chapter Thirteen Outline Informing I Matching Strategy to Purpose A De ning your purpose Informative speaking has elements of entertainment and persuasion in it In the speech I gave you it has jokes and persuasive issues Where in the speech did you see these things B Informing your audience 1 Goal is to share ideas 2 Listeners are not explicitly asked to believe a particularthing shown all sides of an issue and left to make their own decision C Clarifying your informative goal 1 Agenda Setting Create awareness of the issue through speech 2 Providing new information or perspective a Extends common knowledge How b Adds details or updates information How Example 3 Intensifying or weakening a feeling a Knowledge empowers listeners b Ability to make intelligent choices empowers Informative Strategies A De ning 1 Clarify a concept 2 Identify conflicting meanings B Reporting Little analysis Interpretation 1 Explains a complex event 2 Involves subject judgment C Describing 1 Paints a mental picture 2 Becomes vivid through details 3 Useful when listeners share your appraisal D Explaining 1 Shares a deeper understanding ofevents people policies and processes 2 Explaining events or people begins simply builds to a greater richness 3 Explaining process breakdowns complex operations into simple steps E Demonstrating 1 Do listeners really need to see the process 2 Is the subject precise enough 3 Are the steps ofthe process clear 4 Are the actions and your verbal instructions coordinated F Comparing 1 Show similarities and differences 2 Helps categorize 3 Presents choices Ill Encourage Retention A Forgetting curve Audience only remembers small parts over time your speech needs stand out to remember B Active listening is important C Retention is strengthened through reinforcement What is reinforcement Response from speaker that rewards the listeners makes listeners more positive attitudes Unit Title Chapter Two PERCEPTION Perception an active process of creating meaning by selecting organizing and interpreting people objects events situations and activities A What if our perceptions are inaccurate B What if there is more to the story of a person that what meets the eye C How can we develop skills to improve our ability to overcome common perceptual tendencies and situational factors NARRATIVES ask for the names of recent movies that students have seen Movies are a good example of how to consider the concept of narrative A movie generally has a script as long as the number of minutes that it runs ie a 150 minute movie has a 150 page script Before a movie is turned into a script it often is presented as a treatment which is generally about 30 pages long Before it is a treatment it might be written as step outline which highlights each scene and answers the question what happens next Before it is a step outline it might be written as a concept which is generally 7 pages long Before it is a concept it might be written as pitch which is the length of one paragraph When we see a trailer in the movie theatre we are presented with a soundbyte a onetwo sentence explanation of the movie The other characteristic of movies is that they generally tell a story but not all of the story Decisions are made about what aspects of the characters lives are shown to us even if other action and life has been experienced offcamera When we met someone for the first time we usually don t learn about their whole life story We learn the shortest most concise part of their personal narrative such as Hi my name is Mary and I m a student at Cal State Fullerton That is not all of who you are but for now that is a simple way for you to share with another a part of your personal story Over time if we get to know each other on a deeper level I might learn more about your personal story including aspects of your personal narrative that come for your experiences as a part of your family and the culture that you participate it to whatever degree you participate in it Narrative The stories people create and use to make sense of their personal worlds Self Serving Bias The tendency to interpret and explain information in a way that casts the perceiver in the most favorable manner Example How I explain if I am late and how I might explain if you are late ATTRIBUTION THEORY The process of attaching meaning to behavior Depending on a number of factors including our cognitive complexity we can misattribute or misperceive the meaning of someone s behavior Spring 2004 prepared by S Bradshaw with acknowledgment t0 Ramona Rasefar much of the lecture material 1 Examples A child misinterpreting that a parent is unhappy with them when they are not smiling A young adult misinterpreting friendliness as interest in another All manner of trying to assign meaning to other s behavior without knowing what the underlying intention or meaning is to the behavior EXPECTANCY VIOLATION THEORY Expectations held by individuals shaped by culture guidelines for human conduct for how others will behave Burgoon 1978 Examples