PSYC 1000 - Week 10 Notes
PSYC 1000 - Week 10 Notes Psyc 1000-04
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by HaleyG on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc 1000-04 at Tulane University taught by Bethany Rollins in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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PSYC 1000 Notes Week 10 March 1418 Textbook Notes Introduction to Emotion (p. 459467) Emotion: response involving physiological arousal, expressive behavior, and conscious experience JamesLange theory: theory that our experience of emotion is our awareness of our physiological responses to emotionarousing stimuli CannonBard theory: theory that an emotionarousing stimulus simultaneously triggers physiological responses and subjective experience of emotion Twofactor theory: theory that to experience emotion, one must be physically aroused and cognitively label the arousal Spillover effect: arousal from one event can fuel an emotion that can intensify other emotions Brain's pathways for emotions The thinking high road: stimulus travels through the thalamus to the cortex and labeled, and a response is sent by the amygdala (ex. love/hate) The speedy low road: stimulus travels thorough the thalamus directly to the amygdala (ex. fear) Physical responses The sympathetic division arouses us for more intense experiences of emotion The parasympathetic division calms us when a crisis passes Expressing Emotion (p. 468475) Experience can sensitize us to certain emotions Women are better than men at reading emotional cues Facial expressions are similar between different cultures, but cultures differ in how much emotion they express Facial feedback effect: the tendency of facial muscle states to trigger corresponding feelings Behavior feedback effect: the tendency of behavior to influence our own and other's thoughts, feelings, and actions Experiencing Emotion (p. 476487) Catharsis: emotional release Catharsis hypothesis: releasing aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges (although usually, expressing anger breeds more anger) Managing anger Distance, distraction, support, and time Feelgood, dogood phenomenon: people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood Subjective wellbeing: selfperceived happiness Positive emotion during the course of a day rises and then falls, while negative emotions stays about the same We overestimate the duration of our emotions and underestimate our resiliency Economic growth in affluent countries does not significantly boost happiness or wellbeing Adaptionlevel phenomenon: tendency to form judgments relative to a neutral level defined by our previous experience Indicators of happiness levels Genetics Selfesteem in individualist cultures and social acceptance in communal cultures Optimism Sleep and exercise Age and gender are not factors Stress and Illness (p. 488492) Stress: the process of appraising and responding to a threatening or challenging event (called a stressor) Stressors: catastrophes, significant life changes, and daily hassles Hormones involved in stress: epinephrine and norepinephrine General adaption syndrome (GAS): threestep response to stress 1. Alarm reaction: activation of sympathetic nervous system 2. Resistance: full physiological engagement with no relief 3. Exhaustion: vulnerability to illness or even death Tend and befriend: response to extreme stress by providing support to others in order to cope with one's own stress Stress and Immune Systems (p. 494) Surgical wounds heal mores slowly in stressed people Stressed people are more vulnerable to colds Low stress may increase effectiveness of vaccinations Health and Coping (p. 501515) Coping: alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods Problemfocused coping: alleviating stress directly, by changing the stressor or the way we interact with the stressor Used when we feel like we have control over a situation Emotionfocused coping: alleviating stress by avoiding/ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to our stress reaction Used when we believe we don't have control over a situation Personal control Learned helplessness: learned passive resignation when unable to avoid repeated adverse events Vulnerability to ill health: rising stress hormones and lower immune system function External locus of control: the perception that chance or outside forces beyond our control determine our fate Internal locus of control: the perception that we control our own fate Selfcontrol: the ability to control impulses and delay shortterm gratification for longerterm rewards Social support and optimism promote happiness and health Reducing stress Aerobic exercise Relaxation and meditation Religious involvement Developmental Issues, Prenatal Development, and the Newborn (p. 177183) Prenatal development Zygote: fertilized egg that enters a 2week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo Embryo: developing human organism from 2 weeks after fertilization through the second month Fetus: developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth Teratogens: chemicals and viruses that can harm the fetus or embryo Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS): physical and cognitive abnormalities in children caused by a pregnant woman's drinking