Popular in HIST 145 - HIST OF U.S. TO THE CIVIL WAR
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Tiara Notetaker on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 145 at Towson University taught by Dr. Andrew Diemer in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 39 views. For similar materials see HIST 145 - HIST OF U.S. TO THE CIVIL WAR in History at Towson University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Common abbreviations: Sp. = Spain or Spanish G.B. = Great Brittan w/ = with Fr. = France or French Am. = North America est. = established Eng. = England or English > = leads to b/w = between Euro. = Europe/ Europeans < = caused by gov’t = government Chapter 8: Contested Republic, 17891800 Pages 216 – 247 American Portrait: William Maclay Goes to the Senate (p. 216) Wealthy land owner Served as: State legislator, judge, PA’s executive council Frist senator from PA Impatient w/ setting up a gov’t Believed: Easterners = power hungry New Englanders = arrogant + rude Virginians = kiss ups New President Washington = show off Saw signs of antirepublicanism Judiciary Act 1789 = too much power National bank = in favor of the rich Warned against senate passing a bill taxing liquor > PA’s distilleries impacted > protest > armed confrontation b/w citizens and gov’t The United States in 1789 (p. 217) Lands and People United States: 1781: existence = Articles of Confederation 1783: recognition = Treaty of Paris, Constitution 1789 George Washington becomes President Land disputes of exactly where the border is > G.B. vs. U.S. over Maine > Sp. holding parts of Mississippi + Alabama Indians still considered most of the “Unites States” to be their land U.S. ethnic identity: English, Scottish, ScotchIrish, Irish German, Dutch, Swedish, Welsh, or French descent PA = majority German Being “white” or “European” did not create a commonality Irish, Welsh, Scots angry w/ Eng. + Eng. angry w/ Fr. (due to wars and take overs) Religion Protestant: Eng., Welsh, Dutch, Swedish, Germans Catholic: Irish, French 18% of population of 3.9 million = slaves VA + SC slaves = 50% of population Charleston + New York = most slaves Constitution: a) Recognized slavery (ThreeFifths Compromise) b) Protected the institution of it for at least 20 years Ways of Living Countryside = 97% of population Family farms = 50100 acres each Men/boys: grew grain > meal + flour Women/girls: garden (vegetables), orchards (fruit), chickens/ a cow or pig (milk + meat) Farmers bartered/ traded w/ shopkeepers + craftspeople Bread, soap, candles, butter, cheese, cloth <> butcher, shoemaker, carpenter, seamstress, spinner Combined jobs w/ farming (made up the middle class) Men: blacksmith, mason, small shop owner Women: midwife, specialized sewer 1/3 of countryside population = indentured servants or hired farmers (seasonally) Only travelled to town centers for elections or boundary disputes Houses only had a few rooms 5% of population lived in port cities Big houses, several servants 60,000 blacks were free Majority lived in port cities Home grocery stores Cleaned chimneys Sold soup Some black men could vote, but many did not have enough property to exercise that right Slaves Smaller white farmers rented a slaves’ service Some worked as clerks, craftsmen, servants instead of on plantations South Fear of rebellion (during the war) > tighter controls/ harsher treatment Only emancipated those who were old + of little economic value Indians Leaders selected by consensus, reconciled differences Participated in trade / est. relations Maintained confederacies Did not share the Eng. value of privately owned property > Believed whites’ love of money was a disadvantage, corrupting the heart and mind The First Emancipation Movements Constitution ratified – slavery already existed for 150 yrs. Eng. (dominant nation in slave trade) outlawed it Strove to abolish the trade and ownership of slaves in Eng. territories 1794 Fr. abolished it in its nation and colonies US: Quakers, Baptists, Methodists spoke against it None of the state constitutions recognized it > VT, MA, NH write new ones giving them rights Jupiter Hammon Slave in NY First published black author Told slaves to obey their masters w/ humility, avoid stealing, + look forward to heaven’s freedom Advocated gradual emancipation Phillis Wheatley First published black poet “On Being Brought from Africa to America” By 1804, every state north of DE was making efforts to abolish slavery In the south, there were no proslavery politicians nor colonial abolitionists > Clear distinction b/w north and south Philadelphia (p. 225) 1790s = nation’s capital Biggest city in Am. Robert Morris offered his home to Washington o 6 bedrooms o ice house o 4 servants’ rooms o bath house o twostory kitchen o stable for 12 horses Washington added more rooms for his servants Total: o Washington o His secretary o Wife: Martha o Secretary’s wife o Martha’s grandchildren o 3 other secretaries (he didn’t have any o 8 slaves children w/ her) o 15 white servants 1,600 blacks lived in the city 2/3 were free > significant black community (2 blocks away from Washington) Martha’s chambermaid escaped there Washington’s term was over > packed to return to VA > maid packed to escape + left while they were eating dinner Friend of Washington spots her on a boat headed to NH, she stated she