Verbal and nonverbal eye contact proxemics as situational factors that we discussed that play a role in our perceptions of others Physical affection hugging kissing in males in some European cultures In the US males in some cultures hug and kiss Greek Americans Armenian Americans Italian Americans others ETHICS Ethics judged by the situation I Defined the view that the quotright solution to any moral problem depends much more on the situation itself than on any general external code and that the key to the solution is always lovequot Philosophers have developed different frameworks for considering ethics Kant Aristotle Ni COMMUNICATION COMPETENCE A Communication competence 1 no one ideal way 2 situational 3 relational 4 can be learned 5 Why don t we see children arguing in front of the Supreme Court B Aspects of competent communicators that we are focusing on in this chapter 1 Mindfulness 2 Empathyperspective taking 3 Selfmonitoring 4 Belief in the dignity of others 5 Belief in an ethical framework GOALS FOR THIS CHAPTER FROM HAROLD BLOOM39S TAXONOMY OF EDUCATIONAL OBJECTIVES A Application YOU CAN USE IT 1 Attitude Mindfulness 2 Skill Perception checking 3 Belief Dignity of others commitment to an ethical framework Spring 2004 prepared by S Bradshaw with acknowledgment t0 Ramona Rasefar much of the lecture maten39al PERCEIVING OTHERS A Discussion of perception of others activity B De nitions of empathy sympathy face facework presenting self impression management Impression management the communication strategies people use to in uence how others view them I Perceived self a re ection of the person you believe yourself to be in moments of honest self examination 0 This self is made up of things like your appearance intelligence talents and social skills I Presenting self your public imageiyour public face 0 Usually the socially approved image diligent student loving partner nurturing parent conscientious and cooperative coworker o If face is the presenting self then facework is the verbal and nonverbal ways we act to maintain our own presenting image and the images of others Why do we manage impressions I Because social rules govern the proper way to behave and knowing such rules helps us to function successfully in society I Managed impressions help us to accomplish our personal goals PERCEIVING THE SELF A Selfconcept activity Where do our selfconcepts come from B Self concept defined A set of relatively stable perceptions that each of us holds about ourselves C What is the relationship between selfconcept and selfesteem Our textbook example is ofa person whose selfconcept includes being religious tall or athletic How he or she felt about these qualities I m glad that I am athletic or I m embarrassed about being so tall would affect our evaluations of our selfworth or selfesteem D Re ected appraisal or lookingglass self Each of us develops a selfconcept that mirrors the way we believe others see us We learn our selfconcepts through our interactions with others How do people respond to us What do the significant people in our lives 7 parents siblings teachers peers re ect back to us E Social comparison Evaluating ourselves in comparison to others Example Peer in uence and comparison to what the popular kids are doing in smokingnonsmoking schools Are we better or worse compared to others Depends on who you measure yourself against We need to choose a reasonable standard Not all aspects of self are in uenced by others Can you give an example Examples height national origin hair color shyness naturenurture Spring 2004 prepared by S Bradshaw with acknowledgment t0 Ramona Rasefar much of the lecture material 3 How many of you would like to change something about your body or physical appearance show of hands How many of you have changed something about yourself because of the in uence of others Examples hair style color clothing cologne weight How much control can we have over our own selfconcept Can we shape or reshape our perception of self Our self concept is subjective Remember that even though we tend to judge ourselves more favorably than others we often view ourselves in harsher terms than others view us We are our own worst critics Imagine then just how unfavorable we must view others Our selfconcept can become distorted Examples Obsolete information such as past failures or successes Example Worry about public speaking 7 sensitizers need to change the way that you link past failure with future performance Our selfconcept is not always accurate because of distorted feedback Examples Overabundance of negative feedback when young or an undisciplined child who can do no wrong manager who is schmoozed by employees but is a poor manager emphasis on self verification seeking out others who will con rm our selfconcept Digame qui n usted corre con y yo 10 dir qui n usted es Tell me who you run with and I ll tell you who you are Research has shown that individuals with low selfesteem are more easily persuaded than individuals with high selfesteem