Social Psychology PSYC 351
Cal State Fullerton
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This 13 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hosea Schmidt on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 351 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Christy Ake in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see /class/217076/psyc-351-california-state-university-fullerton in Psychlogy at California State University - Fullerton.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
I Introduction chapter 1 I Defining Social Psychology 0 Social psychology how other people influence our thoughts feelings and actions I Thoughts include attitudes and attributions thought cognition I Feelings include attraction and dislike affect I Actions include social influence aggression and altruism behavior I Emphasizes the influence of situations on behavior 0 Scientific study of the way that the thoughts feelings and actions of ppl are influenced by the real or imagined presence of other pp I mirror I not even at the newjob yet butyou re sweating 0 Social influence heart of this field I Social behavior amp social thought I still theory based 0 Research rests on Empirical evidence amp Social influence I science ofjust trying things I very empiricaly based numbers facts 0 The quotSocialnessquot of Social Psychology Varies I quotOther people do not have to be real or present Even the implied or imagined presence of others can have important effects on individuals I In the following chapters we will look at how social psychological theories have provided useful information aboutthe roots of prejudice kindness and love about why ppl join rioting mobs or religious cults and about a host of other phenomena I Social Psych amp Related Fields J Sociology I How they are different I Sociology focus on the group level I Social psych focus on the individual level I How are they the same I share the same training publish in same journals I Both can help in understanding societal and immediate factors that influence behavior 2 Clinical Psychology I How they are different I Clinical seeks to understand abnormal people I Social focus on the more typical ways in which individuals think feel behave and influence each other normapeope I How are they the same I Both address how ppl cope with anxietypressure in social situations I How depressed individuals differ in the way they process and understand social information amp interactions slow cognition think slowly I How stereotypes associated with MI mental illness disorders can affect individuals labeled with these disorders 3 Personalig Psychology best friends I How they are different I Personality interested in differences between individuals traits I Social interested in how personality traits inside the individual continually interact with the social environment I How are they the same I They complement each other I How situational factors interact with individual differences to have different effects on ppl 4 Cognitive Psychology I How they are different I Cognitive study mental processes overall how you interpret the world I Social interested in mental processes with respect to social information and how these processes influence social behavior 2 3 4 1 Iquot E I Doi I 3 Types of Methods Used 1 39 39 2 History of 1 I How are they the same I How information about ppl is processed and stored stereotypes I Social cognition has become important area within social psychology 1880s 1920s Birth Infancy Social Psych 1930s 1950s A Call to Action WW2 Hitler huge contributor gavefield a life of it s own I Kurt Lewin grandfather Fundamental principles of Social Psych I What we do depends to a large extent on how we perceive and interpret the world around us Behavior is a function of the interaction between the person and the environment I Social psychological theories should be applied to important practical issues 1960s 1970s Confidence and Crisis Milgram s obidience study conformity debates I period of expansion and enthusiasm also time of heated debate pro lab and anti lab 1970s 1990s Era of Pluralism I Crisis led to a stronger discipline I Adoption of pluralism I Acceptance of many methods of investigation in addition to the laboratory experiment it s a mixture Integration of both quothotquot and quotcoldquot perspectives in the study of the determinants of our thoughts and actions hot emotions cold thoughts Development ofinternational and multicultural perspectives Perspectives of Social Psych kind of a theory Sociocultural Perspective I beliefs standards takes in your social norm society s rules Evolutionary Perspective I individual from evolutionary side how prehistoric man still effects us ex men and directions women and communicative Social Learning Perspective I rewardspunishments positive negative re enforcements ex you should go to college what you see is what you think Social Cognitive