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PSYC 1000 - Week 10 Notes

by: HaleyG

PSYC 1000 - Week 10 Notes Psyc 1000-04

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Lecture and textbook notes
Introductory Psychology
Bethany Rollins
Class Notes
Rollins, psych, Psychology
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 03/18/16
PSYC 1000 Notes ­ Week 10 March 14­18 Textbook Notes Introduction to Emotion (p. 459­467) ­ Emotion: response involving physiological arousal, expressive behavior, and conscious  experience ­ James­Lange theory: theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of  our physiological responses to emotion­arousing stimuli ­ Cannon­Bard theory: theory that an emotion­arousing stimulus simultaneously  triggers physiological responses and subjective experience of emotion ­ Two­factor theory: theory that to experience emotion, one must be physically  aroused and cognitively label the arousal ­ Spillover effect: arousal from one event can fuel an emotion that can  intensify other emotions ­ Brain's pathways for emotions ­ The thinking high road: stimulus travels through the thalamus to the  cortex and labeled, and a response is sent by the amygdala (ex. love/hate) ­ The speedy low road: stimulus travels thorough the thalamus directly to  the amygdala (ex. fear) ­ Physical responses ­ The sympathetic division arouses us for more intense experiences of  emotion ­ The parasympathetic division calms us when a crisis passes Expressing Emotion (p. 468­475)  ­ Experience can sensitize us to certain emotions ­ Women are better than men at reading emotional cues ­ Facial expressions are similar between different cultures, but cultures differ in  how much emotion they express ­ Facial feedback effect: the tendency of facial muscle states to trigger  corresponding feelings ­ Behavior feedback effect: the tendency of behavior to influence our own and  other's thoughts, feelings, and actions Experiencing Emotion (p. 476­487) ­ Catharsis: emotional release ­ Catharsis hypothesis: releasing aggressive energy relieves aggressive  urges (although usually, expressing anger breeds more anger) ­ Managing anger ­ Distance, distraction, support, and time ­ Feel­good, do­good phenomenon: people's tendency to be helpful when already  in a good mood ­ Subjective well­being: self­perceived happiness ­ Positive emotion during the course of a day rises and then falls, while negative  emotions stays about the same ­ We overestimate the duration of our emotions and underestimate our resiliency ­ Economic growth in affluent countries does not significantly boost happiness or  well­being ­ Adaption­level phenomenon: tendency to form judgments relative to a neutral  level defined by our previous experience ­ Indicators of happiness levels ­ Genetics ­ Self­esteem in individualist cultures and social acceptance in communal  cultures ­ Optimism ­ Sleep and exercise ­ Age and gender are not factors Stress and Illness (p. 488­492) ­ Stress: the process of appraising and responding to a threatening or challenging  event (called a stressor) ­ Stressors: catastrophes, significant life changes, and daily hassles ­ Hormones involved in stress: epinephrine and norepinephrine ­ General adaption syndrome (GAS): three­step response to stress 1. Alarm reaction: activation of sympathetic nervous system 2. Resistance: full physiological engagement with no relief 3. Exhaustion: vulnerability to illness or even death ­ Tend and befriend: response to extreme stress by providing support to others in  order to cope with one's own stress Stress and Immune Systems (p. 494) ­ Surgical wounds heal mores slowly in stressed people ­ Stressed people are more vulnerable to colds ­ Low stress may increase effectiveness of vaccinations Health and Coping (p. 501­515) ­ Coping: alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods ­ Problem­focused coping: alleviating stress directly, by changing the  stressor or the way we interact with the stressor ­ Used when we feel like we have control over a situation ­ Emotion­focused coping: alleviating stress by avoiding/ignoring a  stressor and attending to emotional needs related to our stress reaction ­ Used when we believe we don't have control over a situation ­ Personal control ­ Learned helplessness: learned passive resignation when unable to avoid  repeated adverse events ­ Vulnerability to ill health: rising stress hormones and lower  immune system function ­ External locus of control: the perception that chance or outside forces  beyond our control determine our fate ­ Internal locus of control: the perception that we control our own fate ­ Self­control: the ability to control impulses and delay short­term  gratification for longer­term rewards ­ Social support and optimism promote happiness and health ­ Reducing stress ­ Aerobic exercise  ­ Relaxation and meditation ­ Religious involvement Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn (p. 177­183) ­ Prenatal development ­ Zygote: fertilized egg that enters a 2­week period of rapid cell division  and develops into an embryo ­ Embryo: developing human organism from 2 weeks after fertilization  through the second month ­ Fetus: developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to  birth ­ Teratogens: chemicals and viruses that can harm the fetus or embryo ­ Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): physical and cognitive abnormalities in  children caused by a pregnant woman's drinking ­ Newborns ­ Habituation: decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation Infancy and Childhood (p. 184­202) ­ Maturation: biological growth processes that enable changes in behavior ­ Assimilation: interpreting new experiences in terms of our existing schemas ­ Accommodation: adapting current understandings to incorporate new info ­ Piaget's theory of cognitive development ­ Sensorimotor stage: stage from birth to 2 years old during which infants  know the world in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities ­ Object permanence: the awareness that things continue to exist  even when not perceived ­ Preoperational stage: stage from 2 years to 6/7 years when a child learns  language but does not understand the mental operations of logic ­ Concrete operational stage: stage from 7 to 11 years when children gain  the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events ­ Formal operational stage: stage beginning at age 12 when people begin  to think logically about abstract concepts ­ Egocentrism: preoperational child's difficulty of taking someone else's point of  view ­ Theory of mind: people's ideas about their own and other's mental states ­ Vygotsky: theory that children's mind develop because of social interaction ­ Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): a disorder marked by deficiencies in  communication and social interaction, rigidly fixated interests, and repetitive behaviors ­ Social Development ­ Stranger anxiety: the fear of strangers that infants commonly display ­ Attachment: an emotional tie with another person ­ Imprinting: the process by which certain animals form strong  attachments during early life ­ Self concept: thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question,  "Who am I?" ­ Parenting styles ­ Authoritarian ­ Permissive ­ Authoritative Adolescence (p. 203­212) ­ Begins with puberty (sexual maturation) ­ Identity: our sense of self ­ Social identity: the "we" aspect of our self­concept ­ Intimacy: the ability to form close, loving relationships Adulthood (p. 213­227) ­ Menopause: natural cessation of menstruation and women's biological changes  as ability to reproduce declines ­ Memory and physical health decline with age ­ Cross­sectional study: people of different ages are compared with one another ­ Longitudinal study: the same people are restudied and retested over a long  period ­ Neurocognitive disorders: acquired disorders marked by cognitive deficits ­ Social clock: the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage,  parenthood, and retirement ­ Over time, the amygdala responds less to negative events Aging and Intelligence (p. 400­401) ­ Cross­sectional evidence: older adults give fewer correct answers on intelligence tests than younger adults ­ Longitudinal evidence: until late in life, intelligence remains stable (more  accurate evidence) ­ Crystallized intelligence: our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to  increase with age ­ Fluid intelligence: our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood The Nature of Gender: Our Biological Sex (p. 165­169) ­ Biology influences gender genetically, with differing sex chromosomes, and  genetically, with differing combinations of sex hormones ­ Primary sex characteristics: body structures (ovaries, testes, and external  genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible ­ Secondary sex characteristics: non­reproductive sexual traits, such as breasts and voice quality ­ Disorder of sexual development: an inherited condition that involves unusual  development of sex chromosomes and anatomy Lecture Notes CHAPTER 12 ­ Emotion ­ Emotion: thoughts, feelings, behavior, and physiological arousal ­ Purpose: to focus our attention and motivate our actions ­ Biology of emotion ­ Autonomic nervous system: controls internal organs/glands ­ Physiological changes ­ Sympathetic division: arousal ­ Parasympathetic division: calming ­ Physiological measures of emotion ­ Heart rate, breathing rate ­ Temperature ­ Muscle tension ­ Skin conductance (sweating)  ­ Can't necessarily tell what emotion someone is feeling by  measuring physiological changes, because two emotions can produce the same pattern of  changes ­ Brain mechanisms ­ Limbic system ­ Amygdala ­ Theories of emotion ­ James­Lange theory ­ Event ­­> specific physiological and behavioral changes ­­>  emotion ­ Requires that each emotion has specific physical/behavioral  changes associated with it (not the case) ­ Supporting evidence: facial and behavioral feedback phenomena  (when changes in facial/behavioral expression  produce a  corresponding change in emotion) ­ Application: lie detection ­ Polygraph ­ Measures autonomic activity ­ Assumption: if polygraph shows physiological  arousal, subject is lying ­ Problem: measures arousal, not lying ­ Validity: cannot distinguish between  different types of arousal ­ Individual variations ­ Error rate: 33% ­ More likely to label innocent people as  guilty than guilty people as  innocent ­ Excluded/restricted in court ­ Cannon­Bard theory ­ Event ­­> nonspecific physiological/behavioral changes and  emotion (neither one causes the other) ­ Schacter and Singer's Two­Factor theory ­ Event ­­> nonspecific physiological/behavioral changes ­­>  cognitive interpretation of situation and changes ­­> emotion ­ Takes cognition into account ­ Support ­ Transferred excitation (spillover effect): physical arousal  produced by one situation intensifies our emotional reaction to a subsequent situation ­ It is unclear which theory is correct ­ Emotions do seem to involve cognition, most