People with low selfesteem are 0 usually critical of themselves and others 0 expect to be rejected for who they are 0 work better under less demanding managers 0 do poorly when being watched o are threatened by people they view as superior 0 do not defend themselves well against othersithey usually accept negative comments about themselves from others People with high selfesteem are 0 less critical of themselves and others 0 expect to be accepted by others 0 work better for those who demand high standards 0 do well when watched o are usually comfortable with others they view as superior o are able to defend themselves verbally How much does our culture affect our selfconcept Our entire notion of the self is shaped by the culture in which we have been raised Spring 2004 prepared by S Bradshaw with acknowledgment t0 Ramona Rasefar much of the lecture maten39al The most observable feature of a culture is the language that its members use A member of a minority group may feel as if they are not part of the majority group but are part of the out group because their primary language is not the same as the majority Members of cultural minorities feel pressure to conform while at the same time wanting to hold on to their personal cultural identities Personality and self ful lling prophecy Personality is defined as a relatively consistent set of traits people exhibit across a variety of situations Self ful lling prophecy occurs when an individual s expectations about an event make the outcome more likely to occur than would otherwise be true There are two types Ways to improve our 1 Selfimposed propheciesithese take place when our own expectations in uence our behavior Otherimposed propheciesithese take place when others expectations in uence our behavior If a parent continually tells a child that heshe can do nothing right then that child s selfconcept will eventually re ect that assertion A child who is told they can succeed has a much higher chance of succeeding quot skills Link details with the big picture Skilled perceivers keep the big picture in mind as they look for clues about a person Don t rush to judgment based on a few bits of information Become aware of others perceptions of you Seek out feedback It is difficult to be objective about our own behavior so feedback from others is critical to our selfperceptions Increase your awareness Consciously attend to the input you are receiving when interacting with others Try to identify one new thing each time to focus on and observe Watch gestures eyes foot movements listen to tone of voice While noticing as much detail as possible keep the entire picture in view Become other oriented Can someone explain what empathy is Example walk a mile in someone s shoes Effective interpersonal perception depends on the ability to understand where others are coming from to take on their viewpointitheir perspective Check your perceptions Check the accuracy of your perceptions DEFINITIONilndirect perception checking Seeking additional information to con rm or refute interpretations you are making through passive perception such as observing and listening DEFINITIONiDirect perception checking Asking for confirmation from the observed person of an interpretation or a perception about him or her There are 3 parts to perception checking l A description of the behavior you noticed 2 At least two possible interpretations of the behavior 3 A request for clarification about how to interpret the behavior Spring 2004 prepared by S Bradshaw with acknowledgment t0 Ramona Rasefar much of the lecture maten39al Chapter Eleven Outline Presenting the Speech I Characteristics of Effective Presentations A Train to speak naturally B Delivery Presentation C Positive Delivery 1 Does not call attention to itself 2 Helps the audience to listen understand and remember The Voice in Presentation A Volume Error on being louder then you need to be A clear loud voice says that you have more selfconfidence 1 Feedback will help determine volume 2 Amplification a Using a microphone b Projection the voice B Pitch 1 The range of natural pitch is narrow 2 Avoid monotone delivery A monotone voice makes the audience bord and makes the speaker sound like they are bord with their own speech C Pauses Begin speech by going up to the front of the room Pause and look around then begin To end the speech say your concluding remarks pause then sit down You don t want to audience to think you are in a hurry to start or sit down Makes you seem nervous if you 1 Pausing to often 2 Pausing in the wrong places 3 Not pausing long enough 4 Using vocalizing pauses such as ummm uhhh like etc While these words and phrases may be part of our everyday speech they should not be part of our speeches D Articulation and enunciation 1 Articulation clarity in words 2 Enunciation distinctness of words Exercise Have class do a tongue twister together She sells Sea shells by the sea shore E Pronunciation 1 Why is proper pronunciation important a Mispronunciation may cause alter