Newborns Habituation: decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation Infancy and Childhood (p. 184202) Maturation: biological growth processes that enable changes in behavior Assimilation: interpreting new experiences in terms of our existing schemas Accommodation: adapting current understandings to incorporate new info Piaget's theory of cognitive development Sensorimotor stage: stage from birth to 2 years old during which infants know the world in terms of their sensory impressions and motor activities Object permanence: the awareness that things continue to exist even when not perceived Preoperational stage: stage from 2 years to 6/7 years when a child learns language but does not understand the mental operations of logic Concrete operational stage: stage from 7 to 11 years when children gain the mental operations that enable them to think logically about concrete events Formal operational stage: stage beginning at age 12 when people begin to think logically about abstract concepts Egocentrism: preoperational child's difficulty of taking someone else's point of view Theory of mind: people's ideas about their own and other's mental states Vygotsky: theory that children's mind develop because of social interaction Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): a disorder marked by deficiencies in communication and social interaction, rigidly fixated interests, and repetitive behaviors Social Development Stranger anxiety: the fear of strangers that infants commonly display Attachment: an emotional tie with another person Imprinting: the process by which certain animals form strong attachments during early life Self concept: thoughts and feelings about ourselves, in answer to the question, "Who am I?" Parenting styles Authoritarian Permissive Authoritative Adolescence (p. 203212) Begins with puberty (sexual maturation) Identity: our sense of self Social identity: the "we" aspect of our selfconcept Intimacy: the ability to form close, loving relationships Adulthood (p. 213227) Menopause: natural cessation of menstruation and women's biological changes as ability to reproduce declines Memory and physical health decline with age Crosssectional study: people of different ages are compared with one another Longitudinal study: the same people are restudied and retested over a long period Neurocognitive disorders: acquired disorders marked by cognitive deficits Social clock: the culturally preferred timing of social events such as marriage, parenthood, and retirement Over time, the amygdala responds less to negative events Aging and Intelligence (p. 400401) Crosssectional evidence: older adults give fewer correct answers on intelligence tests than younger adults Longitudinal evidence: until late in life, intelligence remains stable (more accurate evidence) Crystallized intelligence: our accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age Fluid intelligence: our ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood The Nature of Gender: Our Biological Sex (p. 165169) Biology influences gender genetically, with differing sex chromosomes, and genetically, with differing combinations of sex hormones Primary sex characteristics: body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible Secondary sex characteristics: nonreproductive sexual traits, such as breasts and voice quality Disorder of sexual development: an inherited condition that involves unusual development of sex chromosomes and anatomy Lecture Notes CHAPTER 12 Emotion Emotion: thoughts, feelings, behavior, and physiological arousal Purpose: to focus our attention and motivate our actions Biology of emotion Autonomic nervous system: controls internal organs/glands Physiological changes Sympathetic division: arousal Parasympathetic division: calming Physiological measures of emotion Heart rate, breathing rate Temperature Muscle tension Skin conductance (sweating) Can't necessarily tell what emotion someone is feeling by measuring physiological changes, because two emotions can produce the same pattern of changes Brain mechanisms Limbic system Amygdala Theories of emotion JamesLange theory Event > specific physiological and behavioral changes > emotion Requires that each emotion has specific physical/behavioral changes associated with it (not the case) Supporting evidence: facial and behavioral feedback phenomena (when changes in facial/behavioral expression produce a corresponding change in emotion) Application: lie detection Polygraph Measures autonomic activity Assumption: if polygraph shows physiological arousal, subject is lying Problem: measures arousal, not lying Validity: cannot distinguish between different types of arousal Individual variations Error rate: 33% More likely to label innocent people as guilty than guilty people as innocent Excluded/restricted in court CannonBard theory Event > nonspecific physiological/behavioral changes and emotion (neither one causes the other) Schacter and Singer's TwoFactor theory Event > nonspecific physiological/behavioral changes > cognitive interpretation of situation and changes > emotion Takes cognition into account Support Transferred excitation (spillover effect): physical arousal produced by one situation intensifies our emotional reaction to a subsequent situation It is unclear which theory