Week 2 Notes: Intro to Sociology
Week 2 Notes: Intro to Sociology soc 201s
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Asif Khan on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to soc 201s at Old Dominion University taught by JONATHAN W LOPEZ in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see AN INTRODUCTION TO SOCIOLOGY in Sociology at Old Dominion University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Chapter 5 Terms Social Interaction-A reciprocal exchange in which two or more people read, react, and respond to each other. Social Structure-The underlying framework of society consisting of the positions people occupy and the relationships between them. Status-The social positions we occupy relative to others. Ascribed Status-A social position assigned to a person by society without regard for the person’s unique talents or characteristics. Achieved Status-A social position that is within our power to change. Master Status-A status that dominates others and thereby determines a person’s general position in society. Social Role-A set of expected behaviors for people who occupy a given social status. Role Conflict-The situation that occurs when incompatible expectations arise from two or more social statuses held by the same person. Role Strain-The difficulty that arises when the same social status imposes conflicting demands and expectations. Role Exit-The process of disengagement from a role that is central to one’s self-identity in order to establish a new role and identity. Group-Any number of people with shared norms, values, and goals who interact with one another on a regular basis. Primary Group-A small group characterized by intimate, face-to-face association and cooperation. Secondary Group-A formal, impersonal group in which there is little social intimacy or mutual understanding. In-Group-A category of people who share a common identity and sense of belonging. Out-Group-A category of people who do not belong or do not fit in. Reference Group-Any group that individuals use as a standard for evaluating themselves and their own behavior. Coalition-A temporary or permanent alliance geared toward a common goal. Social Network-A series of social relationships that links individuals directly to others and, through them, indirectly to still more people. Social Institutions-Integrated and persistent social networks dedicated to ensuring that society’s core needs are met. Bureaucracy-A component of a formal organization that uses rules and hierarchical ranking to achieve efficiency. Ideal Type-An abstract model of the essential characteristics of a phenomenon. Alienation-Loss of control over our creative human capacity to produce, separation from the products we make, and isolation from our fellow producers. Trained Incapacity-The tendency of workers in a bureaucracy to become so specialized that they develop blind spots and fail to notice potential problems. Goal Displacement-Overzealous conformity to official regulations of a bureaucracy. Bureaucratization-The process by which a group, organization, or social movement increasingly relies on technical-rational decision making in the pursuit of efficiency. McDonaldization-The process by which the principles of efficiency, calculability, predictability, and control shape organization and decision making, in the US and around the world. Iron Law of Oligarchy-The principle that all organizations, even democratic ones, tend to develop into a bureaucracy ruled by an elite few. Classical Theory-An approach to the study of formal organizations that views workers as being motivated almost entirely by economic rewards. Scientific Management Approach-Another name for the classical theory of formal organizations. Human Relations Approach-An approach to the study of formal organizations that emphasizes the role of people, communication, and participation in a bureaucracy and tends to focus on the informal structure of the organization. Gemeinschaft-A close-knit community, often found in rural areas, in which strong personal bonds unite members. Gesellschaft-A community, often urban, that is large and impersonal, with little commitment to the group or consensus on values. Mechanical Solidarity-Social cohesion based on shared experiences, knowledge, and skills in which things function more or less the way they always have. Organic Solidarity-Social cohesion based on mutual interdependence in the context of extreme division of labor. Hunting-and-Gathering Society-A preindustrial society in which people rely on whatever foods and fibers are readily available in order to survive. Horticultural Society-A preindustrial society in which people plant seeds and crops rather than merely subsist on available foods. Agrarian Society-The most technologically advanced form of preindustrial society. Members are engaged primarily in the production of food, but they increase their crop yields through technological innovations such as the plow. Industrial Society-A society that depends on mechanization to produce its goods and services. Postindustrial Society-A society whose economic system is engaged primarily in the processing and control of information. Postmodern Society-A technologically sophisticated, pluralistic, interconnected, globalized society.
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