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Chapter 9 Notes

by: Abigail Towe

Chapter 9 Notes 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001

Abigail Towe
GPA 3.6

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Functional Human Anatomy
Tamara L. McNutt-Scott
Class Notes
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This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Abigail Towe on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 80887 - BIOL 3150 - 001 at Clemson University taught by Tamara L. McNutt-Scott in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Functional Human Anatomy in Biological Sciences at Clemson University.

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Date Created: 09/30/15
Chapter 9: Articulations Articulations: ● “joints” ● the place of contact between two bones, bone and cartilage, or bones and teeth ● joints allow range of motion ● inverse relationship between joint mobility and stability ○ more mobile = less stable ● joints are considered weakest part of skeleton ● arthrology- study of joints ● examples: ○ most mobile: shoulder joint (glenohumeral joint) ○ hip joint ○ elbow joint ○ intervertebral joints ○ least mobile: sutures of skull ● joints are classified based on function and structure ○ function: amount of movement / range of motion ■ Synarthrotic= immovable joints ■ amphiarthrotic = slightly movable joints ■ diarthrotic = freely movable joints ● examples: limbs ○ structure: what material binds bones together and if there is a joint cavity or not. ■ fibrous joints = fibrous tissue length effects amount of movement ● no joint cavity ● mostly synarthrotic (immovable), but some amphiarthrotic (slightly movable) ● 3 types: ○ sutures= articulating bones overlap or interlock ■ has very short connective tissue fibers that are continuous with periosteum and penetrate bone ○ syndesmoses= bones connected by ligaments, cords, or bands of fibrous tissue (dense regular connective tissue) ■ fibers vary in length ■ amphiarthrotic (slightly movable) ■ interosseous membrane/ligament- articulating bones held side by side by a ligamentous sheet ● this provides pivot point for bones to rotate against each other ● example: interosseous membrane between radius and ulna OR between tibia and fibula ○ gomphoses= “peg in socket” joint ■ example: articulation of tooth in bony alveolar socket ■ cartilaginous joints: cartilage is used to connect bones (no joint cavity) ● 2 types: ○ synchondroses= bar or plate of hyaline cartilage ○ symphyses= the articular cartilage fused to a pad or plate of fibrocartilage ■ designed for strength with flexibility ■ amphiarthrotic (slightly movable) ■ resits compression and tension stressors ■ acs as a resilient shock absorber (the pads or plates of fibrocartilage helps with this) ■ synovial joints: articulating bones meet at synovial joint cavity ● the cavity contains fluid ● synovial joints are most abundant ● provides widest range of motion (diarthrotic) ● synovial membrane only has epithelial cells ● features: ○ articular capsule (fibrous) is continuous with periosteum ○ synovial membrane - made of loose connective tissue ■ site of synovial fluid origination ○ joint cavity (synovial cavity) ○ synovial fluid- “weeping lubrication” ■ this fluid is viscous and thins with joint activity ■ contains phagocytic cells ■ provides nutrients ■ fluid helps to absorb shock ○ articular cartilage ■ “cushion” ■ lacks perichondrium ● perichondrium= dense irregular connective tissue that surrounds cartilage of developing bone ■ synovial fluid comes in and releases “weeping lubrication” ○ reinforcing ligaments: strengthens and reinforces joint ■ two types: intrinsic and extrinsic ● examples of synovial joints: limbs and long bones (has widest range of motion) ● movements allowed: ○ uniaxial = movement in 1 plane ○ biaxial = movement in 2 planes ○ multiaxial= movement in 3+ plates Types of Synovial Joints: KNOW THESE 6 1. Ball and Socket: a. spherical head fits into cup-like socket b. freely movable c. most multiaxial 2. Pivot a. round end of bone goes into a sleeve or ring of bone OR ligaments on bone b. uniaxial rotation of 1 bone i. along longitudinal axis 3. Hinge a. cylindrical projection into trough-like groove b. mechanical hinge c. uniaxial 4. planar (gliding) a. simplest b. least movable c. surface flat, translational movement d. uniaxial 5. saddle a. convex and concave surfaces articulate b. greater degree of movement c. biaxial 6. Condylar (ellipsoid) a. oval, convex fits into depression i. both surfaces oval so they complement each other to fit together b. allows all angular movement c. biaxial ● joint disorder: ○ EDS (Ehlers-Danlos syndrome)- disorder with collagen and hypermobility Accessory Joint