meanings ex in book Desert place and to leave b Mispronunciation calls attention to itself c Mispronunciation re ects negatively on speakers credibility d Dialects can lead to stereotypes Ex of importance of pronunciation The flight attendant movie with Gwyenith Paltrow Quote You need to put the correct emphasis on the right syllable 2 Pronunciation and audience analysis F In ection proper sentences as a whole Ill The Body in Presentation A Physical appearance 1 Before you speak Think of the space aka class room 2 Approaching the podium In class exercise have each member of the class stand with confidence walk to the front of the room pause give name etc Finish pause and sit down with confidence Say I own the world for the next 68 mins 3 Clothes and grooming Hair back hats off no gum etc Studies have been done where a person would give the same speech twice The first time they went up there with their hair a mess in an jeans and a teeshirt The second time they went up there the person wore a suit People were surveyed after the speech and even though the same speech was given the second time it was given was said to be more creditable in the information given B Movement Show controlled movement or walk for the speech Why move 1 Overcomes barriers 2 Can signal transitions 3 Can become a distraction C Gesture How to use gestures on main points or naturally Where to put hands when you are done gesturing 1 Anticipation step 2 Implementation step 3 Relaxation step D Facial Expressions 1 Eye contact each person 2 Speaking to a large audience 3 Speaking forthe camera IV Modes of Presentation A Impromptu presentations 1 Speaking from a lifetime of experience 2 Structure is simple and clear B Memorized presentations 1 Often discouraged a Reduces reception of feedback b Delivery is stiff and stilted c Dif cult to ad lib 2 Some memorization is helpful a Memorize introduction and conclusion b Memorize key phrases C Manuscript presentation 1 Appropriate contexts a Highly formal situations b When precise timing is important 2 Problems a lnterferes with direct communication b Few people read well c Dif cult to maintain eye contact D Extemporaneous presentation V Practicing for speech presentation Remember to appear natural A Presentation outline Remember direct quotes only when can t be said any other way No other need for word for word notes B Mental rehearsal C Oral practice 1 Distributed practice brief practices over time is better 2 Massed practice long practices right before D Simulation Human Communication 100 Chapters 14 amp 15 Informing and Persuading Main Points Informative Speaking Persuasive Speaking Informative Speaking Types 0 Content I About objects I About processes I About events I About concepts 0 Purpose I Describe I Explain I Instruct Noncontroversial in nature Speaker does not attempt to change the audiences attitudes Help the Audience by 0 Limiting the amount of information that you present 0 Use familiar information to gain understanding and then build upon it 0 Use repetition 0 Use signposts Organization 0 Introduction I Establish importance I Thesis I Preview main points 0 Body I Main points need subpoints 35 I Use transitions I Put main points into a logical order 0 Conclusion I Review main points I Remind the audience of topic importance I No new information Persuasive Speaking The process of motivating someone through communication to change a particular belief attitude or behavior Characteristics of persuasion 0 Not the same as coercion o Persuasion acts more of a process than a form of direct change 0 Interactive 7 you and the audience Types of Persuasion 0 Proposition of fact 0 Proposition of value 0 Proposition of policy Organizing a Persuasive speech 0 Set a clear speci c purpose statement 0 Describe the problem and how it speci cally affects the audience 0 Describe the solution including how the solution will work and what the advantages are 0 Describe what you want the audience to do Fallacy 7 error in logic Chapter Two Outline People spend more time listening then doing any other communication activity Turn to page 34 in your book What are the differences between hearing and listening I Are you really listening A Why listening is important 1 Check for accuracy a Faulty listening has consequences b Check what you hear 2 Giving and getting feedback a You will be listening to speeches in class b You will learn by listening 3 Evaluate messages a Determine how messages relate to you b Listening is necessary to evaluate ethics B Why listening is dif cult 1 Listeners distractions a We think faster then we can listen b Fantasies and daydreams 2 Limited attention span a Shorter messages are less demanding b TV has shortened our attentions span MTV generation commercials are even fast passed flashy so we don t get bord 3 Jumping to conclusions a Listeners will make assumptions based on experience b Listeners will assimilate messages 4 Situational distractions a Obstacles lead to bad habits b Best defense is awareness 5 Listening