wanted to learn to read and write Washington asks a gov’t official to send her back, official refuses b/c it may start a riot Martha’s nephew found her, she claimed that she was free now, nephew goes to Senator to forcefully take her, Senator warns her and she flees o Conflicting Visions of Republican Society When Washington became president, NC and RI had not yet ratified the constitution Belief that republican success = character of the people Wealthy: lazy > corrupting gov’t for selfinterest Poor: desperation > riots 97% of population lived on farms w/ nuclear family Success of republic = cultivators, industry, + international trade, concerned about the greater good Wealthy, smallest % of population, controlled largest % of wealth Poor saw them as thieves: getting property w/o working for it Wealthy saw farmers as poor due to their lack of hard work, not their hardships o Used IOUs to purchase goods o Untimely payments on debt Alexander Hamilton Born in West Indies Mom (shopkeeper) died when he was 13 Worked for a merchant firm o > They paid for his college education Saw that the merchant class – traders, investors, financiers – who took risks leading to new markets and ideas, had the best qualities for a successful republic It’s wisdom, not laziness, to have another man work so you don’t have to o > Jefferson contributed “republicanism” to slaves themselves, not the institution of slavery Women Lost their property upon marriage If divorced, only kept their clothes and personal belongings as property Male crafts/professions were closed to them (hindering them from making more money) Belief that women should only desire to be married, make their husbands happy, and keep their “infants clean” – Apollo Magazine, 1795 o Transatlantic Talk About the Rights of Women (p. 228) 1776, Abigail Adams wrote to her husband John Adams, asking him to “remember the ladies” as they wrote the Declaration 1791, “Declaration of the Rights of Woman and Female Citizen” (Fr.) rebutting the “Declaration of the Rights of Man” Male + female should be equal in the eyes of the law (employment, politics, etc.) 1790, “Letters on Education” (Eng.) Equal education > fair competition in the work force 1792, “A Vindication of the Rights of Woman” Ignorance, slavish dependence, and other characteristics of women only exist b/c of the “tyranny of man” o The Culture of the Republic Newspapers published: local news gov’t documents articles from other cities, states, + countries 1790, “The Power of Sympathy”, William Hill Brown, first American novel Illiterates listened to stories read aloud in shops, taverns, homes, and salons. 1731, library opens in PA (est. by Benjamin Franklin) = gov’t library o > Library of Congress (when capital moved to D.C.) Philadelphia 1. Young Ladies’ Academy of Philadelphia (1787) First public women’s academy: o Reading o Grammar o Writing o Composition o Arithmetic o Geography o English 350+ academies opened 17901830 (for daughters of prosperous families) 2. Almshouse – care for and house the poor 3. Penitentiary – to isolate and reform criminals The Struggle to Form a Government (p. 233) Where selfish gov’t issues controlling the people? Or selfish people controlling the gov’t? The States and the Bill of Rights Adding a Bill of Rights was originally opposed Belief that it didn’t already protect liberties, then adding lists of rights would be of no affect. James Madison refused to add amendments that changed the structure of the government or states, but those that affirmed human rights according to the already set structure: Limit Congressional power to levy taxes Protect the right to bear arms Right to trial by jury Protection from unreasonable search and seizure Freedom of religion, speech, the press, the right to assembly, and the right to petition. Full list of the Bill of Rights (first 10 Amendments), published Dec. 1791: http://www.billofrightsinstitute.org/foundingdocuments/billofrights/ Congress Begins Its Work Washington began March 4, 1789, but was not sworn in until April 30. Congress, which had already begun, only included 13 members of the House, and 8 in the Senate. First task, deciding what the president should be called o Suggestion “His Highness the President of the United States of America, and Protector of the Liberties” o Settled w/ “the President of the United States” Second task, approving official advisors to the President (the cabinet) o President Washington (VA) o Vice President, John Adams (MA) o Secretary of State, Jefferson (VA) o Attorney General, Randolph (VA) o Secretary of the Treasury, Hamilton (NY) o Secretary of War, Knox (MA) o Postmaster General, Osgood (MA) Judiciary Act of 1789, Supreme Court had limited power. o Chief Justice – John Jay Political Economy and Political Parties Hamilton – Tariff Act of 1789 Tax on imported goods and foreign ships carrying them Hamilton – debt plan Southern states afraid the capital would move from NY to PA > moved along Potomac river, VA Hamilton – series of taxes, including on liquor, 1791 Hamilton – national bank > stable currency and mobilized capital for the gov’t Madison and Jefferson disapproved (too much power given to speculators and financiers = unrepublican) Hamilton suggested federal gov’t should subsidize domestic manufacturing Again, Madison and Jefferson disapproved Hamilton used Philadelphian