Perspective I how you perceive your world mental processes how you remember experiences Integration is key look at all taking an objective environment and turning into a subjective environment ng Research Methodology chapter 2 I Observe behavior and record impressions going into the person spopulation s environment and observing Ethnography I study ofrecording human culturesfrom the inside studying group in action Key is to not impose preconceived ideas notions or theories on to the subjects in order to understand the point ofview being studied Interjudge Reliability I level ofagreement among multiple observers of the same behavior you re seeing the same thing I m seeing Limitations I I less control over environment Correlational Prediction I Predicting Social Behavior I Systematically measuring the relationship between two or more variables I Correlation Coefficient 1 to 1 1 Positive Correlation Xamp Yare the same 2 Negative Correlation Xamp Yare inverted Cross sectional vs Longitudinal Designs 1 Cross narrow time span like one day 2 Long across life span 1 Retrospective vs Prospective vs Concurrent I Retro take theory and look back at data I Prospective theory gt looking forward I Concurrent one momentin time I Surveys amp Self Reports I Population representative Sample amp Generalization I Limitations Advantages Can study the associations of naturally occurring variables that cannot be manipulated or induced Can examine phenomena difficult or unethical to create for research purposes Offers freedom in settings in which the variables are measured One very serious disadvantage CORRELATION IS NOT CAUSATION BUT you can use STISTICAL SIGNIFICANCE X and Y are related not cause and e ect Correlations also vary in the strength of the association Zero correlation means there is no relationship between the 2 variables 1 0 no correlation Strong correlation is when knowing the value of one variable permits one to accurately estimate the value of the other variable 1 Strong correlation can be positive or negative Correlations can be seen in scatter plots 1 Correlation Difficulties Sues lt l 2 could have lurking factors like genetics smoking etc 3 Ex erimental Causalit in experiments it s sometimes ok to say x causes y because you have strict control of the variables etc Used to examine causeandeffect relationships 2 essential characteristics 1 2 2 Types Researcher has control over the experimental procedures In thefield Participants are randomly assigned to different treatment conditions lab The Nature of Experiments Hypothesis Testing A systematic procedure for determining whether the results of an experiment provide support for a particular theory or hypothesis 1 Hypothesis A belief or educated guess about a relationship between variables that is then tested empirically Statement of cause and effect 2 Variables any characteristic that can take on more than one value Or Factors that can vary or change I Operational Definition A concrete measure of an hypothetical construct or An explicit procedure for defining and measuring a given concept or term for the purpose of the study I An operational definition states specifically how the conceptual variable will be manipulated or measured I Transforms the variable from the abstract conceptual to the specific operational I How to go from abstract to specific Assign it behaviors I Ex who is in love those with heightened state ofmood faster heartbeat sweaty I Variables and Operational Definition I Conceptual variables are abstract or general variables I Experimental Method Can determine causality Variables I IV independent variable is manipulated by the researcher It is the variable presumed to cause the change in the other variable 1 One the experimenter manipulates Factor of interest Variable that is being studied to see if it will influence behavior Cause DV dependent variable is the one measured by the researcher to see if changes depend on the level of the independent variable Behavior measured as the outcome ofan experiment Factor assessed following the manipulation Effect 2 What the researcher is measuring What is giving the numbers DataDV I IV Cause gt DV Effect I Subject Variable Variables that characterize preexisting differences among study participants I Random Assignment vs Random Sampling picture below Random Samyllng Versus Random Assignment Random Random Sampling Assignment Wllatdvesit illwlch Silettlllg panitipallts Assigning aarticipa 5 lo hain rhesrmyso whoa39callmdvlnl l chryun a 5 dy a m mus corld popularl ncns of he expe39lll en 50 equal ham afbcl lg n that each pahlclpn lnr nns 2n partitiparl irl tllrsludv equal chanceulbtlng m any u on iullns What is til iliggext Enahlns researchers tl Equalin he condilicns of admllrngr nfllrirlg callectdrll lratr samples me experiment 5 that ls this pmmln 2 ma are rnpmenmnn very unlikely ml l1 Candi of hf bmndcr popllauoll dens differ in turns of pr