9/29 Notes GEOG 1003
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by SophieSol on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1003 at George Washington University taught by Rain, D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 57 views. For similar materials see Society and Environment in Geography at George Washington University.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Test format: ~15 MC ~4 short (1 paragraph) Q’s ~1 longer (1 page) Q Know: ~Textbook Ch.’s 1-4 ~Heinberg article Dec. 18 is final exam 10:20-12:20 Personal Geographies and Optimal Pollution Ecological footprints Measure of human demand on Earth’s ecosystems Represents the amount of biologically productive land and sea area necessary to supply humans o “How much land do I need to live my particular lifestyle?” Demand for natural capital It takes 1.5 earths to sustain current population.. not ecological History o William Rees Dissertation by Mathis Wackernagel Calculating your own footprint compares you to others, based on national footprint account o It is a very big equation o Behavior is measured against others from your own country Variations among countries… US is a varying population Issues o Land based- how to factor in oceans? Resources from oceans? o Efficiencies of cities = discounted… you can walk a lot of places, if you’re in an apartment you share heat with may people rather than living in a stand-alone home in the suburbs o Divides total production and consumption by population- ignores outliers o Trade? In bulk: can share things o Industry? No Impact Man… movie o If one person does a couple of little things, it really doesn’t make that much of a difference because it is all about industries! Realities o Common problems are deeply embedded in everyday life o Environmental disproportionality A lot of impact is coming from a few institutions, a very small fraction of the economy Ie. Mining o We don’t really need these things o Appears to be outside our realm of choice o A lot of oil resources are diminishing Hence fracking and the like o Built environment? 1.3 billion tons steel produced/year China was top steel producer, we are 3 or 4 after japan Concrete Coliseum in Rome is made from concrete o Robert Ayers: “35 pounds of guilt” 35 lbs of food that goes to waste o Chris Jordan: plastic bags artist Institutions are the majority of the problem and are the solution o Public input in process Cradle to cradle o By Bill McDonough and Michael Braughnart Book called for radical change in industry, suggests that everything will end up as waste Upcycle rather than downcycle o Things that “go away” don’t really go away… waste = food Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) o Look at lifestyles materials rather than people’s use of them o Assess environmental impacts associated with all stages of a product’s life o Cell phones have a lifecycle One iPhone needs 46 elements Industrial ecology o Study of materials and energy flows through industrial systems o Producing more goods at a lower cost o Transforms resources into commodities Consumer behavior o Daniel Goleman Ecological intelligence Consumers can make better choices Instead of thinking about footprints as people, think of them as the products we use Sets this up as having three realms of impact: Geosphere o Soil, air, water, climate o Everything earth provides us is considered a realm of impact Biosphere o Our bodies and other species Sociosphere o Human concerns such as conditions for workers Mining is very dangerous o Purchase analyzer- can tell impact of a particular product o Phthalates Makes plastic soft… children’s’ toys, safety concerns Optimal Pollution o Optimization exercise o It isn’t efficient to reduce pollution to zero o Maximum amount we can pollute but still maintain a sustainable environment Socially optimal level of pollution? o Bag tax in DC How can cities be designed to reduce footprints o Walking more o Multimodal transit Suburban and rural settings? o Driving is a trade off for city living Ecosystems o Campus ecosystem study o Zero waste meaning on a college campus Geosphere Employees get paid to sort trash Our biggest factor for being a green campus is the fact that it is incredibly urban The most consequential human being in the history of planet o Thomas Midgley- hall of fame Invented adding lead to gasoline Invented Freon More impact on the atmosphere than any other single organism in earth history Exam: Example of ecological footprint Strength or weakness