newspaper to promote his views > Madison est. new Philadelphian paper promoting the necessity of political parties: “Republicans” and “AntiRepublicans” > Those who agreed w/ Jefferson and Madison known as “Democratic Republicans” > Supporters of Hamilton claim to be a supporter of Washington’s administration as “Federalists” These labels took a white to catch on, but solidified in 1796 when voting patterns distinguished the two sides. Controlling the Borderlands Some federal troops and state militias would randomly attack Indians > Indian retaliation Spain kept its presence in New Spain at the foot of the Mississippi river Eng. kept forests below the Great Lakes that it was supposed to evacuate due to the Treaty Washington worked w/ Secretary of War Henry Knox to est. a fairer/ consistent Indian policy Washington submitted a report by Knox on Indian affairs to Congress less than a month after taking office. Knox recommended buying Indian claims on disputed lands > Congress gives $20,000 for negotiations Washington had to est. a military presence due to Indian rejection > Treaty of Greenville, 1795 Indians give up 2/3 of future Ohio, and a piece of future Indiana in return for annual federal payments Offered Indians farm equipment, cows, and pigs to impose “white ideas” of work/economy Hamilton’s tax > Whiskey Rebellion, 1794 > Washington sent 13,000 troops to Western PA America in the Transatlantic Community (p. 240) Other Revolutions France 1789, French storm Bastille prison rejecting the power of the monarchy National Constituent Assembly abolished feudalism and proclaimed the “Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (modeled after the U.S. Declaration) Jefferson and Madison were strong supporters of the Fr. Revolution French St. Domingue Island’s free blacks led an organized movement for equality that blew up into a fullscale revolution by the tens of thousands of slaves Washington feared that supporting them would > a slave rebellion in the U.S. and supporting the nation of France would > angering G.B. Washington settles on sending supplies + ammunition to the island’s white elite Between France and England 1793 Fr. + Sp. declare war on G.B. + Holland Madison + Jefferson scared the U.S. would join G.B. against its fellow republic Fr. Hamilton believed friendly relations w/ G.B. = a benefit Washington promoted neutrality Fr. sends a citizen to Philadelphia, current capital Goal to allow Fr. navy + privateers to resupply @ U.S. ports Persuaded KY to attack the Spanish > Washington was furious at his attempts to start a new revolution, demands that he is recalled back to FR. and Washington declares neutrality To the Brink of War John Jay negotiated a treaty to reduce tensions b/w G.B. and U.S. G.B. agreed to open West Indies’ ports to U.S. and evacuate forts in the Northwest Both agree to est. boards to set the boundary b/w U.S. and Canada and treat each other’s ships fairly Senate debated this treaty in secret Thomas Pinckney negotiated a treaty w/ Sp. Mississippi river now open to U.S. navigation Set boundary b/w U.S. and FL Sp. agreed to these in fear of an alliance b/w G.B. and the U.S. The Administration of John Adams Washington was reluctant to serve a second term, but did when Jefferson and Hamilton told him that no one else could hold the parties together Washington refused to run for a 3 term > U.S. faces its first election Washington’s farewell address 1796 Social order + personal discipline People have the right to alter the Constitution Every individual responsible for obeying the gov’t Hamilton = unable to run for presidency (born in West Indies) Promotes Vice President John Adams > Federalists select him as candidate o Served in Continental Congress o On committee that drafted the Constitution o Representative to Fr. / helped negotiate peace treaty o Served 2 terms as VP Adams received the majority of electoral votes (71) and became president Jefferson received the second highest (68) and became vice president (Pinckney received 59) 1799, Adams administration signs 3way trade agreement b/w U.S., Fr., St. Dominguan Fr. kick Pinckney (ambassador) out for U.S. aiding the island Adams sends a group of 3, including Pinckney > XYZ Affair Congress suspends trade w/ Fr. U.S. seizes 80 Fr. ships > “Quasi War”, neither side declared war 1800, U.S. and Fr. agree to stop Adams needed $2 million for damages > each state had a portion to pay > taxes on houses, land, and slaves Western PA rioted > Adams sends 1,000 men > captures, then pardons the rebel leaders Alien and Sedition Act, 1798 Targeted immigrants, seen as Democratic Republicans President could deport any “aliens” and est. sedition – ending all D.R. criticism > Madison (now retired from Congress) + Jefferson (VP) encouraged states to pass resolutions denouncing the acts as unconstitutional > Virginia and Kentucky Resolves Election of 1800 now in favor of Democratic Republicans Right before end of term, Judiciary Act of 1801 was passed o Adams had the power to appoint judges, justices of peace, attorneys, clerks, and marshals o He filled them w/ Federalists and then left the office Conclusion (p. 247) Even as Americans fought over the terms of the new republic’s founding, those terms began to change with the arising of new political parties.
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