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ENV 1301: Week 11

by: Anna Frazier

ENV 1301: Week 11 ENV 1301

Anna Frazier
Baylor University
GPA 3.8

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Week 11 Notes: toxicity, water
Exploring Environmental Issues
Dr. Larry Lehr
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Anna Frazier on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ENV 1301 at Baylor University taught by Dr. Larry Lehr in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Exploring Environmental Issues in Environmental Science at Baylor University.

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Date Created: 03/18/16
Monday, March 14, 2016 ENV 1301 Week 10 Notes Chapter 10: Toxicology - Occupational Safety and Health Administration - Mercury vapor — mercury is heavy metal: once it goes into an organism, it will not come out - Toxic threshold - Toxic substance: one that can have an adverse effect on an organism - Risk assessment: trying to quantify the risk associated with a particular activity - Percieved risk: based on psychology - Health Risk Categories • Age—health is best post-pubescent • Gender—sex cells are sensitive to environmental changes • Pre-existing health conditions— - Latency period: the length of time it takes for a disease to manifest itself • Genetics (genetic predisposition)— - dose—ppm…mg/L - duration • What two things determine response to a pollution: - Dose, Duration - Vector of exposure • inhalation ingestion • - Two types of risk • voluntary • involuntary 1 Monday, March 14, 2016 - Bioconcentration - Hormone disrupter: chemicals can be ingested and begin to mimic hormones - Mutation: change in genetic code • lethal • nonlethal - some chemicals can cause birth defects - Four major types of hazards: • physical - (i.e. sunburn) • chemical - something you ingest • biological - organism you ingest • cultural - hazards resulting from socioeconomic status or choices in our place of living or work - Environmental health: assesses environmental factors that influence health and quality of life\ - Morbidity - disease - Vector: and organism that transfers pathogens to a host - Environmental health hazards that exist indoors: • Radon • Lead Poisoning • Asbestos - Isotope: different number or protons and neutrons - Rachel Carson published Silent Spring in 1962 • brought together studies to show DDT risks to people, wildlife, and ecosystems • In the 1960’s, pesticides were mostly untested and were sprayed over public areas, assuming they would do no harm. - The book generated significant social change - Types of toxicants based on health effects: 2 Monday, March 14, 2016 • Carcinogens • Mutagens • Teratogens • Neurotoxins • Allergens • Endocrine disruptors - Endocrine disruption research is controversial • BPA • Lethal Dose - Precursor: breakdown products: toxicants degrade into simpler products • some of the precursors may be more or less harmful than the original substance and stay in the body for longer than the actual chemical - Bioaccumulation: toxicants build up in animal tissues as the trophic levels increase - Biomagnification: toxicants concentrate in top predators • near extinction of peregrine falcons, bald eagles, and brown pelicans - Linear dose response curve: • dose-response analysis: measures how much effect a toxicant produces - Two types of exposure: • Acute: high exposure for short periods of time to a hazard - stem from discreet events (oil spills, nuclear accident, ingestion) • Chronic exposure: low exposure for long periods of time to a hazard - more common but harder to detect affects organs gradually: (lung cancer, luver damage) • 3 Wednesday, March 23, 2016 ENV 1301 Week 11 Notes continued Water - Water Quality • Types of Water - ground - surface • Water cycle (4 steps) - Precipitation • latent heat of evaporation - Surface water runoff - Ground water storage - Evapo-Transpiration (Evaporation, Transpiration; ET): water loss through phase change • Water Pollution - point & non point • Water Quality - N - P - Temp - DO - BOD - COD - biologicals (will discuss) Water Shed: geographical area within which water flows after a major storm event 1 Wednesday, March 23, 2016 Estuary: where fresh water meets salt water Productive: the amount of energy that can be fixed per unit area per unit time (more carbon fixed in an estuary than anywhere else) Phase change: liquid water turns into gas Relative Humidity: percentage of water vapor that the air can hold Surface water/ surface runoff Porosity: Ground water: water that is stored in the pores of the soil Transpiration: unbroken pathway from the ground all the way to the atmosphere through the stomates of the leaves/plants; at the same time CO2 Spring: where groundwater meets the surface 2


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