to hard for what you want to hear that you miss the point Types of Listening A Appreciative listening Listening for pleasure or enjoyment ex music comedy routine etc B Empathic listening Listening to provide emotional support for the speaker ex psychologist to a patient C Comprehensive listening Listening to understand the message of a speakerex class lectures or directions someplace D Critical listening Listening to evaluate a message for the purpose of accepting or rejecting it ex political candidate jury used car salesman Strategies for careful listening A Mapping debate Flow 1 Extract the thesis 2 Identify the main ideas 3 Asses the main ideas 4 Decide whether the main ideas support the thesis B Note taking Put enough into notes that you understand what you meant when you get home Important to be concise and understandable p70 Lucas note taking example 1 Focus on the thesis 2 Use key words 3 Organize the notes as a rough outline 4 Abbreviate 5 Evaluate the speech Tips for being a better listener A Talk listening seriously B Resist Distractions C Don t be distracted by a speakers appearance or delivery Ex Arnold D Suspend Judgment till the end Not know all what will be said till then and you want to avoid tuning the person out because you don t agree E Focus your listening main points evidence technique Ill Listening critically A Critical thinking 1 The characteristics of critical thinking a Reluctant to accept assertions b Distinguish facts from opinions c Uncover assumptions d Apply reason and common sense to new ideas e Relate new ideas to existent knowledge 2 The skills of critical thinking a Question and challenge b Recognize differences c Form opinions and supporting claims d Putting ideas into a broader context B Applying critical thinking to the speech situation 1 Are the main ideas identi able 2 Are the links among the ideas sensible a Does the speaker prove the claims b Should the claims be accepted 3 Are the ideas supported when necessary a Does the idea need support b Is there enough supporting material 4 How does accepting or rejecting the thesis affect other beliefs IV Evaluating speeches critically A Evaluation standards 1 Rhetorical situation 2 Speaker s purpose a Effectiveness standard b Artistic standard B Evaluating classroom speeches 1 Speeches don39t highlight all dimensions 2 A constructive attitude is essential 3 Evaluation through informal discussion 4 Evaluation through an impromptu speech of criticism C Evaluation speeches in the field doing this through our papers D Rhetorical criticism V Summery PRESENTING YOUR MESSAGE Overc0ming Stage Fright 1 Forget Murphy s Law What can go wrong will go wrong Be realistic No you probably won t give greatest speech of all time But you probably won t be terrible either Besides what s the worst thing that can happen If you have decent outline amp bibliography show up on day your scheduled give speech amp stand up there for couple minutes l m not going to give you F or D And who cares about your classmates lt s commuter school you ll probably never even see these people again They really don t care how you do they care how they do They re not going to start booing or throwing things at you 2 Don t be Perfectionist Like I said No you re not going be perfect but nobody expects you to be 3 Don t wom about gaining approval entire audience Some people in class are going be tired on day you give your speech Some people going be just plain rude they re not going look at you they re not going listen Forget about them amp focus on interested audience members So don t be irrational Do your research write out your notecards practice couple times in your room amp You ll be fine Some Delivery Tips 1Appearance Dress up Dress Down In other words you don t want your audience to notice your outfit Too ashy or expensive They ll think you re showing off Not dressy enough They ll think you either don t care or aren t professional My own personal recommendation Don t stray too far from your day to day attire If you re jeans amp t shirt type person don t wear an Armani suit or whatever is women wear to really dress up This is especially true if audience knows you or has seen you around often enough to know how you usually dress The last thing you want is an audience that s thinking Good God that out t is soooo not herhim 2 Body Movement First One good way get rid nervous energy is to move around a bit Instead of waiting until your nervousness makes you shake or twitch Feel it coming Take step or two away from podium amp then come back to it Second Moving around can be good way keep your audiences attention So don t be afraid move around little bit 3 m Stand up straight but don t be a stiff 4 Facial Expressions Emotion My advice Don t overdo it One of my classmates in my teaching class makes me want to vomit because heshe s I better not say which is so overly perky amp excited Someone needs tell herhim it s school not game show Your textbook puts it pretty simply DON T TRY TO FAKE IT In other words