of the time ­ Communicating emotions ­ Facial expressions in humans: help social behavior ­ Primary emotions ­ Unlearned: surprise, interest/excitement, joy, anger,  sadness, fear, disgust ­ Within first 6 months of life ­ Expressions are similar cross­culturally ­ Blind individuals use similar facial expressions ­ Self­conscious or secondary emotions ­ Empathy, jealousy, embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt ­ Less obvious/consistent facial expressions ­ Between 1 ½ ­ 2 ½ years ­ Require self­awareness ­ Mirror and rouge test: babies with a mark on their  nose seeing themselves in a mirror will either recognize it is their own nose (self­ awareness) or not ­ Anger ­ Does venting provide catharsis? ­ Recommended to wait to calm down before expressing emotion about  anger ­ Happiness ­ Factors related (correlation): social relationships, resources, religion, and health ­ Factors unrelated: age, gender, and physical attractiveness ­ Money buys happiness if you have no money ­ Diminishing returns ­ Spending on experiences increases happiness more than spending on things, and people are happier after spending money on someone else rather than  spending money on themselves ­ Social comparisons: comparing self with someone who has less leads to  satisfaction, but comparing self with someone who has more leads to self­deprivation ­ Also observed in animals ­ How much impact an event has on our happiness depends on our  experiences/what we're used to ­ Adaptation­level phenomenon: tendency to judge new  stimuli/events in relation to what we have recently experienced ­ We adjust to new circumstances until they become neutral ­ We always want more than what we have ­ Major events often don't have as much of an impact on or  happiness as we think they will (ex. winning the lottery or becoming paralyzed) ­ Genetic influence on happiness ­ Inherited personality characteristics show a stronger relationship  to happiness than a person's attractiveness, popularity, or wealth ­ Happiness is not necessarily fixed CHAPTER 5: Human Development ­ Developmental psychologists: study the behavioral, cognitive, social, and emotional  changes that occur throughout the lifespan ­ Children ­ Behavior in Infancy ­ Reflexes: involuntary, unlearned, automatic reactions ­ Ex. sucking, grasping ­ Motor Development ­ Experience and biological maturation result in voluntary control ­ Biological maturation: synaptic growth/connections  between neurons ­ Babies born with all the neurons they'll ever have, but  they are not connected ­ Babies reach milestones in the same order cross­culturally, but  age varies from baby to baby ­ Studying infants ­ We can get an idea of what babies sense, know, and remember by  measuring what they look at and how long they look at it ­ Habituation: decreased response to unchanging or repeated stimuli ­ Babies look for a longer time at novel stimuli ­ Cognitive development ­ Piaget's theory ­ Children are active learners ­ Stages: thinking is qualitatively different in each ­ Sensorimotor period ­ 0­2 years ­ Find out about the world through sensory and  motor interactions with environment ­ Lack of mental representations/mental time travel ­ Lack of object permanence: the  understanding that an object continues to exist even if you don't directly perceive it ­ Develops between 6­8 months ­ Separation anxiety ­ Develops at 8 months ­ Preoperational period ­ 2­7 years ­ Egocentrism: not knowing that other  people don't know what you know/see what  you see  ­ Lack of theory of mind: the ability to take  another person's perspective  (other  people have different  thoughts) ­ Develops around 4 months ­ Continued difficulty for autistic kids ­ Difficulty with mental operations ­ Lack of conservation: understanding that  quantity stays the same even  if  appearance changes ­ Concrete operational period ­ 7 years ­ adolescence ­ Understand conservation ­ Can perform simple mental operations ­ Limited to concrete objects ­ Formal operational period ­ Adolescence ­ Abstract, hypothetical thinking ­ Systematic, logical reasoning ­ Piaget's theory today ­ Sequence is correct, but he underestimated the timing (kids know  more sooner than what Piaget's stages indicated) ­ More gradual change than stages imply ­ Some people suggest stages should be added (teens vs. adults) ­ Social and emotional development in childhood ­ Temperament: behavioral and emotional response style ­ Reactivity, sensitivity, intensity ­ Genetic influence: reactivity of nervous system ­ Appears early in life and stays stable over time ­ Animals show differences in temperament ­ Foundation of personality but not determiner ­ Temperament classifications ­ Easy babies: positive emotion, relaxed, predictable, react  well to new situations ­ Difficult babies: negative emotion, irregular, irritable ­ Slow­to­warm­up babies: in between easy and difficult ­ Attachment: a close emotional bond ­ Causes: food used to be believed to be the cause, but Harlow's  studies implied contact comfort had to do with attachment ­ Harlow's monkeys raised in isolation from their mother ­ Cloth vs. wire mother ­ Monkeys spent time clinging to cloth  mother even if wire mother provided food ­ Contact comfort vs. nourishment ­ Less distressed when taken away from  mothers if monkeys can still touch the  mother ­ Harlow's monkeys didn't make good mothers  which suggests there isn't a maternal instinct ­ Premature babies can leave hospital faster if they are  massaged


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