llllpormlllfo beillgnblu nxlsnngMnmnmnnng a generalize the results the pani unti essential in m bmadcr poplliaum m dalei39mim ha ha inde pmdmt vnrlnb e5 1l l an effetlon the depundznt variablns I Replication I want it to be repeated over and over I Confounds I tweak data screw it up if you re not careful ex male amp female Statistical Significance I cannot prove cause and effect in correlational design Instead use statistical significance Validity amp Reliability I Validity to what is your measure measuring does it really measure what you are measuring I Reliability consistency I Can have Reliability without Vaidity I CanNOT have Validity without Reliability 1 ex change clock time It s reliably but it s not valid TA B L E 2 2 Correlathns Vugus Brperimepll relationship cause amp effect Correlational Experimental Research Research Whrlr lot it inwlvz Measuring variables and 2 agree ofassoclndan Random assignment to conditions and control over berwmr em r pavenrsihammm inm m nll gtlmef ciscfmanip ulauons of the independent vnrialvlelsl on changcsln l1 dependmlvariablels Wharf Ill bigger Enables researchers w Enables researchers m advanmgvnf sl namrallyoccumng dcterminumusc grid effect using rhismedmd variables inrluding velunanshipsathat is whether IhE independent variable can cause a change in the dcpcndcnt variable 00 diFFcult or unethical to manipulate Basic vs Applied Research 2 levels 1 Basic research tries to find the best answer to the question of why people behave the way they do purely to satisfy intellectual curiosity have all the money and time in the world 0 global just increase understanding ofhuman behavior have time amp money 2 Applied research tries to solve a specific social problem 0 less global naturally occuring events amp trying to solve issues real world situations Researcher Problems 3 levels Experimenter Bias Expectations by the experimenter that might influence the results of an experiment 0 Experimenter can t know who is the control group or not they would act differently around them 2 Sample Bias Occurs when subjects are not representative of the population 3 Participant Bias Subjects deliberately attempt to mislead the researcher Experimental Research I One or more variables are systematically manipulated and the effect of the manipulation on the other variables is studied I Strict control of the variables offers the opportunity to draw conclusions about the cause and effect relationships MetaAnalysis I takingall europe africa etc the research on one subject then they come up with their ownfacts Their own mean own mode own average very powerful looks great on papers I A set of statistical procedures for examining relevant research that has already been conducted and reviewed I Allows one to combine the results of individual studies to measure the overall reliability and strength of particular effects Ethical Issues I Informed consent can leave anytime I Use of deceptionDebriefing I Confidentiality don t want names then you can t really replicate it I Students as research participants Validity I To what degree can the findings be generalized to other people and to other situations I Artificial or Real World to what extent is the experiment close to real life 1m I are we in our experiment able to produce the psychology things that happen in real life 3 Experimental Realism I all about the participant do they feel that this is a real experiment that this is like real life do they feel involved The Socral Self How we come to understand ourselves chapter 3 SelfConcept One s selfidentity a basic schema consisting of an organized collection of beliefs and attitudes about oneself I what we call ourselves is a working project work in progress constantly trying to make ourselves better Selfconcept is made up of selfschemas I SelfSchema Beliefs about oneself that guide processing of selfrelevant information I hopes wishes dreams of where you would like to be and fears future forecast I based onfeelings amp actions how we understand how other people see us I Where does our self concept come from I Tests of human infants suggest that selfrecognition develops at about Zyears of age 1 Introspection Perceptions of our own behavior Influence of other ppl Autobiographical memories Culture 6 Self Esteem I Source 1 Introspection Insight I Selfknowledge through looking inward at one s own thoughts and feelings I But does introspection always lead to accurate selfknowledge no bounce it o other people tell it to them I Introspection can sometimes impair selfknowledge sometimes you can think too much I Introspection may not lead us to the true causes of our feelings and behavior I We have difficulty in predicting responses to future emotional events Affective Forecasting predicting ourfuture emotions are we going to be happy or sad quotWhen I m out of school have a house married etc I will be No You don t know take today to be happy I Durability bias