Attributions and Emotions
Attributions and Emotions SOP 4004
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Meghan Darby on Wednesday September 30, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOP 4004 at University of South Florida taught by Sophie Kuchynka in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 104 views. For similar materials see Social Psychology in Psychlogy at University of South Florida.
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Date Created: 09/30/15
Chapter 5: Social Attribution Social Perception: Processes through which people form impressions of, and makes inferences about, ourselves and others. Social Cognition: “Top down”. Using schemas and heuristics to interpret new information. Social Perception: “Bottom up”. Using raw information to build impressions and inferences. Nonverbal Communication: Nonverbal cues – Facial expressions, voice tone, gestures, body position and movement, touch and gaze. Multichannel Nonverbal Communication: reference to fact people often convey information via multiple, nonverbal channels simultaneously. Nonverbal compared to verbal behavior is… Primitive, simple. Difficult to control. Cross cultural expressions: Happiness, Surprise, Sadness, Anger, Disgust, Fear, Pride, and Shame Mirror Neurons: Brain cells—found in humans/primates—that fire… When we perform an action When we see another perform same action. *Help us “feel” another’s feelings People generally good at decoding nonverbal behavior. Difficulty detecting deception accurately. Pay attention to… Voice inflection (pitch, hesitations) Body Movement (fidgeting, shifting) Ignore eyes and face. Attribution Theories: [pg. 155 Explain… 1) How people assign causes to behaviors 2) Consequences of causal attributions. Causal Attribution: [pg. 155 Process inferring causes for behaviors. Automatic Inevitable Example) A friend and you have been busily working on building something for a few weeks. On a day you are to expect them, they cancel. Neutral/Positive Affect: You will wait. They might be too tired/sick. Negative Affect: You will throw the project away. They obviously are bored. Explanatory Style: [pg. 156 Person’s habitual way of explaining events. Internal/External: Cause is Internal (You) vs. External (Circumstance) Stable/Unstable: Cause is Enduring (“I’ll never pass”) vs. Temporary (“Just need to study better”) Global/Specific: Cause is Relevant for many (“Can’t do anything right”) vs. Few aspects of life (“I can do the collage for the project well”) Internal + Stable + Global = Pessimistic. Negative events/health. Controlled vs. Uncontrolled Behavior Failure at Uncontrollable event > We give up Failure at Controllable event > Persist/persevere if outcome is important. Attributions Motivated to understand the world; attributions reflect need to understand. Internal (Dispositional) Factors External (Situational) Factors Dispositional Attribution: Behavior reflects internal features of actor. Ex) Child is crying because he is throwing a fit. Situational Attribution: Behavior reflects external features of situation. Ex) Child is crying because he was spooked. Causal Attribution and Covariation Theory [pg. 155 + 160] Causes of behavior… [pg. 161] Consensus: do other people react the same way in this situation? Distinctiveness: is person’s behavior distinctive to this situation, or do they act same way in other situations? Consistency: has person behaved this way in same situation on before? External Attribution = |High Consensus, Distinctiveness, Consistency Situational Cause Ex) Person baking cookies for annual school bake sale. Good chance others will bake cookies too. (High Consensus) Person doesn’t normally bake any other time. (High Distinctiveness) Person always participates in bake sale. (High Consistency) Internal Attribution = |High Consistency + |Low Consensus, Distinctiveness Internal Cause (The person) Ex) Person dancing in a public place Most people wouldn’t (Low Consensus) People dance in other situations (Low Distinctiveness) Person dances in public all the time (High Consistency) Discounting and Augmenting Principles Lewinian [Attribution] Equation Behavior = Situation + Disposition Disposition = Behavior Situation Discounting Principles: [pg. 163] Observer should not conclude person has unique predisposition to behave in particular way when person does exactly what situation “pushes” them to do. Augmenting Principles: [pg. 163 Observer should conclude person has unique predisposition to behave opposite of what situation “pushes” them to do or there is no “push” at all. Counterfactual Thinking: [pg. 164 Thoughts of, “Could have been, should have been” and “If only” something had been done differently. Negative Affect: Upward Ex) Score an 80 on a test. Compare self to friend with a 90. Feel negatively. Positive Affect: Downward Ex) Score 80 on test. Compare self to friend with a 70. Feel positive. Errors and Biases in Attribution SelfServing Bias: [pg. 168 Tendency to attribute… Failures to external Success to internal Can boost and maintain positive selfesteem Ex) May attribute bad score on test to bad lighting in classroom, but good scores on studying and attention to detail. Fundamental Attribution Error: [pg. 171] Tendency to believe behavior is due to person’s traits/disposition (internal) despite situation (external) causes present. Ex) Person cuts you off in traffic. You assume they are rude and careless when in reality, they are late for work. Causes of Fundamental Attribution Error [pg. 175] Motivation to believe in ‘just’ world. People get what they deserve in life. Good people, good things. Bad people, bad things. Actors are “salient”.