is correct Emotions do seem to involve cognition, most of the time Communicating emotions Facial expressions in humans: help social behavior Primary emotions Unlearned: surprise, interest/excitement, joy, anger, sadness, fear, disgust Within first 6 months of life Expressions are similar crossculturally Blind individuals use similar facial expressions Selfconscious or secondary emotions Empathy, jealousy, embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt Less obvious/consistent facial expressions Between 1 ½ 2 ½ years Require selfawareness Mirror and rouge test: babies with a mark on their nose seeing themselves in a mirror will either recognize it is their own nose (self awareness) or not Anger Does venting provide catharsis? Recommended to wait to calm down before expressing emotion about anger Happiness Factors related (correlation): social relationships, resources, religion, and health Factors unrelated: age, gender, and physical attractiveness Money buys happiness if you have no money Diminishing returns Spending on experiences increases happiness more than spending on things, and people are happier after spending money on someone else rather than spending money on themselves Social comparisons: comparing self with someone who has less leads to satisfaction, but comparing self with someone who has more leads to selfdeprivation Also observed in animals How much impact an event has on our happiness depends on our experiences/what we're used to Adaptationlevel phenomenon: tendency to judge new stimuli/events in relation to what we have recently experienced We adjust to new circumstances until they become neutral We always want more than what we have Major events often don't have as much of an impact on or happiness as we think they will (ex. winning the lottery or becoming paralyzed) Genetic influence on happiness Inherited personality characteristics show a stronger relationship to happiness than a person's attractiveness, popularity, or wealth Happiness is not necessarily fixed CHAPTER 5: Human Development Developmental psychologists: study the behavioral, cognitive, social, and emotional changes that occur throughout the lifespan Children Behavior in Infancy Reflexes: involuntary, unlearned, automatic reactions Ex. sucking, grasping Motor Development Experience and biological maturation result in voluntary control Biological maturation: synaptic growth/connections between neurons Babies born with all the neurons they'll ever have, but they are not connected Babies reach milestones in the same order crossculturally, but age varies from baby to baby Studying infants We can get an idea of what babies sense, know, and remember by measuring what they look at and how long they look at it Habituation: decreased response to unchanging or repeated stimuli Babies look for a longer time at novel stimuli Cognitive development Piaget's theory Children are active learners Stages: thinking is qualitatively different in each Sensorimotor period 02 years Find out about the world through sensory and motor interactions with environment Lack of mental representations/mental time travel Lack of object permanence: the understanding that an object continues to exist even if you don't directly perceive it Develops between 68 months Separation anxiety Develops at 8 months Preoperational period 27 years Egocentrism: not knowing that other people don't know what you know/see what you see Lack of theory of mind: the ability to take another person's perspective (other people have different thoughts) Develops around 4 months Continued difficulty for autistic kids Difficulty with mental operations Lack of conservation: understanding that quantity stays the same even if appearance changes Concrete operational period 7 years adolescence Understand conservation Can perform simple mental operations Limited to concrete objects Formal operational period Adolescence Abstract, hypothetical thinking Systematic, logical reasoning Piaget's theory today Sequence is correct, but he underestimated the timing (kids know more sooner than what Piaget's stages indicated) More gradual change than stages imply Some people suggest stages should be added (teens vs. adults) Social and emotional development in childhood Temperament: behavioral and emotional response style Reactivity, sensitivity, intensity Genetic influence: reactivity of nervous system Appears early in life and stays stable over time Animals show differences in temperament Foundation of personality but not determiner Temperament classifications Easy babies: positive emotion, relaxed, predictable, react well to new situations Difficult babies: negative emotion, irregular, irritable Slowtowarmup babies: in between easy and difficult Attachment: a close emotional bond Causes: food used to be believed to be the cause, but Harlow's studies implied contact comfort had to do with attachment Harlow's monkeys raised in isolation from their mother Cloth vs. wire mother Monkeys spent time clinging to cloth mother even if wire mother provided food Contact comfort vs. nourishment Less distressed when taken away from mothers if monkeys can still touch the mother Harlow's monkeys didn't make good mothers which suggests there isn't a maternal instinct Premature babies can leave hospital faster if they are massaged