PSYC 160, Week 10 Notes
PSYC 160, Week 10 Notes PSYC 160
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brianna Dowell on Friday March 18, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 160 at James Madison University taught by Kristen Davidson in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see Life Span Human Development in Psychlogy at James Madison University.
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Date Created: 03/18/16
Chapter Eight Intelligence 03/16/16 1. Intelligence a. Once thought that intelligence peaked at adolescence b. Now, it’s believed that we continue to learn into our mid 30s 2. What is Intelligence? a. Many different definitions, depending on the culture b. For instance, in Africa intelligence is knowing herbal medicines and taking care of others c. In the U.S., it is commonly defined as having creativity, interpersonal skills, adapting d. Can’t be measured 3. IQ Tests a. Testing individual intelligence b. Not indicative of actual intelligence c. Several kinds i. Stanford Binet (most common) 1. Created by Alfred Binet 2. Measures age and what a person should know at a given age 3. Also known as mental age 4. Looks at verbal, quantitative, and short term memory skills ii. Wechsler Scales iii. Kaufman Assessment Battery 1. Kid testing iv. Bayley Scales 1. Infant (2 months – 2.5 years) testing d. Want IQ tests to be reliable and valid e. They help to identify learning disabilities in children, such as dyslexia and ADHD 4. Different Types of Intelligence a. Crystallized intelligence – the accumulation of facts, information , and knowledge that comes with education and experience i. People with high crystallized intelligence have a large vocab, good use of skills, and problem solving strategies b. Fluid intelligence – made up of reasoning, abstract thinking, and speed of processing i. People with high fluid intelligence tend to remember unrelated pairs of words and series of numbers ii. Fluid intelligence is more likely to decline, because we develop a gradual accumulation of irreversible damage to our brain structure iii. Decline varies among different individuals. Decline can start as soon as early 30s and as late as 70s or 80s. iv. 1/3 of people in their 70s scored higher in fluid intelligence than the average young adult 5. Howard Gardner (1943 - ) a. Believed intelligence tests were far too narrow. Instead, he thought we have multiple intelligences independent from one another. b. 8 categories of intelligence: i. Music ii. Interpersonal skills – knowing how to interact with others iii. Intrapersonal skills – ability to understand oneself iv. Nature v. Kinesthetic – has to do with the body, such as dance and gymnastics vi. Spatial = thinking vii. Linguistic = speaking skills viii. Logic and math skills c. We have all of these skills, but they vary in degree for each individual d. Gardner studied people with brain injuries and found some individuals would lose some of these skills and others would keep theirs intact 6. Daniel Goleman (1946 - ) a. Associated with emotional intelligence, which is a combination of interpersonal and intrapersonal skills i. Interpersonal is understanding the behavior of those around you ii. Intrapersonal is understanding what pushes your buttons b. Emotional intelligence is the ability to perceive and express emotions, adapt and understand, and manage your emotions. c. Has been a popular area of study since the early to mid-1990s 7. Arthur Jensen (1923 – 2012) a. Focused on how the environment affects intelligence b. Believed how a child is raised plays a major role on IQ c. Studied 2 groups at an orphanage in Romania i. 1 group of kids that was placed with a family early in life had IQ scores in the 80s ii. Another group of kids that lived at orphanage their entire life had IQ scores in the low 70s d. Looked at twin studies e. Found that identical twins IQs become similar as they age and the opposite is found in fraternal twins f. Identical twins had more similar IQ scores than fraternal twins, even when the identical twins were raised apart g. Adopted kids IQ scores more closely resembled biological parents more than adopted parents h. Children that grow up with biological family have an average IQ of 109 i. Middle class kids have higher IQs than the lower class, because they have more opportunities available 8. Abecedarian Project a. Wanted to know role of environment on intelligence b. A longitudinal study with over 100 participants from low income, poorly educated families c. Consisted of 2 groups: i. Intervention group – received full-time, year round child care as well as medical and social benefits ii. Control group – received only medical and social benefits d. By 3 years, there was a significant improvement. Kids in the intervention group had an average IQ score of 101 – 17 points higher than the control group and numbers were long lasting. e. One 2 month old had an IQ of 120, even when her grandmother and mother had an IQ of 40