be exited and interested in your topic But don t overdo it If you act like Wow This is great Oh Goody Oh boy Your audience will tune you out So again Yes you want to smile some amp be involved with your audience But don t act like you ve solved world hunger cured cancer or split the atom Eye Contact More is Better in this case Hint Make eye contact with person move on repeat m Speak with strong voice but don t yell Vary your volume throughout your speech Obviously Save your loudest voice for your key points Most people speak either too fast or too slow during public presentations We usually speak too fast because a We want to get damn thing over with if we haven t practiced b If we have practiced We know information It seems pretty simple to us So we zip right through it We usually speak to slow because a We re trying figure mentally rehearse what we re going say before we say it My advice Either a Have someone listen to your speech amp tell you if it was too fast or too slow b Tape record it amp listen to it yourself A J U A U1 0 l 00 9 O IMPROMPTU TOPICS Cut These Out Put in Hat What did you enjoy more and why Your 8th grade year or senior year high school Talk about your first crush 80s fashion is back Is this a good or a bad thing What do you like and dislike most about CSUF Why What do you miss least about high school If you could travel anywhere in the world where would you go and why Talk about your best and worst travel experience You re about to be executed What would your last meal be and why Talk about your best and worst vacation or travel experience Reality TV Good or Bad and why A Jacko ie Michael Jackson Crazy or just misunderstood Talk about your best amp worst birthday gift What s the number one problem with America The best thing about America Explain your answer Should Vanessa leave Kobe Why or why not Who s your favorite musician and why Ryan Seacrest The most annoying person on the planet My parents would kill me if they knew I 20 2 A 2 J 2 U 24 2 U 2 O 27 Who is the bigger skank I mean worse role model for young girls Brittany or Christina Agulera Why Del Taco or Taco Bell Why Bruce Willis or Ashton Kutcher Why Nicole Kidman or Penelope Cruz Why Be honest Is physical attractiveness the first thing you consider when you meet potential romantic partner If so why If not why Which drug is worse Alcohol or Marijuana Why If you inherited 5 million dollars would you continue to go to school Why or why not Breast Implants Good or Bad Why What s the ideal job Why INTERPERSONAL COMMUNICATION OUTLINE Cultural Idioms Opening up Spill the Beans Standof sh Things to write on the Board De ning Self Disclosure Reasons for Self Disclosure Model of Social Penetration Moving on through chapter 7 and proceeding into self disclosure Activity 1 Levels of Self Disclosure Now you re all probably wonderingwhat was the point ofthat Illustrate principles What is self disclosure is the process of deliberately revealing information about oneself that is significant and that would not normally be known by others To further elaborate selfdisclosure is 1 Deliberate 2 Signi cant 3 Not known by others EX we re throwing you a surprise birthday party not selfdisclosure EX You know itjust so happens I am wearing a green blouse underthisjacket EX Just so that you are aware lam your instructor for today People self disclose for a variety of reasons Part ofthis is to develop and maintain relationships which are mentioned in your text but other reasons are often drive revealing personal information There are two important factors when looking at whether or not we self disclose 1 How well we know the person 2 Self Clari cation to sort out confusion to understand ourselves better So selfdisclosure has the potential to improve and expand interpersonal relationships as we ve already established but it serves other functions as well So as I introduce the seven reasons for selfdisclosure see which category you t into Although we are discovering all this new information and we have our de nitionwe have yet to touch on the issue that not all self disclosure is equally revealing to expandsome disclosing messages tell more about us than others This leads us into the social penetration model which was created by two social psychologists lnNin Altman and Dalmas Taylor and they describe two ways in which communication can be more or less disclosing Draw a picture The social penetration model has two dimensions breadth and depth Breadth would be the range of subjects discussed while depth would be the shift from relatively nonrevealing messages to more personal ones 80 depending on the breadth and depth of information shared this can assist us in determining whether our relationship is casual or intimate In a casual relationship the breadth may be great but not the depth A more intimate relationship is more likely to have high depth in at least one area The most intimate relationships are those in which self disclosure is great in both breadth and depth Activity 2 In