I Overestimate the strength and duration of our emotional reactions THE EVENT I Focus too much on a central aspect ofan event I a big day putso much into it F39PP quot I Source 2 Perceptions of our own behavior externalizing behavior SelfPerception Theory Bem 1972 I sometimes we act step back and look at ourselves then go oh and explain it ex quotwow I guess I was really hungry I We find out how we feel by observing what we do I When internal cues are difficult to interpret weak ppl gain insight by observing their own behavior I But only in the absence of compelling situational pressures This only applies when there is no reward and no pressure I Facial Feedback Hypothesis Changes in facial expression can lead to changes in the subjective experience of emotions I ex Wefeel happy bc we are smiling problems will not be gone but the way that you look at them will be di erent Why I Facial expressions affect emotion through process of selfperception same thing with posture I Facial movements evoke physiological changes that produce an emotional experience Anger Fear Sadness Disgust 42 Heart Rate 50 Skin Conductance 41 58 43 52 FingerTemp 20 05 07 07 Heart rate refers to increases in number of heartbeats per minute compared to a neutral baseline I SelfPerceptions of Motivation I Intrinsic versus Extrinsic Motivation I Intrinsic Motivation Originates in factors within a person desire to engage in an activity because we enjoy it simply because we enjoy it for pure pleasure I Extrinsic Motivation Originates in factors outside the person desire to engage in an activity because of external rewards or pressure from the outside world I What happens to intrinsic motivation once a reward is available it decreases children with markers ex Rewards can hurt intrinsic motivation I Replacing Intrinsic motivation for Extrinsic motivation Lost oflnterest I What about a career In something you love Paradox I Should rewards NOT be offered No I What is important is how the reward is perceived and by whom I Quality vs Quantity Source 3 Influence of other ppl People get info about themselves by considering others I We define ourselves in part by using others as a benchmark Comparing yourself with others yet we all want to be unique People tend to describe themselves in ways that set them apart from others in their immediate vicinity The self is quotrelativequot I The self is a social construct depending on the context your self is molded ex are you this quiet when you are with your friends in class The selfis relative Social Comparison Theom I Leon Festinger 1954 A theory that maintains that when there is not an objective standard of evaluation or comprehension ppl evaluate their opinions and abilities by comparing themselves to others how do you know you are good atsomething I Key Questions39 W I With whom do we choose to compare ourselves similar others 2Factor Theo of Emotion There are 2 components to emotional experience 1 Undifferentiated physiological arousal Heart rate respiration 2 A persons understanding of that state of undifferentiated arousal oh I m with my lover Two factors necessary to feel a specific emotion I We must experience physiological arousal I We must make a cognitive interpretation put a label on it that explains the source of the arousal Lust amp Love we get them confused Studies have demonstrated that misattribution of arousal can occur put wrong label on the emotion When this happens we attribute our arousal to the wrong source and we experience mistaken or exaggerated emotions Source 4 Autobiographical memories Essential for a coherent selfconcept Memories are yourfingerprint ofyour personality Typically report more events from the recent than the distant past Memories shape us They are about us Exceptions to this recency rule I Reminiscence peak bump older people seem to report very clearly about what they did when they were young I Tendency to remember transitional quotfirstsquotfirst kiss Autobiographical memory is a vital part of and can be shaped by our identity I Often motivated to distort the past in ways that are selfinflated need to keep selfesteem intact Source 5 Culture Selfconcept is also influenced by cultural factors Based on what mom and dad bring to thefamily Contrasting cultural orientations I Individualism quotIquot One s culture values the virtues of independence autonomy and selfreliance quotWhat is unique about me western want them to run your own race don t compare raised to be unique do not like to conform rebelling is normal Collectivism quotWequot One s culture values the virtues of interdependence cooperation and social harmony quotI am pa rt of a greater whole eastern larger social network the group family l l mode is disapproved yourjob is to honorobey yourfamily Source 6 Self Esteem Satisfying this need is critical to our entire outlook on life Those with a positive selfimage tend to be happy healthy productive and