[pg. 177] Dispositional attributes are effortless; correcting situations is effortful. Sequential Operations Theory: Attributions involves dual processes. Step 1: Characterization Dispositions for actors’ behaviors. Automatic and effortless. Step 2: Correction – Given adequate cognitive resources, we take situation information into account and correct initial attributions. Effortful. ActorObserver Differences: [pg. 181] Attributions may differ between person engaging in behavior and person observing behavior. Actor explains behavior due to situation. Observer explains behavior due to dispositional qualities/traits of actor. Actor focuses more on situation, observer assumes traits of the actor. Ex) Actor throws garbage on the ground. Observer: “Wow, they must be a slob.” Actor: “There weren’t ANY trash cans.” Culture and Causal Attributions: [pg.183] Fundamental attribution error less prevalent in collectivistic cultures. Individualists more likely to blame behavior on dispositions. Collectivists more likely to blame behaviors on situation. Attention to the Social Situation: [pg. 18485] Ex) Miller (1984) America, Indian Hindus. Westerners seem more focused on the most obvious things and absolute tasks. Easterners seem better at picking at less salient things and at relative tasks. Priming Culture: [pg. 187] For people who are connected to both independent and interdependent cultures, attribution styles may change depending on cultural context. Ex) Hong Kong residents exposed to Chinese and Western Cultures switch between independent and interdependent attribution styles. Western culture = dispositional attributions. Chinese culture = situational attributions. Other Attribution Biases… SelfServing Bias: [pg. 168] Tendency to take credit (make dispositional attributions) for one’s successes and deny credit (situational attributions) for one’s failures. Modesty Bias: Tendency to deny credit for one’s successes, and take credit for one’s failures. (i.e. Eastern cultures) Ch. 6: Emotions How do we Communicate? 1. Verbal 2. Nonverbal a. Kinesis – Body Language, facial expressions b. Proxemics – Distance, eye contact 3. Paralinguistic: Speech signals Tone, pitch, volume. Gait? Cues to physical state. Clues to gender, age, strength, emotion, etc. Emotion: Brief, specific psychological and physiological response that helps humans meet social goals. Two Key Perspectives JamesLange Theory of Emotions Emotions are our physiological responses to stimuli from our worlds. Responses are products of our autonomic nervous system. Two Stage Process of Appraisal of Emotions [pg. 198] Primary Appraisal Stage [pg. 198] Initial, quick appraisal made of event/circumstance. Lead to initial pleasant or unpleasant feeling. Secondary Appraisal Stage [pg. 198] Later appraisals concern why we feel the way we do and how we’d like to respond. Leads to specific emotions like fear, anger, pride, guilt, etc. Darwin’s Ideas [pg. 200] 1. Emotions are universal. a. Humans have same facial muscles. Express emotions similarly across cultures. 2. Human displays of emotion resemble displays of other mammals. a. Facial expressions of anger mimic threat. 3. Human facial expressions are not learned. a. Blind from birth show same expressions and behaviors as sighted people. Universality of Facial Expression [pg. 201] Facial Expressions are recognized crossculturally. Cultures never exposed to media can identify expressions. Happiness, surprise, sadness, anger, disgust and fear are the six more recognized expressions crossculturally. Universal. Contempt, Shame and Pride were considered to added, but they are too hard to distinguish. Body posture is coupled with expressions. Facial Feedback Hypothesis Physical facial emotional displays lead to emotion being felt. (Look at a smile, feel happier) Culture and Display Rules [pg. 205] Culturally specific rules that govern how/when/to whom we express emotions. People can intensify, deintensify, mask, or neutralize expressions. Ex) Japanese vs. American (Ekman, 1992; Friesan, 1972) Cultures vary in aspects of face that the most consider when judging another’s emotion. Difficult to control muscles around eyes than around mouth. Ex) Japanese judge emotions more likely by eyes than Americans. Cultural Specificity of Emotion [pg. 205] Cultures show variation in expression of same emotions. Emotion accents: specific ways emotions are expressed. Ex) India: Embarrassment can be signaled by biting of the tongue. Microexpressions: 1/25 second. Macroexpressions: 25 seconds. Don’t want to feel an emotion? Limbic System triggers emotion Neocortex stops/mask expression flash of emotion before dampening is microexpression. Emotions within and between Groups [pg. 214] Intergroup Emotion Theory: [pg. 215] Anger/Contempt toward less powerful outgroup. Fear if outgroups are seen as more powerful. Infrahumanization: [pg. 216] Outgroup members seen as more animallike. Reluctance to view outgroup with the ability to have complex human emotions. Emotions and Relationships [pg. 209] Emotional Mimicry: [pg. 210] Unconscious imitation of others, like in the case of emotions. Mimicry and Friendship: Friends mimic each other emotional, strangers won’t. Emotions Inform Judgements [pg. 217] Mood and Life Satisfaction Study People give higher life satisfaction rating on sunny days relative to rainy days. Mood from whether alters judgements. Mood has more influence on complex judgements than simple judgements General judgements of people (trustworthy) than a simple judgement (eye color) Affective Forecasting: [pg. 224] Predictions of our future emotional states Lots of behaviors/choices by our beliefs about how we will feel about them. Duration Neglect [pg. 223]: People tend to overestimate their emotional reactions to future +/ events. Immune Neglect [pg. 225]: Good/Bad events will have longer emotional impact than they actually do.
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