vitation to Insight Reasons for SelfDisclosing Debrief Your text focuses on selfdisclosure for the purpose of maintaining relationships and it looks at reciprocity appropriateness assessing the risks as well as self disclosure in relation to intimacy and gender 80 we just go a little more in depth with the information we looked at today So Quiz Next Period and yourjournals of creating your ideal partner are due Organization of Main Ideas p298301 Chronologically Topically Spatially Cause and Effect Problem S olution Bene ts of Speech Organization Organization helps the audience I understand the message 2 remember the message 3 decide how to react to the speech Organization helps the speaker I gather and include appropriate ideas and information 2 arrange those ideas strategically 3 enhance his or her credibility Goals of the introduction Focus audience attention and interest Put yourself in the presentation Preview the message Set the emotional tone bP NE Tips for Starting strong 1 Plan the beginning at the end 2 Don t apologize 3 Avoid beginning with My speech is about Goals of the Conclusion 1 Be memorable 2 Be clear 3 Be brief Organization for the Audience Previews Initial and internal Signposts Transitions Summaries Chapter Eight Outline Organizing the Speech Introduction Conclusions and Transitions How important are first impressions Studies show that people are judged by what they where say do the first time they meet another person The same thing occurs with speeches I Introductions Beginning ofthe speech A The purpose of an introduction 1 Gaining the attention and interest of your audience only chance to convince the audience what is coming next will be interesting a Audiences decide to listen actively b Convince the audience favorably toward you and your topic 2 Disposing the audience favorably toward you and your topic a Listeners will be sympathetic and attentive b Some speakers use hostility 3 Clarifying the purpose or thesis of your speech It is important to be clear and concise 4 Previewing the development ofyour topic B An example of an introduction p214 good example C Types of introductions common experiences goals and values creates like 1 Identifying with your audience a Similarity forms good impressions b Identification is easily established by student speakers 2 Referring to speech situation a Occasion especially ceremonial situation b Location symbolic shadow of something c Referring to previous speaker 3 Stating your purpose can use when thesis itself is shocking 4 Stating the importance of yourtopic a Creates an element of mystery b Introduction can unpack the title 5 Citing statistics making claims a Information form is powerful b Best when information is not well known 6 Tell a story a Narrative form is powerful b May overshadow preview and body because 2 interesting audience still thinking about it 7 Using an analogy helps to understand a more complex process a Makes the audience think b Listeners can focus on similarities and differences 8 Asking a rhetorical question a Makes the audience think b Overused device some believe you should never ask a question you don t already know the answer to as lawyers have used 9 Quoting someone a Leads naturally into the main ideas b Opposing viewpoints can be used 10 Using humor a Relaxes audiences b Humor is not always appropriate D Strategies for preparing an introduction 1 Prepare the body of the speech first How I do it Papers included I often find that l have thoughts about how I want to do my intro while working on my body 2 Relate the intro to the body 3 Keep the intro brief 4 Make the intro complete 5 Keep a le of potential information 6 Be guided by the examples in this book 7 Plan the introduction word for word While first impressions are important last impressions are a equally important It is what you leave people thinking and remembering when you are gone Can you think of a situation where last impressions would be important How do you feel as an audience member when the speaker does not have a clear conclusion ll Conclusions Ending the speech A The purpose ofa conclusion 1 Completing the sense of form by anticipating the end 2 Summarizing main idea a Helps listeners remember b Increases accurate recall 3 Making a nal appeal to the audience a Ask the audience to take action or adapt belief b Help audience understand the response you seek B An example of a conclusion p224 C Types of conclusions 1 Summarizing more detailed summery 2 Quoting someone make sure it is linked back to the body 3 Making personal references a ustrates your own identi cation b Encourages the audience to identify 4 Challenging the audience ask audience to do something 5 Offering a utopian vision a Focus on successfully meeting the challenge b Effective when sacri ces or risks are required D Strategies for preparing a conclusion 1 Be sure that it truly is the conclusion 2 Return to you introductory device what possible 3 Practice the conclusion Have you ever talked to someone who changes the subject