successful Those with a negative selfimage tend to be more depressed pessimistic about the future and prone to failure SeIfDiscrepa ncy Theory in class activity I People are motivated to maintain a sense of consistency among their beliefs and perceptions of themselves and become distressed when there is a discrepancy between the quotactual self and an quotidealquot or ought self I Concerned with the impact of self knowledge and how people feel and behave I SelfAwareness I Intuitively we recognize that introspection the process of looking inward and examining one s own thoughts feelings and motives is one basis of selfknowledge I Self Awareness Theory the idea that when people focus their attention on themselves they evaluate and compare their behavior to their internal standards trying to be objective andjudge themselves I Positive amp Negative Effects I Positive motivate higher standards goals amp morals I Negative drugs sex overeating judge too harshly I We are not usually selffocused however certain situations may cause us to become objects of our own attention I When we become more selfaware we naturally begin to compare behavior with some standard This comparison often results in a negative discrepancy and a temporary reduction in selfesteem I SelfFocusing Persons I Certain individuals are characteristically more selffocused than others I Private vs public selfconsciousness P 39 ate selfconsciousness Tendency to introspect about inner thoughts and feelings listen to inner voice doesn t like compromises speaks mind is consistent needs to be heard I Public selfconsciousness Tendency to focus on outer public image rules are important I Self Monitoring regulation of behavior to meet social situations I SelfRegulation I Selfregulation is the process by which we seek to control or alter our thoughts feelings behaviors and urges I self control is limited it s not a replenishing river we have very little don t use it up toofast take one thing at a time self control is like a muscle let it rest I The Executive Function I Stress will cause you to let go ofyour goal I Ironic or Incompatible Processes don t spend too much time on it on goals progress actions relapse don t think about your addition too much I Mechanisms of SelfEnhancement I How does the average person cope with his or her faults inadequacies and uncertain future I We take credit from our successes and distance ourselves from our failures We also tend to be unrealistically optimistic I We often exhibit implicit egotism a tendency to hold ourselves in high regard I What methods do we use to rationalize or otherwise enhance our selfesteem I on the outside tend to be able to bask in the glory of the other person EX they got engaged soul mates be happyfor them I direct hit resentment guilt amp anger takes hold I Downward Social Comparison I When selfesteem is at stake tend to make comparisons with others who are worse off I If experiencing a tragic life event tend to I Affiliate with others in same predicament who are adjusting well possible role models I Compare ourselves with others who are worse off I Opposite Upward Social Comparison I make sure it is achievable though be careful with this I Are Positive usions Adaptive I Those with the most realistic view of themselves are those who are depressed or low in selfesteem I Positive illusions are quothealthprotective psychological resources that help people cope with adversity I can handle this I But positive illusions can lead to chronic patterns of selfdefeating behaviors need tofind a happy medium I Perceiving Persons How we come to understand Other People chapter 4 Social Perception Social perception is defined as the study of how we form impressions of and make inferences about other people OR The process by which people come to understand other persons and events I what do we rely on Observation Attribution Biases Integration 4 Confirmation Biases I Source 1 Observation I The Elements of Social Perception lt making senseinterpreting Just met someone observe I Persons WNH I First impressions are often subtly influenced by different aspects of a person s appearance I We prejudge people based on facial features We read traits from faces as well as read traits into faces based on prior information 2 We judge quotbabyfacedquot adults differently than quotmaturefacedquot adults Why do we judge baby faced people differently I Three possible explanations l Humans are genetically programmed to respond gently to infantile features 2 We learn to associate infantile features with helplessness and then generalize this expectation to babyfaced adults 3 There is an actual link between physical appearance and behavior Treated youngish you are going to ACTyoungish I Situations Culture specific scripts I We often have quotscriptsquot or preset notions about certain types of situations 1 Enables us to anticipate the goals behaviors and outcomes likely to