Structures: ● not part of joint but closely associated ● bursae: ○ reduces friction ○ flattened, fibrous sacs with synovial membrane ○ thin layer of synovial fluid ● tendon sheath: ○ elongated bursa that wraps around tendon to create friction free environment ○ example: in hand ● fat pads: ○ protection ○ distributed along periphery/edge of synovial joint ● tendons ○ dense regular connective tissue ○ attaches muscle to bone Attachment of bones: ● skeletal muscle is attached to muscle by at least two points: ○ origin: muscle attached to immovable bone ○ insertion: muscle attached to movable bone ■ insertion moves toward origin Types of Movement: 1. Gliding movements: a. linear motion b. simplest c. similar surfaces of bone glide or slide over each other d. “translation” 2. Angular movements a. chances angle between bones b. types: i. flexion- decrease angle ii. extension- increase angel iii. hyperextension- extend joint beyond 180 degrees iv. lateral flexion- trunk moves away from body 1. mainly cervical and lumbar regions v. abduction- movement of limb away from body midline vi. adduction- movement of limb toward body midline 1. midline of foot: 2nd toe 2. midline of fingers: 3rd finger vii. circumduction- 1. movement of limbs around joint (forms in “cone” in space 2. example: rotating arm about shoulder 3. rotational movements: a. rotation- turing bone around longitudinal axis i. can occur toward or away from midline 1. toward midline = medial rotation 2. away from midline = lateral midline ii. examples: 1. rotation: turning head 2. medial/lateral rotation: bringing arm toward and away from body about elbow b. supination- palm up i. radius and ulna are parallel c. pronation- palm down i. radius and ulna cross Types of Special Movements: 1. Elevation- movement of body part superiorly 2. depression- movement of body inferiorly 3. inversion- turning foot inward (arches up) 4. eversion- turning food outward (tilting side of foot up) 5. dorsiflexion- movement of foot at ankle up 6. plantar flexion- movement of foot at ankle down 7. protraction- non angular anterior movement (move forward) 8. retraction- non angular posterior movement (move backward) 9. opposition- touching thumb and little finger Axial Skeleton Articulations: ● temporomandibular joint- small complex joint ○ hinge movable ○ gliding and some pivot joint movements Appendicular Skeleton Articulation: ● largest ● most complex diarthrosis (freely movable) ● there is a fibrocartilage wedge/disc/pad ○ this divides the synovial cavity into 2 separate cavities ○ improves fit of bones together Homoeostatic Imbalances of Joints: common joint injuries ● sprains- stretched or torn ligament ● cartilage- torn menisci (in knee), growth plate fissures, overuse of articular cartilage that has been damaged ○ the repair for cartilage injuries are slow (or not at all depending on age) ○ can require surgery if it doesn’t repair itself ● luxation: bones forced out of alignment ○ subluxation - partial dislocation ● bursitis- inflamed bursa because of excessive stress, blow, or friction ● tendonitis- inflamed tendon sheath Osteoarthritis: ● articular surface → rough because continuous friction ● osteophytes form at joint edges ○ when parts of bone/cartilage breaks off and floats inside joint, it causes pain and more damage ● degenerative joint disease ○ deterioration of cartilage at ends of bones = ends become rough ● muscles, ligaments, and tendons that hold the joint together become weaker → joint becomes deformed, stiff and painful ● occurs in: ends of fingers, thumbs, neck, knees and hips ● “wear and tear” arthritis Rheumatoid Arthritis ● autoimmune disease ○ chronic inflammatory disease ○ typically arises in ages 40-50 ○ women affected 3x more than men ● early stages: ○ joint tenderness and stiffness (because the synovial membrane is inflamed) ● cause is unknown ● pannus formation ○ thick/inflamed synovial membrane → erodes cartilage → scar tissue formation at bone ends ● course of rheumatoid arthritis has flare-ups and remissions ● other symptoms: ○ anemia, osteoporosis, muscle atrophy, and cardiovascular problems Are OA and RA the same disease? No, they are different diseases. ● Rheumatoid arthritis is caused by inflammation in the lining of the joint. ● Osteoarthritis is more like a wear process, in which the cartilage in the joint fails to withstand the loads placed on it. ● Some inflammation does occur in osteoarthritis, but it is not the same as that in rheumatoid arthritis. Some wear may take place in damaged joints in rheumatoid arthritis, but this is a late complication of the disease. The two diseases are quite different in their treatment and it is important not to confuse the two.


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