frequently and without warning How do you feel Ill Transition Connecting the elements ofa speech Definition 230 Bridges gaps flows smoothly A The purpose of transitions 1 Create a sense of movement Helps listeners follow 2 Prevents nervous mannerisms B Elements of effective transitions 1 Internal previews helps audience anticipate what is coming 2 Internal summaries reviews parts of the speech 3 Links not only but also in addition however a Links can be implicit or explicit b Use implicit links when connections are obvious 4 Complete transitions not always needed but includes summaries link to next amp preview my focus is link C Strategies for preparing transitions 1 Identify main idea succinctly 2 Use parallel structure if possible repetitive patterns 3 Use signposting 1st 2nd 3rd can be used so there is no doubt in speakers mind that there is a transition IV Summary Chapter Seven Outline Organizing the Speech The Body I Why is organization important A For listeners Isn t hard to follow a conversation when the person keeps changing the topic and jumping around Share some personal experiences Well some of the same feelings are present when someone gives a speech without organization 1 Helps the audience remember 2 Encourages active listening 3 Helps listeners anticipate materials B For speakers Have you ever had a conversation where you were jumping around and you left out important information or lost you train of thought Organization also helps the speaker 1 Facilitates strategic planning 2 Provides a check Selective Main ldeas A Identify your main ideas Addresses issues in your thesis statement Main division of your speech 1 From your thesis to your speci c purpose what you want to say 2 From Patterns in your research mentions something over and over B Choosing among main ideas have to remember you time limit audiences attention span etc You can t say everything you want to say so you make choices C Criteria for selecting the main idea Choose the best arguments best ideas best research etc What would make your speech the strongest it could possibly be 1 Is the ideal essential 2 Can a more general statement combine several ideas D Characteristics of the main ideas 1 Simplicity Simple is smarter so audience does not get lost 2 Discreteness Don t say something in 20 words you could say in 10 3 Parallel structure Use similar grammar structure sometime it helps to use acronyms such as the 3 C s or spelling out a word with main points 4 Balance Same length for each main idea section 5 Coherence clearly relating flows well 6 Completeness Don t leave important stuff out Ill Arranging the main idea A Factors affecting arrangement 1 Are the main ideas independent a Dependent ideas are linked like a story each section is builds upon the next Helps with flow and understanding but can be bad because if one is rejected then the whole thing can fall apart b Independent ideas stand alone 2 Are some ofthe main ideas relatively unfamiliar a Familiar ideas are of interest starting with the familiar helps people understand the unfamiliar b Unfamiliar idea are hard to grasp 3 Should the strongest idea come first or last a Primacy effect strong first idea b Recency effect last idea is the strongest Which is better Depends on your speech point of view how you want to organize it Research is inconclusive B Patterns for arranging main ideas Chronological Past present future Spatial nearest to you to far geographic order Categorical by topic theme catagories CauseEffect or effect to cause Problem Solving Must make audience see as a problem Comparison and contrast Highlighting one or both Residues least of all evils C Choosing the organizational pattern 1 Topic lead themselves to particular patterns 2 Purpose and strategy can influence selection 3 Audience can influence arrangement 4 Culture can affect organization Americans tend to like problem and solution IV Selecting and arranging supporting materials A Selection of supporting materials 2 Questions to ask 1 How much and what kind a Audience s prior understanding All college intellectual here so we require more academic support b Audience s beliefs and values if you are preaching to the choir need less but if there is resistance you need more c Audience s knowledge and experience What they know how much experience they have if they are skeptical d Avoid redundancy e Aim for variety Not all stats testimonies Internet web sites 2 What criteria a Apply criteria for supporting materials Ch 5 credibility b Easy to understand if don t understand audience will stop listening c Vivid and interesting holds attention d Select material consistent with your knowledge agreement smutheavens e Ef cient to present short and sweet is best f Ease of finding research B Arrangement of supporting material they should be arranged like supporting ideas C Purpose and strategy govern arrangement D Combine patterns ofarrangement is possible for added interest careful w confusion


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