occur in a particular setting I These scripts help us understand other people s verbal and nonverbal behavior We definitely will remember times when it is the oppositedefies our scripts We remember acts outside of the norm schema narrowed to humanadult world scripts are global nerds are male Units of past information to coordinate you life female soccerplayers are gay how do I act at Christmas What do I eat at Easter How are you supposed to act at a picnic I Behavioral Evidence I How we perceive a person s behavior can influence perception in important ways I Behavioral cues are used to identify a person s inner states as well as his or her actions I What kinds of nonverbal cues do people use gestures how you hold your body facialexpression body position movement touch gaze I Nonverbal communication Culture specific I Nonverbal communication behavior that reveals a person s feelings intentionally or unintentionally without words communication without spoken words people mess up eye contact all the time I note tone or pitch is nonverbal I Expresses emotion convey attitudes communicate personality traits and facilitatemodify verbal communication I Culture differences 1 eastern do not look at elders I Facial Expressions of Emotion not Culture specific quotAffective Displays 2 Charles Darwin believed that human emotional expressions are universal that all humans encode displayexpress and decode interpret expressions in the same way 3 Modern research agrees Six basic human emotions are universal 1 Happiness l 5 Categories I Affective Displays I Emblems non verbal gestures that directly translate to a word middle finger f u Illustrators non verbal behavior that exaggerate and emphasize this bang is bang what bang Regulators non verbals used to coordinate that communication between two people eye contact nodding your head most universal the handshake SelfAdaptors Sel stimulation non verbals that are random movements that we engage in to release nervous energy self sooth rub arm rub neck chew fingernails etc I Flirtation I Four Phases 1 Initial Attention men take up more space shoulders get broader deep breathing women take up less space and act coy flick hair etc 2 Recognition giggly laughter looks 3 Touching brush on arm nothing is done accidenty lt s unconscious not accidental 4 Keeping Time mirroring old couples do this touching hair grooming them I Lying I Freud quotNo mortal can keep a secret betrayal oozes out of him at every porequot r39 1 micro39 fleeting first tenth of a second expression 2 lying but doing nonverbals that are not matching up with what we are saying hesitate Channels of communication differ in terms of ease of control Face is relatively easier for deceivers to control I Nervous movements of our body are hard to control 4 channels 1 words 2 face 3 body language 4 voicetonepitch is the most revealing I Smile I Universal facial expression of happiness NO I sometimes we smile when we are not enjoying something completely I Social Act I Prominent social signal I Reflects enjoyment pleasure praise or relief I False smile I Masking smile I Miserable smile I Gender Differences in Nonverbal Communication I Women are better than men at both decoding and encoding nonverbal behavior if people are telling the truth I from the oppression thatfemales have had since the beginning They had to figure it outfrom observation and not talking It s from evolutionary psyc I Men however are better at detecting lies I Source 2 Attribution I From Elements to Dispositions dichotomy of internal attributions amp external attributions how we explain ours and other s behaviors Attribution theory describes the process by which we assign causes to the events around us and the effects that these assessment have Heider Explanations can be grouped into two categories 1 2 Personal Internal Attributions personal characteristics mood personality traits Situational External Attributions the environment weather color of the room luck the situation the audience environment you are in I The Covariation Model Internal vs External Attributions Determining whether to make an internal or an external attribution I I Attribution Biases l Equot 5 model 3 types of informationdata theory tofigure out people Consensus How other people behave quotsame or different towards the person does the boss yell at everybody 1 LOW NO he s doing it this ONE time To you 2 HIGH YES he does it to everyone everything else Distinctiveness Does the person in question act the same way in other situations does the boss yell at home too 1 LOW YES he does it in ALL situations too 2 HIGH NO he is doing it this ONE situation Consisteng Is the behavior when given the same situation consistent across time and circumstances is the boss nice at Christmas is he nice to a child LOW NO he isjust doing it this ONE time 2 HIGH YES he ALWAYS does it mink Behovior Covoriotion Information Attribution Ansensus Dislinm vzness Consistency Pa rt of the pe rso n Pa rt of the situation many otllnr Fllms Do we really analyze behavior in a rational logical manner sometimes yes sometimes no depends on how long we know the person 1 not a long time quickly personal cop is a bad person 2 a long time think about it more he s having a bad day Do we really have the time motivation or cognitive capacity for such elaborate and mindful processes The answer I Sometimes yesSometimes no I Fundamental Attri ution Error FAEl When we explain other people s behavior we tend to l 2 Overestimate the role of personal factors over estimate the role of internal attributions who we are isn t that big ofa deal Overlook the impact of situations under estimate the impact of external attributions the situation is a big deal FAE Ppl tend to underestimate external influences even when situation constraints are obvious when explaining other ppl s behavior Why Stereotypes culture etc People often form quick impression based on a brief sample of behavior More likely to commit the FAE when one is cognitively busy or distracted I BUT The fundamental attribution error applies unevenly I WE don t think of OURSELVES like that we don t think ofourselves as a bad person Just that we are having a bad day I WE apply OURSELVES to the SITUATION The actoroberserver difference I Actor Observer Difference I The actorobserver difference is the tendency to see other people s behavior as dispositionally caused but focusing more on the role of situational factors when explaining one s own behavior I Explanations I Perceptual salience strength stereotypes schemas on how people should act expect good people to do good things I Actors have more information about themselves than do observers we know ourselves I Why are Personal Attribution Automatic I Heider People see dispositions in behavior because of a perceptual bias I Actor is the conspicuous figure of your attention tend to see actor as being in the foreground I The situation fades into the background So people attribute events to factors that are perceptually conspicuous or most important I FAE Western Bias Yes Western cultures personality psychologists viewing behavior in dispositional terms I Eastern cultures social psychologists considering the situational causes of behavior group the whole the situation I Other Influences Self Serving attributions I Selfservingattributions I people tend to take personal credit for their successes but to blame their failures on external events beyond their control here to boost our self esteem to maintain goodfeelings I Defensive attributions behavior or explanations that avoidfeelings of vulnerability I Unrealistic optimism a defense attribution I One way we deal with tragic information about others is to make it seem like it could never happen to us I We do it through the belief in a just world a form of defensive attribution wherein people assume that bad things happen to bad people and that good things happen to good people I How accurate Are Our Attributions and Impression quotUnder many circumstances we are not very accurate especially compared to how accurate we think we arequot I Reasons I Fundamental Attribution Error I Schemas about how people should act I Just world belief I Source 3 Integration From Dispositions to Impressions I Information Integration The Arithmetic I How do we combine personal attributions into a single coherent picture of the person I Summation model or averaging model we do both I Impressions formed of others are based on 1 Personal dispositions of the perceiver schemasstereotypes 2 A weighted average of a target person s traits amp characteristics this one takes a long time need to watch for a long period of time I PerceiverCharacteristics I In the quoteye of the beholder I Frame of reference is ourselves but we change all the time Mood affects perception amp outlook on life Priming effects tendencyforfreguently used material to come into mind and influence our decisions EX watching a love movie thenfeeling all lovey I Source 4 Confirmation Biases I First impressions stick I From Impressions to Reality I Once we make up our mind about something how likely are we to change it even when confronted with new evidence not at all it gets worse with age too Confirmation Bias Our tendency to seek interpret and create information that verifies existing beliefs and ignore others I Belief Perseverance tendency to maintain beliefs even after they ve been disproven EX cheaters that are invited back into a relationship I SelfFu g Progheg I The process by which one s expectations about a person eventually lead that person to behave in ways that confirm those expectations We tip of to people about how wefeel about them I Rosenthal amp Jacobson s 1968 quotPygmalion in the Classroom study teacher that thought halfher class was gifted 5m 7 mm mm hiqu Caniirllmm J
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